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A super-luminous supernova (SLSN, plural super luminous supernovae or SLSNe) is a type of stellar explosion with a luminosity 10 or more times higher than that of standard supernovae.[1] Like supernovae, SLSNe seem to be produced by several mechanisms, which is readily revealed by their light-curves and spectra. There are multiple models for what conditions may produce an SLSN, including core collapse in particularly massive stars, millisecond magnetars, interaction with circumstellar material (CSM model), or pair-instability supernovae.

The first confirmed superluminous supernova connected to a gamma ray burst was not found until 2003, when GRB 030329 illuminated the Leo constellation.[2] SN 2003dh represented the death of a star 25 times more massive than the sun, with material being blasted out at over a tenth the speed of light.[3]

In June 2018, AT2018cow was detected and found to be a very powerful astronomical explosion, 10 – 100 times brighter than a normal supernova.[4][5]

Today it is believed that stars with M ≥ 40 M☉ produce superluminous supernovae.[6]

Classification

Discoveries of many SLSNe in the 21st century showed that not only were they more luminous by an order of magnitude than most supernovae, their remnants were also unlikely to be powered by the typical radioactive decay that is responsible for the observed energies of conventional supernovae.[verification needed]

SLSNe events use a separate classification scheme to distinguish them from the conventional type Ia, type Ib/Ic, and type II supernovae,[7] roughly distinguishing between the spectral signature of hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-poor events.[verification needed]

Hydrogen-rich SLSNe are classified as Type SLSN-II, with observed radiation passing through the changing opacity of a thick expanding hydrogen envelope. Most hydrogen-poor events are classified as Type SLSN-I, with its visible radiation produced from a large expanding envelope of material powered by an unknown mechanism. A third less common group of SLSNe is also hydrogen-poor and abnormally luminous, but clearly powered by radioactivity from 56Ni.[8][verification needed]

Increasing number of discoveries find that some SLSNe do not fit cleanly into these three classes, so further sub-classes or unique events have been described. Many or all SLSN-I show spectra without hydrogen or helium but have lightcurves comparable to conventional type Ic supernovae, and are now classed as SLSN-Ic.[9] PS1-10afx is an unusually red hydrogen-free SLSN with an extremely rapid rise to a near-record peak luminosity and an unusually rapid decline.[10] PS1-11ap is similar to a type Ic SLSN but has an unusually slow rise and decline.[9]
Astrophysical models

A wide variety of causes have been proposed to explain events that are an order of magnitude or more greater than standard supernovae. The collapsar and CSM (circumstellar material) models are generally accepted and a number of events are well-observed. Other models are still only tentatively accepted or remain entirely theoretical.
Collapsar model
For a completely collapsed star, see stellar black hole.
Light curves compared to normal supernovae

The collapsar model is a type of superluminous supernova that produces a gravitationally collapsed object, or black hole. The word "collapsar", short for "collapsed star", was formerly used to refer to the end product of stellar gravitational collapse, a stellar-mass black hole. The word is now sometimes used to refer to a specific model for the collapse of a fast-rotating star. When core collapse occurs in a star with a core at least around fifteen times the sun's mass (M☉)—though chemical composition and rotational rate are also significant—the explosion energy is insufficient to expel the outer layers of the star, and it will collapse into a black hole without producing a visible supernova outburst.

A star with a core mass slightly below this level—in the range of 5–15 M☉—will undergo a supernova explosion, but so much of the ejected mass falls back onto the core remnant that it still collapses into a black hole. If such a star is rotating slowly, then it will produce a faint supernova, but if the star is rotating quickly enough, then the fallback to the black hole will produce relativistic jets. The energy that these jets transfer into the ejected shell renders the visible outburst substantially more luminous than a standard supernova. The jets also beam high energy particles and gamma rays directly outward and thereby produce x-ray or gamma-ray bursts; the jets can last for several seconds or longer and correspond to long-duration gamma-ray bursts, but they do not appear to explain short-duration gamma-ray bursts.

