In physics, black hole thermodynamics[1] is the area of study that seeks to reconcile the laws of thermodynamics with the existence of black-hole event horizons. As the study of the statistical mechanics of black-body radiation led to the advent of the theory of quantum mechanics, the effort to understand the statistical mechanics of black holes has had a deep impact upon the understanding of quantum gravity, leading to the formulation of the holographic principle.[2]

An artist's depiction of two black holes merging, a process in which the laws of thermodynamics are upheld

Overview

The second law of thermodynamics requires that black holes have entropy. If black holes carried no entropy, it would be possible to violate the second law by throwing mass into the black hole. The increase of the entropy of the black hole more than compensates for the decrease of the entropy carried by the object that was swallowed.

In 1972, Jacob Bekenstein conjectured that black holes should have an entropy,[3] where by the same year, he proposed no hair theorems.

In 1973 Bekenstein suggested \( {\displaystyle {\frac {\ln {2}}{8\pi }}\approx 0.0276} \) as the constant of proportionality, asserting that if the constant was not exactly this, it must be very close to it. The next year, in 1974, Hawking showed that black holes emit thermal Hawking radiation[4][5] corresponding to a certain temperature (Hawking temperature).[6][7] Using the thermodynamic relationship between energy, temperature and entropy, Hawking was able to confirm Bekenstein's conjecture and fix the constant of proportionality at 1 / 4 {\displaystyle 1/4} 1/4:[8][9]

\( {\displaystyle S_{\text{BH}}={\frac {k_{\text{B}}A}{4\ell _{\text{P}}^{2}}},} \)

where A is the area of the event horizon, \( k_{\text{B}} \) is the Boltzmann constant, and \( {\displaystyle \ell _{\text{P}}={\sqrt {G\hbar /c^{3}}}} \) is the Planck length. This is often referred to as the Bekenstein–Hawking formula. The subscript BH either stands for "black hole" or "Bekenstein–Hawking". The black-hole entropy is proportional to the area of its event horizon A. The fact that the black-hole entropy is also the maximal entropy that can be obtained by the Bekenstein bound (wherein the Bekenstein bound becomes an equality) was the main observation that led to the holographic principle.[2] This area relationship was generalized to arbitrary regions via the Ryu–Takayanagi formula, which relates the entanglement entropy of a boundary conformal field theory to a specific surface in its dual gravitational theory.[10]

Although Hawking's calculations gave further thermodynamic evidence for black-hole entropy, until 1995 no one was able to make a controlled calculation of black-hole entropy based on statistical mechanics, which associates entropy with a large number of microstates. In fact, so called "no-hair" theorems[11] appeared to suggest that black holes could have only a single microstate. The situation changed in 1995 when Andrew Strominger and Cumrun Vafa calculated[12] the right Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of a supersymmetric black hole in string theory, using methods based on D-branes and string duality. Their calculation was followed by many similar computations of entropy of large classes of other extremal and near-extremal black holes, and the result always agreed with the Bekenstein–Hawking formula. However, for the Schwarzschild black hole, viewed as the most far-from-extremal black hole, the relationship between micro- and macrostates has not been characterized. Efforts to develop an adequate answer within the framework of string theory continue.

In loop quantum gravity (LQG)[nb 1] it is possible to associate a geometrical interpretation with the microstates: these are the quantum geometries of the horizon. LQG offers a geometric explanation of the finiteness of the entropy and of the proportionality of the area of the horizon.[13][14] It is possible to derive, from the covariant formulation of full quantum theory (spinfoam) the correct relation between energy and area (1st law), the Unruh temperature and the distribution that yields Hawking entropy.[15] The calculation makes use of the notion of dynamical horizon and is done for non-extremal black holes. There seems to be also discussed the calculation of Bekenstein–Hawking entropy from the point of view of loop quantum gravity.

The laws of black hole mechanics

The four laws of black hole mechanics are physical properties that black holes are believed to satisfy. The laws, analogous to the laws of thermodynamics, were discovered by Jacob Bekenstein, Brandon Carter, and James Bardeen. Further considerations were made by Stephen Hawking.

Statement of the laws

The laws of black-hole mechanics are expressed in geometrized units.

The zeroth law

The horizon has constant surface gravity for a stationary black hole.

