- Art Gallery -

The Local Bubble, or Local Cavity,[3] is a relative cavity in the interstellar medium (ISM) of the Orion Arm in the Milky Way. It contains among others, the Local Interstellar Cloud, which contains the Solar System, and the G-Cloud. It is at least 300 light years across, and is defined by its neutral-hydrogen density of about 0.05 atoms/cm3, or approximately one tenth of the average for the ISM in the Milky Way (0.5 atoms/cm3), and one sixth that of the Local Interstellar Cloud (0.3 atoms/cm3).[dubious – discuss][4]

The exceptionally sparse gas of the Local Bubble is the result of supernovae that exploded within the past ten to twenty million years. The gas remains in an excited state, emitting in the X-ray band.[5][6] Geminga, a pulsar in the constellation Gemini, was once thought to be the remnant of a single supernova that created the Local Bubble, but now multiple supernovae in subgroup B1 of the Pleiades moving group are thought to have been responsible,[7] becoming a remnant supershell.[8]

Map showing the Sun located near the edge of the Local Interstellar Cloud and Alpha Centauri about 4 light-years away in the neighboring G-Cloud complex.

The Solar System has been traveling through the region currently occupied by the Local Bubble for the last five to ten million years.[5] Its current location lies in the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC), a minor region of denser material within the Bubble. The LIC formed where the Local Bubble and the Loop I Bubble met. The gas within the LIC has a density of approximately 0.3 atoms per cubic centimeter.

The Local Bubble is not spherical, but seems to be narrower in the galactic plane, becoming somewhat egg-shaped or elliptical, and may widen above and below the galactic plane, becoming shaped like an hourglass. It abuts other bubbles of less dense interstellar medium (ISM), including, in particular, the Loop I Bubble. The Loop I Bubble was cleared, heated and maintained by supernovae and stellar winds in the Scorpius–Centaurus Association, some 500 light years from the Sun. The Loop I Bubble contains the star Antares (also known as α Sco, or Alpha Scorpii), as shown on the diagram above right. Several tunnels connect the cavities of the Local Bubble with the Loop I Bubble, called the "Lupus Tunnel".[9] Other bubbles which are adjacent to the Local Bubble are the Loop II Bubble and the Loop III Bubble. In 2019, researchers found interstellar iron in Antarctica which they relate to the Local Interstellar Cloud, which might be related to the formation of the Local Bubble.[10]

Launched in February 2003 and active until April 2008, a small space observatory called Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS or CHIPSat) examined the hot gas within the Local Bubble.[11] The Local Bubble was also the region of interest for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission (1992–2001), which examined hot EUV sources within the bubble. Sources beyond the edge of the bubble were identified but attenuated by the denser interstellar medium. In 2019, the first 3D map of the Local Bubble has been reported using the observations of diffuse interstellar bands.[12]
See also

Gould Belt
List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs
Orion–Eridanus Superbubble

Orion Arm


Egger, Roland J.; Aschenbach, Bernd (February 1995). "Interaction of the Loop I supershell with the Local Hot Bubble". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 294 (2): L25–L28. arXiv:astro-ph/9412086. Bibcode:1995A&A...294L..25E.
"NAME Local Bubble". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
Abt, Helmut A. (December 2015). "Hot gaseous stellar disks avoid regions of low interstellar densities". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 127 (958): 1218–1225. Bibcode:2015PASP..127.1218A. doi:10.1086/684436.
"Our local galactic neighborhood". Interstellar.jpl.nasa.gov. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 8 February 2000. Archived from the original on 21 November 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
"Local Chimney and Superbubbles". Solstation.com.
"NASA-funded X-ray instrument settles interstellar debate". Goddard SFC. www.nasa.gov. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
Berghoefer, T.W.; Breitschwerdt, D. (2002). "The origin of the young stellar population in the solar neighborhood – a link to the formation of the Local Bubble?". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 390 (1): 299–306. arXiv:astro-ph/0205128v2. Bibcode:2002A&A...390..299B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020627.
Gabel, J.R.; Bruhweiler, F.C. (8 January 1998). "[51.09] Model of an expanding supershell structure in the LISM". American Astronomical Society. Archived from the original on 15 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
Lallement, R.; Welsh, B.Y.; Vergely, J.L.; Crifo, F.; Sfeir, D. (2003). "3D mapping of the dense interstellar gas around the Local Bubble". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 411 (3): 447–464. Bibcode:2003A&A...411..447L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20031214.
Koll, D.; et al. (2019). "Interstellar 60Fe in Antarctica". Physical Review Letters. 123 (7): 072701. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.072701. PMID 31491090.
"Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS)". Chips.ssl.berkeley.edu. University of California – Berkeley. 12 January 2003. Archived from the original on 21 November 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2013.

Farhang, Amin; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Javadi, Atefeh; Bailey, Mandy (8 July 2019). "3D map of the local bubble". Nature Astronomy (letter). 3: 922–927.

Further reading

Anderson, Mark (6 January 2007). "Don't stop till you get to the Fluff". New Scientist. 193 (2585): 26–30. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(07)60043-8. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
Lallement, R.; Welsh, B.Y.; Vergely, J.L.; Crifo, F.; Sfeir, D. (1 December 2003). "3D mapping of the dense interstellar gas around the Local Bubble". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 411 (3): 447–464. Bibcode:2003A&A...411..447L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20031214.
"Near-Earth supernovas". Science@NASA Headline News. NASA. 6 January 2003.
"A breeze from the stars". Science@NASA Headline News. NASA. 17 December 2004.

