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In astronomy, the term compact star (or compact object) refers collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. It would grow to include exotic stars if such hypothetical, dense bodies are confirmed to exist. All compact objects have a high mass relative to their radius, giving them a very high density, compared to ordinary atomic matter.

Compact stars are often the endpoints of stellar evolution, and are in this respect also called stellar remnants. The state and type of a stellar remnant depends primarily on the mass of the star that it formed from. The ambiguous term compact star is often used when the exact nature of the star is not known, but evidence suggests that it has a very small radius compared to ordinary stars. A compact star that is not a black hole may be called a degenerate star. On 1 June 2020, astronomers reported narrowing down the source of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs), which may now plausibly include "compact-object mergers and magnetars arising from normal core collapse supernovae".[1][2]

Formation

The usual endpoint of stellar evolution is the formation of a compact star.

Most stars will eventually come to a point in their evolution when the outward radiation pressure from the nuclear fusions in its interior can no longer resist the ever-present gravitational forces. When this happens, the star collapses under its own weight and undergoes the process of stellar death. For most stars, this will result in the formation of a very dense and compact stellar remnant, also known as a compact star.

Compact stars have no internal energy production, but will—with the exception of black holes—usually radiate for millions of years with excess heat left from the collapse itself.[3]

According to the most recent understanding, compact stars could also form during the phase separations of the early Universe following the Big Bang. Primordial origins of known compact objects have not been determined with certainty.
Lifetime

Although compact stars may radiate, and thus cool off and lose energy, they do not depend on high temperatures to maintain their structure, as ordinary stars do. Barring external disturbances and proton decay, they can persist virtually forever. Black holes are however generally believed to finally evaporate from Hawking radiation after trillions of years. According to our current standard models of physical cosmology, all stars will eventually evolve into cool and dark compact stars, by the time the Universe enters the so-called degenerate era in a very distant future.

The somewhat wider definition of compact objects often includes smaller solid objects such as planets, asteroids, and comets. There is a remarkable variety of stars and other clumps of hot matter, but all matter in the Universe must eventually end as some form of compact stellar or substellar object, according to current theoretical interpretations of thermodynamics.
White dwarfs
Main article: White dwarf
The Eskimo Nebula is illuminated by a white dwarf at its center.

The stars called white or degenerate dwarfs are made up mainly of degenerate matter; typically carbon and oxygen nuclei in a sea of degenerate electrons. White dwarfs arise from the cores of main-sequence stars and are therefore very hot when they are formed. As they cool they will redden and dim until they eventually become dark black dwarfs. White dwarfs were observed in the 19th century, but the extremely high densities and pressures they contain were not explained until the 1920s.

The equation of state for degenerate matter is "soft", meaning that adding more mass will result in a smaller object. Continuing to add mass to what begins as a white dwarf, the object shrinks and the central density becomes even greater, with higher degenerate-electron energies. After the degenerate star's mass has grown sufficiently that its radius has shrunk to only a few thousand kilometers, the mass will be approaching the Chandrasekhar limit – the theoretical upper limit of the mass of a white dwarf, about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun (M☉).

If matter were removed from the center of a white dwarf and slowly compressed, electrons would first be forced to combine with nuclei, changing their protons to neutrons by inverse beta decay. The equilibrium would shift towards heavier, neutron-richer nuclei that are not stable at everyday densities. As the density increases, these nuclei become still larger and less well-bound. At a critical density of about 4×1014 kg/m3 – called the “neutron drip line” – the atomic nucleus would tend to dissolve into unbound protons and neutrons. If further compressed, eventually it would reach a point where the matter is on the order of the density of an atomic nucleus – about 2×1017 kg/m3. At that density the matter would be chiefly free neutrons, with a light scattering of protons and electrons.
Neutron stars
Main article: Neutron star
The Crab Nebula is a supernova remnant containing the Crab Pulsar, a neutron star.