The first law

For perturbations of stationary black holes, the change of energy is related to change of area, angular momentum, and electric charge by

\( {\displaystyle dE={\frac {\kappa }{8\pi }}\,dA+\Omega \,dJ+\Phi \,dQ,} \)

where E is the energy, \( \kappa \) is the surface gravity, A is the horizon area, \( \Omega \)is the angular velocity, J is the angular momentum, Φ {\displaystyle \Phi } \Phi is the electrostatic potential and Q is the electric charge.

The second law

The horizon area is, assuming the weak energy condition, a non-decreasing function of time:

\( {\frac {dA}{dt}}\geq 0. \)

This "law" was superseded by Hawking's discovery that black holes radiate, which causes both the black hole's mass and the area of its horizon to decrease over time.

The third law

It is not possible to form a black hole with vanishing surface gravity. That is, \( \kappa = 0 \) cannot be achieved.

Discussion of the laws

The zeroth law

The zeroth law is analogous to the zeroth law of thermodynamics, which states that the temperature is constant throughout a body in thermal equilibrium. It suggests that the surface gravity is analogous to temperature. T constant for thermal equilibrium for a normal system is analogous to κ {\displaystyle \kappa } \kappa constant over the horizon of a stationary black hole.

The first law

The left side, d E {\displaystyle dE} dE, is the change in energy (proportional to mass). Although the first term does not have an immediately obvious physical interpretation, the second and third terms on the right side represent changes in energy due to rotation and electromagnetism. Analogously, the first law of thermodynamics is a statement of energy conservation, which contains on its right side the term T d S {\displaystyle TdS} {\displaystyle TdS}.

The second law

The second law is the statement of Hawking's area theorem. Analogously, the second law of thermodynamics states that the change in entropy in an isolated system will be greater than or equal to 0 for a spontaneous process, suggesting a link between entropy and the area of a black-hole horizon. However, this version violates the second law of thermodynamics by matter losing (its) entropy as it falls in, giving a decrease in entropy. However, generalizing the second law as the sum of black-hole entropy and outside entropy, shows that the second law of thermodynamics is not violated in a system including the universe beyond the horizon.

The generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSL) was needed to present the second law of thermodynamics as valid. This is because the second law of thermodynamics, as a result of the disappearance of entropy near the exterior of black holes, is not useful. The GSL allows for the application of the law because now the measurement of interior, common entropy is possible. The validity of the GSL can be established by studying an example, such as looking at a system having entropy that falls into a bigger, non-moving black hole, and establishing upper and lower entropy bounds for the increase in the black hole entropy and entropy of the system, respectively.[16] One should also note that the GSL will hold for theories of gravity such as Einstein gravity, Lovelock gravity, or Braneworld gravity, because the conditions to use GSL for these can be met.[17]

However, on the topic of black hole formation, the question becomes whether or not the generalized second law of thermodynamics will be valid, and if it is, it will have been proved valid for all situations. Because a black hole formation is not stationary, but instead moving, proving that the GSL holds is difficult. Proving the GSL is generally valid would require using quantum-statistical mechanics, because the GSL is both a quantum and statistical law. This discipline does not exist so the GSL can be assumed to be useful in general, as well as for prediction. For example, one can use the GSL to predict that, for a cold, non-rotating assembly of N nucleons, \( {\displaystyle S_{BH}-S>0} \), where \( {\displaystyle S_{BH}} \) is the entropy of a black hole and S is the sum of the ordinary entropy.[16][18]

The third law

Extremal black holes[19] have vanishing surface gravity. Stating that κ {\displaystyle \kappa } \kappa cannot go to zero is analogous to the third law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of a system at absolute zero is a well defined constant. This is because a system at zero temperature exists in its ground state. Furthermore, Δ S {\displaystyle \Delta S} \Delta S will reach zero at zero temperature, but S itself will also reach zero, at least for perfect crystalline substances. No experimentally verified violations of the laws of thermodynamics are known yet.

Interpretation of the laws

The four laws of black-hole mechanics suggest that one should identify the surface gravity of a black hole with temperature and the area of the event horizon with entropy, at least up to some multiplicative constants. If one only considers black holes classically, then they have zero temperature and, by the no-hair theorem,[11] zero entropy, and the laws of black-hole mechanics remain an analogy. However, when quantum-mechanical effects are taken into account, one finds that black holes emit thermal radiation (Hawking radiation) at a temperature

\( {\displaystyle T_{\text{H}}={\frac {\kappa }{2\pi }}.}

From the first law of black-hole mechanics, this determines the multiplicative constant of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy, which is

\( {\displaystyle S_{\text{BH}}={\frac {A}{4}}.}

Beyond black holes

Gary Gibbons and Hawking have shown that black-hole thermodynamics is more general than black holes—that cosmological event horizons also have an entropy and temperature.