Stars with 5–15 M☉ cores have an approximate total mass of 25–90 M☉, assuming the star has not undergone significant mass loss. Such a star will still have a hydrogen envelope and will explode as a Type II supernova. Faint Type II supernovae have been observed, but no definite candidates for a Type II SLSN (except type IIn, which are not thought to be jet supernovae). Only the very lowest metallicity population III stars will reach this stage of their life with little mass loss. Other stars, including most of those visible to us, will have had most of their outer layers blown away by their high luminosity and become Wolf-Rayet stars. Some theories propose these will produce either Type Ib or Type Ic supernovae, but none of these events so far has been observed in nature. Many observed SLSNe are likely Type Ic. Those associated with gamma-ray bursts are almost always Type Ic, being very good candidates for having relativistic jets produced by fallback to a black hole. However, not all Type Ic SLSNe correspond to observed gamma-ray bursts but the events would only be visible if one of the jets were aimed towards us.

In recent years, much observational data on long-duration gamma-ray bursts have significantly increased our understanding of these events and made clear that the collapsar model produces explosions that differ only in detail from more or less ordinary supernovae and have energy ranges from approximately normal to around 100 times larger.

A good example of a collapsar SLSN is SN 1998bw,[11] which was associated with the gamma-ray burst GRB 980425. It is classified as a type Ic supernova due to its distinctive spectral properties in the radio spectrum, indicating the presence of relativistic matter.
Circumstellar material model

Almost all observed SLSNe have had spectra similar to either a type Ic or type IIn supernova. The type Ic SLSNe are thought to be produced by jets from fallback to a black hole, but type IIn SLSNe have significantly different light curves and are not associated with gamma-ray bursts. Type IIn supernovae are all embedded in a dense nebula probably expelled from the progenitor star itself, and this circumstellar material (CSM) is thought to be the cause of the extra luminosity.[12] When material expelled in an initial normal supernova explosion meets dense nebular material or dust close to the star, the shockwave converts kinetic energy efficiently into visible radiation. This effect greatly enhances these extended duration and extremely luminous supernovae, even though the initial explosive energy was the same as that of normal supernovae.

Although any supernova type could potentially produce Type IIn SLSNe, theoretical constraints on the surrounding CSM sizes and densities do suggest that it will almost always be produced from the central progenitor star itself immediately prior to the observed supernova event. Such stars are likely candidates of hypergiants or LBVs that appear to be undergoing substantial mass loss, due to Eddington instability, for example, SN2005gl.[13]
Pair-instability supernova
Main article: Pair-instability supernova

Another type of suspected SLSN is a pair-instability supernova, of which SN 2006gy[14] may possibly be the first observed example. This supernova event was observed in a galaxy about 238 million light years (73 megaparsecs) from Earth.

The theoretical basis for pair-instability collapse has been known for many decades[15] and was suggested as a dominant source of higher mass elements in the early universe as super-massive population III stars exploded. In a pair-instability supernova, the pair production effect causes a sudden pressure drop in the star's core, leading to a rapid partial collapse. Gravitational potential energy from the collapse causes runaway fusion of the core which entirely disrupts the star, leaving no remnant.

Models show that this phenomenon only happens in stars with extremely low metallicity and masses between about 140 and 260 times the Sun, making them extremely unlikely in the local universe. Although originally expected to produce SLSN explosions hundreds of times greater than a supernova, current models predict that they actually produce luminosities ranging from about the same as a normal core collapse supernova to perhaps 50 times brighter, although remaining bright for much longer.[16]
Magnetar energy release

Models of the creation and subsequent spin down of a magnetar yield much higher luminosities than regular supernova[17][18] events and match the observed properties[19][20] of at least some SLSNe. In cases where pair-instability supernova may not be a good fit for explaining a SLSN,[21] a magnetar explanation is more plausible.
Other models

There are still models for SLSN explosions produced from binary systems, white dwarf or neutron stars in unusual arrangements or undergoing mergers, and some of these are proposed to account for some observed gamma-ray bursts.
See also

Astronomy portal

Hypernova – A supernova which ejects a large mass at unusually high velocity
Gamma-ray burst progenitors – Types of celestial objects that can emit gamma-ray bursts
Quark star – Compact exotic star which forms matter consisting mostly of quarks
Quark-nova – Hypothetical violent explosion resulting from conversion of a neutron star to a quark star