External links

Media related to Local Bubble at Wikimedia Commons
"A 3D map of the Milky Way galaxy and the Orion Arm". 3dgalaxymap.com.


Location of Earth
Earth → Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group → Local Sheet → Virgo Supercluster → Laniakea Supercluster → Observable universe → Universe
Each arrow (→) may be read as "within" or "part of".

Cosmic View (1957 book) To the Moon and Beyond (1964 film) Cosmic Zoom (1968 film) Powers of Ten (1968 and 1977 films) Cosmic Voyage (1996 documentary) Cosmic Eye (2012) History of the center of the Universe Order of magnitude

Portal Astronomy portal Portal Space portal


Solar System
The Sun, the planets, their moons, and several trans-Neptunian objects

Sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars Ceres Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Haumea Makemake Eris


Mercury Venus Earth Mars Giants
Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Dwarfs
Ceres Pluto Haumea Makemake Eris


Moon other near-Earth objects Mars
Phobos Deimos Jupiter
Ganymede Callisto Io Europa all 79 Saturn
Titan Rhea Iapetus Dione Tethys Enceladus Mimas Hyperion Phoebe all 82 Uranus
Titania Oberon Umbriel Ariel Miranda all 27 Neptune
Triton Proteus Nereid all 14 Pluto
Charon Nix Hydra Kerberos Styx Eris
Dysnomia Haumean
Hiʻiaka Namaka Makemake
S/2015 (136472) 1


Comets Possible Dwarf planets Gravitationally rounded objects Minor planets Natural satellites Solar System models Solar System objects
by size by discovery date Interstellar/Circumstellar molecules


Comets Damocloids Meteoroids Minor planets
Names and meanings moons Planetesimal Mercury-crossers Venus-crossers Venus trojans Near-Earth objects Earth-crossers Earth trojans Mars-crossers Mars trojans Asteroid belt Asteroids
Ceres Pallas Juno Vesta active first 1000 families exceptional Kirkwood gap Jupiter-crossers Jupiter trojans Centaurs Saturn-crossers Uranus-crossers Uranus trojans Neptune-crossers Neptune trojans Sednoids Cis-Neptunian objects Trans-Neptunian objects Kuiper belt
Cubewanos Plutinos Detached objects Hills cloud Oort cloud Scattered disc


Jovian Saturnian (Rhean) Charikloan Chironean Uranian Neptunian Haumean


Fifth giant Nemesis Phaeton Planet Nine Planet V Planet X Subsatellites Theia Tyche Vulcan Vulcanoids


Colonization Discovery
astronomy historical models timeline Human spaceflight
space stations list Space probes
timeline list Mercury Venus Moon
mining Mars Ceres Asteroids
mining Comets Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Deep space


Accretion Accretion disk
Excretion disk Circumplanetary disk Circumstellar disc Circumstellar envelope Coatlicue Cosmic dust Debris disk Detached Objects Disrupted planet EXCEDE Exozodiacal dust Extraterrestrial materials
Sample-return mission Sample curation Giant-impact hypothesis Gravitational collapse Hills Cloud Interplanetary dust cloud Interplanetary medium Interplanetary space Interstellar cloud Interstellar dust Interstellar medium Interstellar space Kuiper belt Merging stars Molecular cloud Nebular hypothesis Oort cloud Outer space Planetary migration Planetary system Planetesimal Planet formation Protoplanetary disk Ring system Rubble pile Scattered disc Star formation

Outline of the Solar System Solar system.jpg Solar System portal Crab Nebula.jpg Astronomy portal The Earth seen from Apollo 17 with transparent background.png Earth Sciences portal

Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group → Local Sheet → Virgo Supercluster → Laniakea Supercluster → Observable universe → Universe
Each arrow (→) may be read as "within" or "part of".



Type Ia Type Ib and Ic Type II (IIP, IIL, IIn, and IIb) Hypernova Superluminous Pair-instability

Physics of

Calcium-rich Carbon detonation Foe Near-Earth Phillips relationship Nucleosynthesis
P-process R-process Neutrinos


pulsational pair-instability Failed Gamma-ray burst Kilonova Luminous red nova Nova Pulsar kick Quark-nova Symbiotic nova


yellow Luminous blue variable Supergiant
blue red yellow White dwarf
related links Wolf–Rayet star


Supernova remnant
Pulsar wind nebula Neutron star
pulsar magnetar related links Stellar black hole
related links Compact star
quark star exotic star Zombie star Local Bubble Superbubble


Guest star History of supernova observation Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae


Candidates Notable Massive stars Most distant Remnants In fiction


Barnard's Loop Cassiopeia A Crab
Crab Nebula iPTF14hls Tycho's Kepler's SN 1987A SN 185 SN 1006 SN 2003fg Remnant G1.9+0.3 SN 2007bi SN 2011fe SN 2014J SN Refsdal Vela Remnant


ASAS-SN Calán/Tololo Survey High-Z Supernova Search Team Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope Monte Agliale Supernovae and Asteroid Survey Nearby Supernova Factory Sloan Supernova Survey Supernova/Acceleration Probe Supernova Cosmology Project SuperNova Early Warning System Supernova Legacy Survey Texas Supernova Search

Physics Encyclopedia



Hellenica World - Scientific Library

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License