More fundamentally, 't Hooft and Susskind used the laws of black-hole thermodynamics to argue for a general holographic principle of nature, which asserts that consistent theories of gravity and quantum mechanics must be lower-dimensional. Though not yet fully understood in general, the holographic principle is central to theories like the AdS/CFT correspondence.[20]

There are also connections between black-hole entropy and fluid surface tension.[21]

See also

Joseph Polchinski

Robert Wald

Notes

See List of loop quantum gravity researchers.

Citations

Carlip, S (2014). "Black Hole Thermodynamics". International Journal of Modern Physics D. 23 (11): 1430023–736. arXiv:1410.1486. Bibcode:2014IJMPD..2330023C. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.742.9918. doi:10.1142/S0218271814300237. S2CID 119114925.

Bousso, Raphael (2002). "The Holographic Principle". Reviews of Modern Physics. 74 (3): 825–874. arXiv:hep-th/0203101. Bibcode:2002RvMP...74..825B. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.74.825. S2CID 55096624.

Bekenstein, A. (1972). "Black holes and the second law". Nuovo Cimento Letters. 4 (15): 99–104. doi:10.1007/BF02757029. S2CID 120254309.

"First Observation of Hawking Radiation" from the Technology Review.

Matson, John (Oct 1, 2010). "Artificial event horizon emits laboratory analogue to theoretical black hole radiation". Sci. Am.

Charlie Rose: A conversation with Dr. Stephen Hawking & Lucy Hawking Archived March 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine

A Brief History of Time, Stephen Hawking, Bantam Books, 1988.

Hawking, S. W (1975). "Particle creation by black holes". Communications in Mathematical Physics. 43 (3): 199–220. Bibcode:1975CMaPh..43..199H. doi:10.1007/BF02345020. S2CID 55539246.

Majumdar, Parthasarathi (1999). "Black Hole Entropy and Quantum Gravity". Indian J. Phys. 73.21 (2): 147. arXiv:gr-qc/9807045. Bibcode:1999InJPB..73..147M.

Van Raamsdonk, Mark (31 August 2016). "Lectures on Gravity and Entanglement". New Frontiers in Fields and Strings. pp. 297–351.arXiv:1609.00026. doi:10.1142/9789813149441_0005. ISBN 978-981-314-943-4. S2CID 119273886.

Bhattacharya, Sourav (2007). "Black-Hole No-Hair Theorems for a Positive Cosmological Constant". Physical Review Letters. 99 (20): 201101. arXiv:gr-qc/0702006. Bibcode:2007PhRvL..99t1101B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.201101. PMID 18233129. S2CID 119496541.

Strominger, A.; Vafa, C. (1996). "Microscopic origin of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy". Physics Letters B. 379 (1–4): 99–104. arXiv:hep-th/9601029. Bibcode:1996PhLB..379...99S. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(96)00345-0. S2CID 1041890.

Rovelli, Carlo (1996). "Black Hole Entropy from Loop Quantum Gravity". Physical Review Letters. 77 (16): 3288–3291. arXiv:gr-qc/9603063. Bibcode:1996PhRvL..77.3288R. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3288. PMID 10062183. S2CID 43493308.

Ashtekar, Abhay; Baez, John; Corichi, Alejandro; Krasnov, Kirill (1998). "Quantum Geometry and Black Hole Entropy". Physical Review Letters. 80 (5): 904–907. arXiv:gr-qc/9710007. Bibcode:1998PhRvL..80..904A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.904. S2CID 18980849.

Bianchi, Eugenio (2012). "Entropy of Non-Extremal Black Holes from Loop Gravity". arXiv:1204.5122 [gr-qc].

Bekenstein, Jacob D. (1974-06-15). "Generalized second law of thermodynamics in black-hole physics". Physical Review D. 9 (12): 3292–3300. Bibcode:1974PhRvD...9.3292B. doi:10.1103/physrevd.9.3292. ISSN 0556-2821.

Wu, Wang, Yang, Zhang, Shao-Feng,Bin,Guo-Hang,Peng-Ming (17 November 2008). "The generalized second law of thermodynamics in generalized gravity theories". Classical and Quantum Gravity. 25 (23): 235018. arXiv:0801.2688. Bibcode:2008CQGra..25w5018W. doi:10.1088/0264-9381/25/23/235018. S2CID 119117894.

