Greek War of Independence 1821 in Art 

- Art Gallery -

The Evangelical School (Greek: Ευαγγελική Σχολή) was a Greek educational institution established in 1733 in Smyrna, Ottoman Empire, now Izmir, Turkey.[1][2] The school, initially an Orthodox Church-approved institution, attracted major figures of the Modern Greek Enlightenment. During the late 19th-early 20th century it became the most important Greek school in the city, possessing an archaeological museum, a natural science collection and a library, which contained some 50,000 volumes and 180 manuscripts.[3] The Evangelical School ceased its operation in 1922 after the Greek population was expelled by the Turks during the Greek Genocide. It currently serves as Namık Kemal High School.

Early years and Greek Enlightenment

The school originated as a church approved institution and was established after the efforts of the local Greek Orthodox bishop. It was originally known as Greek School (Greek: Ελληνικό Φροντιστήριο), while its name changed several times during the 18th century.[4] Finally, at 1808 the Ecumenical Patriarch granted the appellation, Evangelical School, by which it would be known until 1922.[4] Financially, until the Greek War of Independence (1821-1830), the school was supported by individual benefactors, who either offered money directly to the school or sponsored scholarships for students.[5]

In 1747 the school came under the protection of the British consulate of the city after the initiative of the local merchant Pantoleon Sevastopoulos. Sevastopoulos, in order to secure the school against a possible Ottoman confiscation, managed to acquire the full protection of Great Britain, something that was recognized by the Ottoman Sultans.[6]

The Evangelical School, was initially orientated towards a traditional, religious-centered model of education. However, it saw two progressive interludes, probably due to rivalry with the Philological Gymnasium, another Greek school of the city, until the later was closed down by force in 1819 due to conservative reactions. During the following years a number of progressive headmasters were appointed. In 1811, Theophilos Kairis became headmaster, followed by Benjamin of Lesbos in 1820, both of them figures of the modern Greek Enlightenment and two of the most eminent representatives of the group of reform mathematics teachers from the Eastern Aegean region.[7] Especially, Kairis taught mathematics and physics, but soon he left the school due to the differences in his views with those of the school board.[8]
Later period (1830–1922)
Graduates and teachers, with the headmaster Matthaios Paranikas, 1878.

With the years the school adopted more progressive and rationalistic educational methods, as well as the teaching of modern mathematics and sciences in the 'Western' manner, which at times attracted the attention of the conservative circles of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.[9]

At the late 19th and early 20th century, Smyrna was a major commercial and educational center of the Greek world. The city was the home of 67 well-equipped Greek school units in addition to 4 female schools. The Evangelical school during this period was the most important Greek educational institution in the city. Apart from the schools, it possessed an archaeological museum, significant natural science collection, and an excellent library which contained some 50,000 volumes and 180 manuscripts.[3]

The school closed down after the Turks regained possession of the city in 1922 and most of the Greek population was expelled to Greece proper. In memory of the Evangelical School, a new school was founded in Nea Smyrni district, Athens, in 1934 called New Evangelical School. On the other hand, the educational facilities in Izmir today used to be Turkish public schools.[10]
Notable graduates

Ambrosios Pleianthidis, metropolitan bishop
Saint Nicodemus the Hagiorite
Manolis Kalomiris
Adamantios Korais
Nick the Greek
Aristotle Onassis
Timotheos Evangelinidis
Stelios Zeimbekos

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References

A Short History of Modern Greece. Taylor & Francis. 1958. p. 36. ISBN 9781001303413.
Clogg, Richard (1981). Balkan society in the age of Greek independence. Macmillan Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-333-31580-4.
Geōrgiadou, Maria (2004). Constantin Carathéodory: mathematics and politics in turbulent times. Springer. p. 145. ISBN 978-3-540-20352-0.
Augustinos (1992): p. 159
Augustinos (1992): p. 160
Augustinos (1992): p. 159
Kastanis Iason, Kastanis Nikos. "The Transmission of Mathematics into Greek Education, 1800-1840: From Individuals to Institutionalization" (PDF). University of Thessaloniki. p. 8. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
Theodossiou Th. ; V. N., E.; Grammenos, Th.; Manimanis, V. N. (December 2004). "Theophilos Kairis: the creator and initiator of Theosebism in Greece". The European Legacy. 9 (6): 783–797. doi:10.1080/1084877042000311626. S2CID 144701185.
Robson, Eleanor; A. Stedall, Jacqueline (2004). The Oxford handbook of the history of mathematics. Oxford University Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-19-921312-2.

Σμυρνέλη, Μαρία - Καρμέν. Ευαγγελική Σχολή Σμύρνης (ΗΤΜ). Εγκυκλοπαίδεια Μείζονος Ελληνισμού (in Greek). Retrieved 2010-09-21.

Sources
Augustinos, Gerasimos (1992). The Greeks of Asia Minor: confession, community, and ethnicity in the nineteenth century. Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87338-459-9.

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Modern Greek Enlightenment
Main Ideas

Greek Independence Nationalism Liberalism Constitutionalism Education Westernization Hellenization Freedom of religion Greek language


Cover of Hermes o Logios
Publications

Asma Polemistirion Salpisma Polemistirion Adelphiki Didaskalia Geographia Neoteriki Hellenic Nomarchy Hellenic Library Ephimeris Calliope Rossaglogallos Hermes o Logios Politika Parallela Thourios or Patriotic hymn Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios Map of Greece New Map of Wallachia and part of Transylvania Real Bliss General Map of Moldavia Gnostike, Stoicheia Philosophias

Academies

Ottoman Empire: Athonite Academy Evangelical School Kaplaneios Maroutsaia New Academy Phanar Greek Orthodox College Phrontisterion of Trapezous

Diaspora: Flanginian School Princely Academy of Bucharest Princely Academy of Iași

Representatives

Methodios Anthrakites Kosmas Balanos Athanasios Christopoulos Neophytos Doukas Vikentios Damodos Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Georgios Gennadios Theophilos Kairis Theodore Kavalliotis Grigorios Konstantas Adamantios Korais Konstantinos Koumas Stefanos Kanellos Sevastos Leontiadis Benjamin of Lesbos Iosipos Moisiodax Minas Minoidis Konstantinos Michail Daniel Moscopolites Konstantinos Nikolopoulos Michail Papageorgiou Christodoulos Pablekis Daniel Philippidis Athanasios Psalidas Theoklitos Polyeidis Athanasios Stageiritis Konstantinos Tzechanis Neophytos Vamvas Ioannis Vilaras Eugenios Voulgaris

Related

Philomuse Society Filiki Eteria Ionian Academy Orphanage of Kairis

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