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Theoklitos Polyeidis (Greek: Θεόκλητος Πολυειδής, romanized: Theóklitos Polyeidís) was a Greek scholar, teacher, translator, priest and monk during the period of the Modern Greek Enlightenment.

His most notable work was the Oracles of Agathagelos (Οι χρησμοί του Αγαθάγγελου) which was written c. 1750, and had a huge appeal in the court of Catherine II in Petersburg and greatly enhanced philhellenism in the European cities he personally visited. The Oracles of Agathagelos was also later republished by Rigas Feraios, promoting the revolutionary spirit of the enslaved Greeks,[1] because they prophesied the future liberation of the Greeks.[2]
Biography

He was born in 1698 in Adrianople, then part of the Ottoman Empire (now Edirne, Turkey) to a well off merchant father. He graduated from the Academy of Ioannis Zygomalas. He then became a monk in Iviron Monastery of Mount Athos. He became a deacon in 1713 and a presbyter in 1719. In 1725 he was ordained archimandrite, and in particular he was named by the Ecumenical Patriarchate as Grand Archimandrite, Grand Ecclesiarch of Mount Athos, and Bishop of Polyani and Kilkis.

In 1731 he travelled to Germany and then to Russia as an envoy of the Patriarchate.[3] During his trips to Europe he visited Menorca, where he also served as a teacher and a pastor. All in all, Theoklitos came in contact with social, political, diplomatic and religious practices throughout Europe. He was concerned about the political implications of the Reformation and studied the problems that concerned the Greek diaspora.
Sacra Tuba Fidei Apostolicae, Sanctae, Oecumenicae ac Orthodoxae Graecanae Orientalis Ecclesiae Christi, a work of Polyeidis in Latin

He then attempted to mobilize the enslaved Greeks by verifying old prophecies of the Byzantine Empire. He wrote Agathangelos (el),[4] a well known prophetic work which was published, with minor variations, widely in Greece, either as a brochure (by Rigas Feraios) or as a book in Athens and Ermoupoli (1837–38). He dates the oracles back to the 13th century (1279), with the original author of the work being monk Ieronymus Agathagelus from Messina of Sicily. The latter narrates, through oracles, events of the following centuries, which the original author knows. As a result, it fascinates the popular masses, who are becoming more optimistic about their liberation. Thus, the supposed Latin translator of the prophetic work, Theocletus, remains under the shadow of Agathagelus.

He stayed in Dresden (1741) and shortly afterwards settled, after an invitation of the inhabitants, in neighboring Leipzig, where he founded the first Orthodox chapel (then of the Holy Trinity, now of St. George). He died in 1759 in Leipzig.
References

Vakalopoulos, Κ. Α. Ιστορία του Βόρειου Ελληνισμού. pp. 105–122.
Dimitrios Michalopoulos, Αγαθάγγελος. Από τη νοσταλγία της νίκης στο όραμα του σύγχρονου κόσμου [Agathagelos. From the nostalgia of victory to the vision of the modern world]. Magazine "Ευθύνη", 230, Febr. 1991, pp. 56-60.
«Ιόνιος Λόγος»- Τμήμα Ιστορίας, Ιόνιο Πανεπιστήμιο, τόμος Α' (Ελένη Αγγελομάτη-Τσουγκαράκη): Η λέξη «ζητεία» ειδικά αναφερόμενη στο Οικουμενικό Πατριαρχείο δήλωνε καταρχήν όλα τα συνήθη δοσίματα που αυτό λάμβανε από το ποίμνιο και τους κληρικούς που βρίσκονταν στη δικαιοδοσία του και αποτελούσαν μέρος των εκκλησιαστικών εισοδημάτων. (σελ.247)

Study of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Sources

Andronikos Dimitrakopoulos (1872). Ορθόδοξος Ελλάς: ήτοι περί των Ελλήνων των γραψάντων κατά Λατίνων και περί των συγγραμμάτων αυτών. Leipzig: Τύποις Μέτζγερ και Βίττιγ. pp. 177–178. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
Encyclopedia «Δομή», vol. ΙΓ΄ λήμμα:Πολυειδής, Θεόκλητος

vte

Modern Greek Enlightenment
Main Ideas

Greek Independence Nationalism Liberalism Constitutionalism Education Westernization Hellenization Freedom of religion Greek language


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Publications

Asma Polemistirion Salpisma Polemistirion Adelphiki Didaskalia Geographia Neoteriki Hellenic Nomarchy Hellenic Library Ephimeris Calliope Rossaglogallos Hermes o Logios Politika Parallela Thourios or Patriotic hymn Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios Map of Greece New Map of Wallachia and part of Transylvania Real Bliss General Map of Moldavia Gnostike, Stoicheia Philosophias

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Ottoman Empire: Athonite Academy Evangelical School Kaplaneios Maroutsaia New Academy Phanar Greek Orthodox College Phrontisterion of Trapezous

Diaspora: Flanginian School Princely Academy of Bucharest Princely Academy of Iași

Representatives

Methodios Anthrakites Kosmas Balanos Athanasios Christopoulos Neophytos Doukas Vikentios Damodos Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Georgios Gennadios Theophilos Kairis Theodore Kavalliotis Grigorios Konstantas Adamantios Korais Konstantinos Koumas Stefanos Kanellos Sevastos Leontiadis Benjamin of Lesbos Iosipos Moisiodax Minas Minoidis Konstantinos Michail Daniel Moscopolites Konstantinos Nikolopoulos Michail Papageorgiou Christodoulos Pablekis Daniel Philippidis Athanasios Psalidas Theoklitos Polyeidis Athanasios Stageiritis Konstantinos Tzechanis Neophytos Vamvas Ioannis Vilaras Eugenios Voulgaris

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Philomuse Society Filiki Eteria Ionian Academy Orphanage of Kairis

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