Wald, Robert M. (2001). "The Thermodynamics of Black Holes". Living Reviews in Relativity. 4 (1): 6. arXiv:gr-qc/9912119. Bibcode:2001LRR.....4....6W. doi:10.12942/lrr-2001-6. ISSN 1433-8351. PMC 5253844. PMID 28163633.

Kallosh, Renata (1992). "Supersymmetry as a cosmic censor". Physical Review D. 46 (12): 5278–5302. arXiv:hep-th/9205027. Bibcode:1992PhRvD..46.5278K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.46.5278. PMID 10014916. S2CID 15736500.

For an authoritative review, see Ofer Aharony; Steven S. Gubser; Juan Maldacena; Hirosi Ooguri; Yaron Oz (2000). "Large N field theories, string theory and gravity". Physics Reports. 323 (3–4): 183–386. arXiv:hep-th/9905111. Bibcode:1999PhR...323..183A. doi:10.1016/S0370-1573(99)00083-6. S2CID 119101855.

Callaway, D. (1996). "Surface tension, hydrophobicity, and black holes: The entropic connection". Physical Review E. 53 (4): 3738–3744. arXiv:cond-mat/9601111. Bibcode:1996PhRvE..53.3738C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.53.3738. PMID 9964684. S2CID 7115890.

Bibliography

Bardeen, J. M.; Carter, B.; Hawking, S. W. (1973). "The four laws of black hole mechanics". Communications in Mathematical Physics. 31 (2): 161–170. Bibcode:1973CMaPh..31..161B. doi:10.1007/BF01645742. S2CID 54690354.

Bekenstein, Jacob D. (April 1973). "Black holes and entropy". Physical Review D. 7 (8): 2333–2346. Bibcode:1973PhRvD...7.2333B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.7.2333.

Hawking, Stephen W. (1974). "Black hole explosions?". Nature. 248 (5443): 30–31. Bibcode:1974Natur.248...30H. doi:10.1038/248030a0. S2CID 4290107.

Hawking, Stephen W. (1975). "Particle creation by black holes". Communications in Mathematical Physics. 43 (3): 199–220. Bibcode:1975CMaPh..43..199H. doi:10.1007/BF02345020. S2CID 55539246.

Hawking, S. W.; Ellis, G. F. R. (1973). The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09906-6.

Hawking, Stephen W. (1994). "The Nature of Space and Time". arXiv:hep-th/9409195.

't Hooft, Gerardus (1985). "On the quantum structure of a black hole" (PDF). Nuclear Physics B. 256: 727–745. Bibcode:1985NuPhB.256..727T. doi:10.1016/0550-3213(85)90418-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-26.

Page, Don (2005). "Hawking Radiation and Black Hole Thermodynamics". New Journal of Physics. 7 (1): 203. arXiv:hep-th/0409024. Bibcode:2005NJPh....7..203P. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/7/1/203. S2CID 119047329.

vte

Black holes

Types

Schwarzschild Rotating Charged Virtual Kugelblitz Primordial Planck particle

Black hole - Messier 87 crop max res.jpg

Size

Micro

Extremal Electron Stellar

Microquasar Intermediate-mass Supermassive

Active galactic nucleus Quasar Blazar

Formation

Stellar evolution Gravitational collapse Neutron star

Related links Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit White dwarf

Related links Supernova

Related links Hypernova Gamma-ray burst Binary black hole

Properties

Gravitational singularity

Ring singularity Theorems Event horizon Photon sphere Innermost stable circular orbit Ergosphere

Penrose process Blandford–Znajek process Accretion disk Hawking radiation Gravitational lens Bondi accretion M–sigma relation Quasi-periodic oscillation Thermodynamics

Immirzi parameter Schwarzschild radius Spaghettification

Issues

Black hole complementarity Information paradox Cosmic censorship ER=EPR Final parsec problem Firewall (physics) Holographic principle No-hair theorem

Metrics

Schwarzschild (Derivation) Kerr Reissner–Nordström Kerr–Newman Hayward

Alternatives

Nonsingular black hole models Black star Dark star Dark-energy star Gravastar Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object Planck star Q star Fuzzball