In certain binary stars containing a white dwarf, mass is transferred from the companion star onto the white dwarf, eventually pushing it over the Chandrasekhar limit. Electrons react with protons to form neutrons and thus no longer supply the necessary pressure to resist gravity, causing the star to collapse. If the center of the star is composed mostly of carbon and oxygen then such a gravitational collapse will ignite runaway fusion of the carbon and oxygen, resulting in a Type Ia supernova that entirely blows apart the star before the collapse can become irreversible. If the center is composed mostly of magnesium or heavier elements, the collapse continues.[4][5][6] As the density further increases, the remaining electrons react with the protons to form more neutrons. The collapse continues until (at higher density) the neutrons become degenerate. A new equilibrium is possible after the star shrinks by three orders of magnitude, to a radius between 10 and 20 km. This is a neutron star.

Although the first neutron star was not observed until 1967 when the first radio pulsar was discovered, neutron stars were proposed by Baade and Zwicky in 1933, only one year after the neutron was discovered in 1932. They realized that because neutron stars are so dense, the collapse of an ordinary star to a neutron star would liberate a large amount of gravitational potential energy, providing a possible explanation for supernovae.[7][8][9] This is the explanation for supernovae of types Ib, Ic, and II. Such supernovae occur when the iron core of a massive star exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit and collapses to a neutron star.

Like electrons, neutrons are fermions. They therefore provide neutron degeneracy pressure to support a neutron star against collapse. In addition, repulsive neutron-neutron interactions provide additional pressure. Like the Chandrasekhar limit for white dwarfs, there is a limiting mass for neutron stars: the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit, where these forces are no longer sufficient to hold up the star. As the forces in dense hadronic matter are not well understood, this limit is not known exactly but is thought to be between 2 and 3 M☉. If more mass accretes onto a neutron star, eventually this mass limit will be reached. What happens next is not completely clear.
Black holes
Main articles: Black hole and Stellar black hole
A simulated black hole of ten solar masses, at a distance of 600 km.

As more mass is accumulated, equilibrium against gravitational collapse exceeds its breaking point. Once the star's pressure is insufficient to counterbalance gravity, a catastrophic gravitational collapse occurs within milliseconds. The escape velocity at the surface, already at least ​1⁄3 light speed, quickly reaches the velocity of light. At that point no energy or matter can escape and a black hole has formed. Because all light and matter is trapped within an event horizon, a black hole appears truly black, except for the possibility of very faint Hawking radiation. It is presumed that the collapse will continue inside the event horizon.

In the classical theory of general relativity, a gravitational singularity occupying no more than a point will form. There may be a new halt of the catastrophic gravitational collapse at a size comparable to the Planck length, but at these lengths there is no known theory of gravity to predict what will happen. Adding any extra mass to the black hole will cause the radius of the event horizon to increase linearly with the mass of the central singularity. This will induce certain changes in the properties of the black hole, such as reducing the tidal stress near the event horizon, and reducing the gravitational field strength at the horizon. However, there will not be any further qualitative changes in the structure associated with any mass increase.
Alternative black hole models

Fuzzball[10]
Gravastar[10]
Dark energy star
Black star
Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object
Dark star[10]
Primordial black holes

Exotic stars
Main article: Exotic star

An exotic star is a hypothetical compact star composed of something other than electrons, protons, and neutrons balanced against gravitational collapse by degeneracy pressure or other quantum properties. These include strange stars (composed of strange matter) and the more speculative preon stars (composed of preons).

Exotic stars are hypothetical, but observations released by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory on April 10, 2002 detected two candidate strange stars, designated RX J1856.5-3754 and 3C58, which had previously been thought to be neutron stars. Based on the known laws of physics, the former appeared much smaller and the latter much colder than they should, suggesting that they are composed of material denser than neutronium. However, these observations are met with skepticism by researchers who say the results were not conclusive.
Quark stars and strange stars
Main article: Quark star