References

MacFadyen (2001). "Supernovae, Jets, and Collapsars". The Astrophysical Journal. 550 (1): 410–425. arXiv:astro-ph/9910034. Bibcode:2001ApJ...550..410M. doi:10.1086/319698. S2CID 1673646.
Dado (2003). "The Supernova associated with GRB 030329". The Astrophysical Journal. 594 (2): L89–92. arXiv:astro-ph/0304106. Bibcode:2003ApJ...594L..89D. doi:10.1086/378624. S2CID 10668797.
Krehl (2009). History of Shock Waves, Explosions, and Impact. Bibcode:2009hswe.book.....K.
Smartt, S. J.; et al. (17 June 2018). "ATLAS18qqn (AT2018cow) - a bright transient spatially coincident with CGCG 137-068 (60 Mpc)". The Astronomer's Telegram. 11727 (11727): 1. Bibcode:2018ATel11727....1S. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
Anderson, Paul Scott (28 June 2018). "Astronomers see mystery explosion 200 million light-years away - Supernovae, or exploding stars, are relatively common. But now astronomers have observed a baffling new type of cosmic explosion, believed to be some 10 to 100 times brighter than an ordinary supernova". Earth & Sky. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
Heger (2003). "How Massive Stars End Their Life". Astrophysical Journal. 591 (1): 288–300. arXiv:astro-ph/0212469. Bibcode:2003ApJ...591..288H. doi:10.1086/375341. S2CID 59065632.
Quimby, R. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Sullivan, M.; Nugent, P.; Thomas, R.; Howell, D. A.; et al. (2011). "Hydrogen-poor superluminous stellar explosions". Nature. 474 (7352): 487–9. arXiv:0910.0059. Bibcode:2011Natur.474..487Q. doi:10.1038/nature10095. PMID 21654747. S2CID 4333823.
Gal-Yam, Avishay (2012). "Luminous Supernovae". Science. 337 (6097): 927–32. arXiv:1208.3217. Bibcode:2012Sci...337..927G. doi:10.1126/science.1203601. PMID 22923572. S2CID 206533034.
McCrum, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Kotak, R.; Rest, A.; Jerkstrand, A.; Inserra, C.; Rodney, S. A.; Chen, T.- W.; Howell, D. A.; et al. (2013). "The superluminous supernova PS1-11ap: Bridging the gap between low and high redshift". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 437 (1): 656–674. arXiv:1310.4417. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.437..656M. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt1923. S2CID 119224139.
Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Rest, A.; Milisavljevic, D.; Lunnan, R.; Foley, R. J.; Soderberg, A. M.; Smartt, S. J.; Burgasser, A. J.; et al. (2013). "PS1-10afx at z = 1.388: Pan-STARRS1 Discovery of a New Type of Superluminous Supernova". The Astrophysical Journal. 767 (2): 162. arXiv:1302.0009. Bibcode:2013ApJ...767..162C. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/767/2/162. S2CID 35006667.
Fujimoto, S. I.; Nishimura, N.; Hashimoto, M. A. (2008). "Nucleosynthesis in Magnetically Driven Jets from Collapsars". The Astrophysical Journal. 680 (2): 1350–1358. arXiv:0804.0969. Bibcode:2008ApJ...680.1350F. doi:10.1086/529416. S2CID 118559576.
Smith, N.; Chornock, R.; Li, W.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Silverman, J. M.; Foley, R. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Barth, A. J. (2008). "SN 2006tf: Precursor Eruptions and the Optically Thick Regime of Extremely Luminous Type IIn Supernovae". The Astrophysical Journal. 686 (1): 467–484. arXiv:0804.0042. Bibcode:2008ApJ...686..467S. doi:10.1086/591021. S2CID 16857223.
Gal-Yam, A.; Leonard, D. C. (2009). "A Massive Hypergiant Star as the Progenitor of the Supernova SN 2005gl". Nature. 458 (7240): 865–867. Bibcode:2009Natur.458..865G. doi:10.1038/nature07934. PMID 19305392. S2CID 4392537.
Smith, N.; Chornock, R.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J. (2010). "Spectral Evolution of the Extraordinary Type IIn Supernova 2006gy". The Astrophysical Journal. 709 (2): 856–883. arXiv:0906.2200. Bibcode:2010ApJ...709..856S. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/709/2/856. S2CID 16959330.
Fraley, G. S. (1968). "Supernovae Explosions Induced by Pair-Production Instability" (PDF). Astrophysics and Space Science. 2 (1): 96–114. Bibcode:1968Ap&SS...2...96F. doi:10.1007/BF00651498. S2CID 122104256.
Kasen, D.; Woosley, S. E.; Heger, A. (2011). "Pair Instability Supernovae: Light Curves, Spectra, and Shock Breakout". The Astrophysical Journal. 734 (2): 102. arXiv:1101.3336. Bibcode:2011ApJ...734..102K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/734/2/102. S2CID 118508934.
Woosley, S.E. (August 2010). "Bright Supernovae From Magnetar Birth". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 719 (2): L204–L207. arXiv:0911.0698. Bibcode:2010ApJ...719L.204W. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/719/2/L204. S2CID 118564100.
Kasen, Daniel; Bildsten, Lars (2010). "Supernova Light Curves Powered by Young Magnetars". Astrophysical Journal. 717 (1): 245–249. arXiv:0911.0680. Bibcode:2010ApJ...717..245K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/717/1/245. S2CID 118630165.
Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Valenti, S.; Fraser, M.; Wright, D.; Smith, K.; Chen, T.-W.; Kotak, R.; et al. (June 2013). "Super Luminous Ic Supernovae: catching a magnetar by the tail". The Astrophysical Journal. 770 (2): 128. arXiv:1304.3320. Bibcode:2013ApJ...770..128I. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/770/2/128. S2CID 13122542.
Howell, D. A.; Kasen, D.; Lidman, C.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; et al. (October 2013). "Two superluminous supernovae from the early universe discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey". Astrophysical Journal. 779 (2): 98. arXiv:1310.0470. Bibcode:2013ApJ...779...98H. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/779/2/98. S2CID 119119147.