Analogs

Optical black hole Sonic black hole

Lists

Black holes Most massive Nearest Quasars Microquasars

Related

Black Hole Initiative Black hole starship Compact star Exotic star

Quark star Preon star Gamma-ray burst progenitors Gravity well Hypercompact stellar system Membrane paradigm Naked singularity Quasi-star Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Timeline of black hole physics White hole Wormhole

Category Category Commons page Commons

vte

Black holes

Types

Schwarzschild Rotating Charged Virtual Kugelblitz Primordial Planck particle

Size

Micro

Extremal Electron Stellar

Microquasar Intermediate-mass Supermassive

Active galactic nucleus Quasar Blazar

Formation

Stellar evolution Gravitational collapse Neutron star

Related links Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit White dwarf

Related links Supernova

Related links Hypernova Gamma-ray burst Binary black hole

Properties

Gravitational singularity

Ring singularity Theorems Event horizon Photon sphere Innermost stable circular orbit Ergosphere

Penrose process Blandford–Znajek process Accretion disk Hawking radiation Gravitational lens Bondi accretion M–sigma relation Quasi-periodic oscillation Thermodynamics

Immirzi parameter Schwarzschild radius Spaghettification

Issues

Black hole complementarity Information paradox Cosmic censorship ER=EPR Final parsec problem Firewall (physics) Holographic principle No-hair theorem

Metrics

Schwarzschild (Derivation) Kerr Reissner–Nordström Kerr–Newman Hayward

Alternatives

Nonsingular black hole models Black star Dark star Dark-energy star Gravastar Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object Planck star Q star Fuzzball

Analogs

Optical black hole Sonic black hole

Lists

Black holes Most massive Nearest Quasars Microquasars

Related

Black Hole Initiative Black hole starship Compact star Exotic star

Quark star Preon star Gamma-ray burst progenitors Gravity well Hypercompact stellar system Membrane paradigm Naked singularity Quasi-star Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Timeline of black hole physics White hole Wormhole

Quantum gravity

Central concepts

AdS/CFT correspondence Ryu-Takayanagi Conjecture Causal patch Gravitational anomaly Graviton Holographic principle IR/UV mixing Planck scale Quantum foam Trans-Planckian problem Weinberg–Witten theorem Faddeev-Popov ghost

Toy models

2+1D topological gravity CGHS model Jackiw–Teitelboim gravity Liouville gravity RST model Topological quantum field theory

Quantum field theory in curved spacetime

Bunch–Davies vacuum Hawking radiation Semiclassical gravity Unruh effect

Black hole complementarity Black hole information paradox Black-hole thermodynamics Bousso's holographic bound ER=EPR Firewall (physics) Gravitational singularity

Approaches

String theory

Bosonic string theory M-theory Supergravity Superstring theory

Loop quantum gravity Wheeler–DeWitt equation

Euclidean quantum gravity

Others

Causal dynamical triangulation Causal sets Noncommutative geometry Spin foam Group field theory Superfluid vacuum theory Twistor theory Dual graviton

Applications

Quantum cosmology

Eternal inflation Multiverse FRW/CFT duality

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Stephen Hawking

Physics

Hawking radiation Black hole thermodynamics Micro black hole Chronology protection conjecture Gibbons–Hawking ansatz Gibbons–Hawking effect Gibbons–Hawking space Gibbons–Hawking–York boundary term Hartle–Hawking state Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems Hawking energy

Books

Science

The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (1973) A Brief History of Time (1988) Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays (1993) The Nature of Space and Time (1996) The Universe in a Nutshell (2001) On the Shoulders of Giants (2002) A Briefer History of Time (2005) God Created the Integers (2005) The Grand Design (2010) The Dreams That Stuff Is Made Of (2011) Brief Answers to the Big Questions (2018)

Fiction

George's Secret Key to the Universe (2007) George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt (2009) George and the Big Bang (2011) George and the Unbreakable Code (2014) George and the Blue Moon (2016)

Memoirs

My Brief History (2013)

Films

A Brief History of Time (1991) Hawking (2004) Hawking (2013) The Theory of Everything (2014)

Television

God, the Universe and Everything Else (1988) Stephen Hawking's Universe (1997 documentary) Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe (2008 documentary) Genius of Britain (2010 series) Into the Universe with Stephen Hawking (2010 series) Brave New World with Stephen Hawking (2011 series) Genius by Stephen Hawking (2016 series)

Family

Jane Wilde Hawking (first wife) Lucy Hawking (daughter)

Other

In popular culture Black hole information paradox Thorne–Hawking–Preskill bet

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