If neutrons are squeezed enough at a high temperature, they will decompose into their component quarks, forming what is known as a quark matter. In this case, the star will shrink further and become denser, but instead of a total collapse into a black hole, it is possible that the star may stabilize itself and survive in this state indefinitely, so long as no more mass is added. It has, to an extent, become a very large nucleon. A star in this hypothetical state is called a "quark star" or more specifically a "strange star". The pulsar 3C58 has been suggested as a possible quark star. Most neutron stars are thought to hold a core of quark matter but this has proven difficult to determine observationally.
Preon stars

A preon star is a proposed type of compact star made of preons, a group of hypothetical subatomic particles. Preon stars would be expected to have huge densities, exceeding 1023 kilogram per cubic meter – intermediate between quark stars and black holes. Preon stars could originate from supernova explosions or the Big Bang; however, current observations from particle accelerators speak against the existence of preons.
Q stars
Main article: Q star

Q stars are hypothetical compact, heavier neutron stars with an exotic state of matter where particle numbers are preserved with radii less than 1.5 times the corresponding Schwarzschild radius. Q stars are also called "gray holes".
Electroweak stars
Main article: Electroweak star

An electroweak star is a theoretical type of exotic star, whereby the gravitational collapse of the star is prevented by radiation pressure resulting from electroweak burning, that is, the energy released by conversion of quarks to leptons through the electroweak force. This process occurs in a volume at the star's core approximately the size of an apple, containing about two Earth masses.[11]
Boson star

A boson star is a hypothetical astronomical object that is formed out of particles called bosons (conventional stars are formed out of fermions). For this type of star to exist, there must be a stable type of boson with repulsive self-interaction. As of 2016 there is no significant evidence that such a star exists. However, it may become possible to detect them by the gravitational radiation emitted by a pair of co-orbiting boson stars.[12][13]
Compact relativistic objects and the generalized uncertainty principle

Based on the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), proposed by some approaches to quantum gravity such as string theory and doubly special relativity, the effect of GUP on the thermodynamic properties of compact stars with two different components has been studied, recently.[14] Tawfik et al. noted that the existence of quantum gravity correction tends to resist the collapse of stars if the GUP parameter is taking values between Planck scale and electroweak scale. Comparing with other approaches, it was found that the radii of compact stars should be smaller and increasing energy decreases the radii of the compact stars.
References

Starr, Michelle (1 June 2020). "Astronomers Just Narrowed Down The Source of Those Powerful Radio Signals From Space". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
Bhandan, Shivani (1 June 2020). "The Host Galaxies and Progenitors of Fast Radio Bursts Localized with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 895 (2): L37. arXiv:2005.13160. Bibcode:2020ApJ...895L..37B. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab672e. S2CID 218900539. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
Tauris, T. M.; J. van den Heuvel, E. P. (20 Mar 2003). Formation and Evolution of Compact Stellar X-ray Sources. arXiv:astro-ph/0303456. Bibcode:2006csxs.book..623T.
Hashimoto, M.; Iwamoto, K.; Nomoto, K. (1993). "Type II supernovae from 8–10 solar mass asymptotic giant branch stars". The Astrophysical Journal. 414: L105. Bibcode:1993ApJ...414L.105H. doi:10.1086/187007.
Ritossa, C.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Iben, I., Jr. (1996). "On the Evolution of Stars That Form Electron-degenerate Cores Processed by Carbon Burning. II. Isotope Abundances and Thermal Pulses in a 10 Msun Model with an ONe Core and Applications to Long-Period Variables, Classical Novae, and Accretion-induced Collapse". The Astrophysical Journal. 460: 489. Bibcode:1996ApJ...460..489R. doi:10.1086/176987.
Wanajo, S.; et al. (2003). "The r‐Process in Supernova Explosions from the Collapse of O‐Ne‐Mg Cores". The Astrophysical Journal. 593 (2): 968–979. arXiv:astro-ph/0302262. Bibcode:2003ApJ...593..968W. doi:10.1086/376617. S2CID 13456130.
Osterbrock, D. E. (2001). "Who Really Coined the Word Supernova? Who First Predicted Neutron Stars?". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 33: 1330. Bibcode:2001AAS...199.1501O.
Baade, W.; Zwicky, F. (1934). "On Super-Novae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 20 (5): 254–9. Bibcode:1934PNAS...20..254B. doi:10.1073/pnas.20.5.254. PMC 1076395. PMID 16587881.
Baade, W.; Zwicky, F. (1934). "Cosmic Rays from Super-Novae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 20 (5): 259–263. Bibcode:1934PNAS...20..259B. doi:10.1073/pnas.20.5.259. PMC 1076396. PMID 16587882.
Visser, M.; Barcelo, C.; Liberati, S.; Sonego, S. (2009). "Small, dark, and heavy: But is it a black hole?". arXiv:0902.0346 [hep-th].
Shiga, D. (4 January 2010). "Exotic stars may mimic big bang". New Scientist. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
Schutz, Bernard F. (2003). Gravity from the ground up (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-521-45506-5.
Palenzuela, C.; Lehner, L.; Liebling, S. L. (2008). "Orbital dynamics of binary boson star systems". Physical Review D. 77 (4): 044036. arXiv:0706.2435. Bibcode:2008PhRvD..77d4036P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.77.044036. S2CID 115159490.