Nicholl, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Inserra, C.; McCrum, M.; Kotak, R.; Fraser, M.; Wright, D.; Chen, T.-W.; et al. (October 2013). "Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions". Nature. 502 (7471): 346–9. arXiv:1310.4446. Bibcode:2013Natur.502..346N. doi:10.1038/nature12569. PMID 24132291. S2CID 4472977.

Further reading

MacFadyen, A. I.; Woosley, S. E. (1999). "Collapsars: Gamma-Ray Bursts and Explosions in 'Failed Supernovae'". Astrophysical Journal. 524 (1): 262–289.arXiv:astro-ph/9810274. Bibcode:1999ApJ...524..262M. doi:10.1086/307790. S2CID 15534333.
Woosley, S. E. (1993). "Gamma-ray bursts from stellar mass accretion disks around black holes". Astrophysical Journal. 405 (1): 273–277. Bibcode:1993ApJ...405..273W. doi:10.1086/172359.
Piran, T. (2004). "The Physics of Gamma-Ray Bursts". Reviews of Modern Physics. 76 (4): 1143–1210.arXiv:astro-ph/0405503v1. Bibcode:2004RvMP...76.1143P. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.76.1143. S2CID 118941182.
Hjorth, Jens; Sollerman, Jesper; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Woosley, Stan E.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Tanvir, Nial R.; Greiner, Jochen; Andersen, Michael I.; et al. (2003). "A very energetic supernova associated with the γ-ray burst of 29 March 2003". Nature. 423 (6942): 847–50.arXiv:astro-ph/0306347. Bibcode:2003Natur.423..847H. doi:10.1038/nature01750. PMID 12815425. S2CID 4405772.