Ahmed Farag Ali and A. Tawfik, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D22 (2013) 1350020

Sources

Blaschke, D.; Fredriksson, S.; Grigorian, H.; Öztaş, A.; Sandin, F. (2005). "Phase diagram of three-flavor quark matter under compact star constraints". Physical Review D. 72 (6): 065020. arXiv:hep-ph/0503194. Bibcode:2005PhRvD..72f5020B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.72.065020. S2CID 119356279.
Sandin, F. (2005). "Compact stars in the standard model – and beyond". European Physical Journal C. 40 (2): 15–22. arXiv:astro-ph/0410407. Bibcode:2005EPJC...40...15S. doi:10.1140/epjcd/s2005-03-003-y. S2CID 119495444.
Sandin, F. (2005). Exotic Phases of Matter in Compact Stars (PDF) (Thesis). Luleå University of Technology.

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White dwarf
Formation

Chandrasekhar limit PG 1159 star Stellar evolution Hertzsprung–Russell diagram Mira variable

Fate

Black dwarf Type Ia supernova
Candidates Neutron star
Pulsar Magnetar Related links Stellar black hole
Related links Compact star
Quark star Exotic star Extreme helium star Subdwarf B star Helium planet

In binary
systems

Nova
Remnant List Dwarf nova Symbiotic nova Cataclysmic variable star
AM CVn star Polar Intermediate polar X-ray binary
Super soft X-ray source Binary pulsar
X-ray pulsar List Helium flash Carbon detonation

Properties

Pulsating Urca process Electron-degenerate matter Quasi-periodic oscillations

Related

Planetary nebula
List RAMBOs White dwarf luminosity function Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae

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Neutron star
Types

Radio-quiet Pulsar

Single pulsars

Magnetar
Soft gamma repeater Anomalous X-ray Rotating radio transient

Binary pulsars

Binary X-ray pulsar
X-ray binary X-ray burster List Millisecond Be/X-ray Spin-up

Properties

Blitzar
Fast radio burst Bondi accretion Chandrasekhar limit Gamma-ray burst Glitch Neutronium Neutron-star oscillation Optical Pulsar kick Quasi-periodic oscillation Relativistic Rp-process Starquake Timing noise Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit Urca process

Related

Gamma-ray burst progenitors Asteroseismology Compact star
Quark star Exotic star Supernova
Supernova remnant Related links Hypernova Kilonova Neutron star merger Quark-nova White dwarf
Related links Stellar black hole
Related links Radio star Pulsar planet Pulsar wind nebula Thorne–Żytkow object

Discovery

LGM-1 Centaurus X-3 Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae

Satellite
investigation

Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Chandra X-ray Observatory

Other

X-ray pulsar-based navigation Tempo software program Astropulse The Magnificent Seven

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Black holes
Types

Schwarzschild Rotating Charged Virtual Kugelblitz Primordial Planck particle


Size

Micro
Extremal Electron Stellar
Microquasar Intermediate-mass Supermassive
Active galactic nucleus Quasar Blazar

Formation

Stellar evolution Gravitational collapse Neutron star
Related links Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit White dwarf
Related links Supernova
Related links Hypernova Gamma-ray burst Binary black hole

Properties

Gravitational singularity
Ring singularity Theorems Event horizon Photon sphere Innermost stable circular orbit Ergosphere
Penrose process Blandford–Znajek process Accretion disk Hawking radiation Gravitational lens Bondi accretion M–sigma relation Quasi-periodic oscillation Thermodynamics
Immirzi parameter Schwarzschild radius Spaghettification

Issues

Black hole complementarity Information paradox Cosmic censorship ER=EPR Final parsec problem Firewall (physics) Holographic principle No-hair theorem

Metrics

Schwarzschild (Derivation) Kerr Reissner–Nordström Kerr–Newman Hayward

Alternatives

Nonsingular black hole models Black star Dark star Dark-energy star Gravastar Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object Planck star Q star Fuzzball

Analogs

Optical black hole Sonic black hole

Lists

Black holes Most massive Nearest Quasars Microquasars

Related

Black Hole Initiative Black hole starship Compact star Exotic star
Quark star Preon star Gamma-ray burst progenitors Gravity well Hypercompact stellar system Membrane paradigm Naked singularity Quasi-star Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Timeline of black hole physics White hole Wormhole

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Stellar core collapse
Stars

Formation Evolution Structure Core Metallicity Stellar physics Stellar plasma Supergiant Variable star Cataclysmic variable star Binary star
X-ray binary Super soft X-ray source

Stellar processes

Nuclear fusion Surface fusion Nucleosynthesis
R-process RP-process Supernova nucleosynthesis Accretion (Bondi accretion) Electron capture Carbon detonation / deflagration Gamma-ray burst Helium flash Orbital decay

Collapse

Gravitational collapse Chandrasekhar limit Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit

Supernovae

Type Ia Type Ib and Ic Type II Pair-instability Hypernova Quark-nova Nebula Remnant More...

Compact and exotic objects

Neutron star
Pulsar Quasar Magnetar Radio-quiet White dwarf Black hole Exotic star Quark star Electroweak star Observational timeline

Particles, forces, and interactions

Elementary particles
Proton Neutron Electron Neutrino Fundamental interactions
Strong interaction Weak interaction Gravitation

Pair production Inverse beta decay (electron capture) Degeneracy pressure Electron degeneracy pressure Pauli exclusion principle More...

Quantum theory

Quantum mechanics
Introduction Basic concepts Quantum electrodynamics Quantum hydrodynamics Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) Lattice QCD Color confinement Deconfinement

Degenerate matter

Neutron matter QCD matter Quark matter Quark–gluon plasma Preon matter Strangelet Strange matter

Related topics

Astronomy Astrophysics Nuclear astrophysics Physical cosmology Physics of shock waves

Portals

Physics Astronomy Stars Space

Portal

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Supernovae
Classes

Type Ia Type Ib and Ic Type II (IIP, IIL, IIn, and IIb) Hypernova Superluminous Pair-instability


Supernova&galaxia.png
G299-Remnants-SuperNova-Type1a-20150218.jpg
Physics of

Calcium-rich Carbon detonation Foe Near-Earth Phillips relationship Nucleosynthesis
P-process R-process Neutrinos

Related

Imposter
pulsational pair-instability Failed Gamma-ray burst Kilonova Luminous red nova Nova Pulsar kick Quark-nova Symbiotic nova

Progenitors

Hypergiant
yellow Luminous blue variable Supergiant
blue red yellow White dwarf
related links Wolf–Rayet star

Remnants

Supernova remnant
Pulsar wind nebula Neutron star
pulsar magnetar related links Stellar black hole
related links Compact star
quark star exotic star Zombie star Local Bubble Superbubble
Orion–Eridanus