External links

List of all superluminous supernovae at The Open Supernova Catalog.

vte

Supernovae
Classes

Type Ia Type Ib and Ic Type II (IIP, IIL, IIn, and IIb) Hypernova Superluminous Pair-instability


Physics of

Calcium-rich Carbon detonation Foe Near-Earth Phillips relationship Nucleosynthesis
P-process R-process Neutrinos

Related

Imposter
pulsational pair-instability Failed Gamma-ray burst Kilonova Luminous red nova Nova Pulsar kick Quark-nova Symbiotic nova

Progenitors

Hypergiant
yellow Luminous blue variable Supergiant
blue red yellow White dwarf
related links Wolf–Rayet star

Remnants

Supernova remnant
Pulsar wind nebula Neutron star
pulsar magnetar related links Stellar black hole
related links Compact star
quark star exotic star Zombie star Local Bubble Superbubble
Orion–Eridanus

Discovery

Guest star History of supernova observation Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae

Lists

Candidates Notable Massive stars Most distant Remnants In fiction

Notable

Barnard's Loop Cassiopeia A Crab
Crab Nebula iPTF14hls Tycho's Kepler's SN 1987A SN 185 SN 1006 SN 2003fg Remnant G1.9+0.3 SN 2007bi SN 2011fe SN 2014J SN Refsdal Vela Remnant

Research

ASAS-SN Calán/Tololo Survey High-Z Supernova Search Team Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope Monte Agliale Supernovae and Asteroid Survey Nearby Supernova Factory Sloan Supernova Survey Supernova/Acceleration Probe Supernova Cosmology Project SuperNova Early Warning System Supernova Legacy Survey Texas Supernova Search

vte

Stars
Formation

Accretion Molecular cloud Bok globule Young stellar object
Protostar Pre-main-sequence Herbig Ae/Be T Tauri FU Orionis Herbig–Haro object Hayashi track Henyey track

Evolution

Main sequence Red-giant branch Horizontal branch
Red clump Asymptotic giant branch
super-AGB Blue loop Protoplanetary nebula Planetary nebula PG1159 Dredge-up OH/IR Instability strip Luminous blue variable Blue straggler Stellar population Supernova Superluminous supernova / Hypernova

Spectral classification

Early Late Main sequence
O B A F G K M Brown dwarf WR OB Subdwarf
O B Subgiant Giant
Blue Red Yellow Bright giant Supergiant
Blue Red Yellow Hypergiant
Yellow Carbon
S CN CH White dwarf Chemically peculiar
Am Ap/Bp HgMn Helium-weak Barium Extreme helium Lambda Boötis Lead Technetium Be
Shell B[e]

Remnants

White dwarf
Helium planet Black dwarf Neutron
Radio-quiet Pulsar
Binary X-ray Magnetar Stellar black hole X-ray binary
Burster

Hypothetical

Blue dwarf Green Black dwarf Exotic
Boson Electroweak Strange Preon Planck Dark Dark-energy Quark Q Black Gravastar Frozen Quasi-star Thorne–Żytkow object Iron Blitzar

Stellar nucleosynthesis

Deuterium burning Lithium burning Proton–proton chain CNO cycle Helium flash Triple-alpha process Alpha process Carbon burning Neon burning Oxygen burning Silicon burning S-process R-process Fusor Nova
Symbiotic Remnant Luminous red nova

Structure

Core Convection zone
Microturbulence Oscillations Radiation zone Atmosphere
Photosphere Starspot Chromosphere Stellar corona Stellar wind
Bubble Bipolar outflow Accretion disk Asteroseismology
Helioseismology Eddington luminosity Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism

Properties

Designation Dynamics Effective temperature Luminosity Kinematics Magnetic field Absolute magnitude Mass Metallicity Rotation Starlight Variable Photometric system Color index Hertzsprung–Russell diagram Color–color diagram

Star systems

Binary
Contact Common envelope Eclipsing Symbiotic Multiple Cluster
Open Globular Super Planetary system

Earth-centric
observations

Sun
Solar System Sunlight Pole star Circumpolar Constellation Asterism Magnitude
Apparent Extinction Photographic Radial velocity Proper motion Parallax Photometric-standard

Lists

Proper names
Arabic Chinese Extremes Most massive Highest temperature Lowest temperature Largest volume Smallest volume Brightest
Historical Most luminous Nearest
Nearest bright With exoplanets Brown dwarfs White dwarfs Milky Way novae Supernovae
Candidates Remnants Planetary nebulae Timeline of stellar astronomy

Related articles

Substellar object
Brown dwarf Sub-brown dwarf Planet Galactic year Galaxy Guest Gravity Intergalactic Planet-hosting stars Tidal disruption event

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