Discovery

Guest star History of supernova observation Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae

Lists

Candidates Notable Massive stars Most distant Remnants In fiction

Notable

Barnard's Loop Cassiopeia A Crab
Crab Nebula iPTF14hls Tycho's Kepler's SN 1987A SN 185 SN 1006 SN 2003fg Remnant G1.9+0.3 SN 2007bi SN 2011fe SN 2014J SN Refsdal Vela Remnant

Research

ASAS-SN Calán/Tololo Survey High-Z Supernova Search Team Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope Monte Agliale Supernovae and Asteroid Survey Nearby Supernova Factory Sloan Supernova Survey Supernova/Acceleration Probe Supernova Cosmology Project SuperNova Early Warning System Supernova Legacy Survey Texas Supernova Search

Wikipedia book Book:Supernovae Category Category:Supernovae Commons page Commons:Supernovae

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Stars
Formation

Accretion Molecular cloud Bok globule Young stellar object
Protostar Pre-main-sequence Herbig Ae/Be T Tauri FU Orionis Herbig–Haro object Hayashi track Henyey track

Evolution

Main sequence Red-giant branch Horizontal branch
Red clump Asymptotic giant branch
super-AGB Blue loop Protoplanetary nebula Planetary nebula PG1159 Dredge-up OH/IR Instability strip Luminous blue variable Blue straggler Stellar population Supernova Superluminous supernova / Hypernova

Spectral classification

Early Late Main sequence
O B A F G K M Brown dwarf WR OB Subdwarf
O B Subgiant Giant
Blue Red Yellow Bright giant Supergiant
Blue Red Yellow Hypergiant
Yellow Carbon
S CN CH White dwarf Chemically peculiar
Am Ap/Bp HgMn Helium-weak Barium Extreme helium Lambda Boötis Lead Technetium Be
Shell B[e]

Remnants

White dwarf
Helium planet Black dwarf Neutron
Radio-quiet Pulsar
Binary X-ray Magnetar Stellar black hole X-ray binary
Burster

Hypothetical

Blue dwarf Green Black dwarf Exotic
Boson Electroweak Strange Preon Planck Dark Dark-energy Quark Q Black Gravastar Frozen Quasi-star Thorne–Żytkow object Iron Blitzar

Stellar nucleosynthesis

Deuterium burning Lithium burning Proton–proton chain CNO cycle Helium flash Triple-alpha process Alpha process Carbon burning Neon burning Oxygen burning Silicon burning S-process R-process Fusor Nova
Symbiotic Remnant Luminous red nova

Structure

Core Convection zone
Microturbulence Oscillations Radiation zone Atmosphere
Photosphere Starspot Chromosphere Stellar corona Stellar wind
Bubble Bipolar outflow Accretion disk Asteroseismology
Helioseismology Eddington luminosity Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism

Properties

Designation Dynamics Effective temperature Luminosity Kinematics Magnetic field Absolute magnitude Mass Metallicity Rotation Starlight Variable Photometric system Color index Hertzsprung–Russell diagram Color–color diagram

Star systems

Binary
Contact Common envelope Eclipsing Symbiotic Multiple Cluster
Open Globular Super Planetary system

Earth-centric
observations

Sun
Solar System Sunlight Pole star Circumpolar Constellation Asterism Magnitude
Apparent Extinction Photographic Radial velocity Proper motion Parallax Photometric-standard

Lists

Proper names
Arabic Chinese Extremes Most massive Highest temperature Lowest temperature Largest volume Smallest volume Brightest
Historical Most luminous Nearest
Nearest bright With exoplanets Brown dwarfs White dwarfs Milky Way novae Supernovae
Candidates Remnants Planetary nebulae Timeline of stellar astronomy

Related articles

Substellar object
Brown dwarf Sub-brown dwarf Planet Galactic year Galaxy Guest Gravity Intergalactic Planet-hosting stars Tidal disruption event

Physics Encyclopedia

World

Index

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