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The New Academy or Greek Academy [1] was a renowned educational institution, operating from 1743 to 1769 in Moscopole, an 18th-century cultural and commercial metropolis of the Aromanians and leading center of Greek culture[2][3] in what is now southeastern Albania. It was nicknamed the 'worthiest jewel of the city' and played a very active role in the inception of the modern Greek Enlightenment movement.[4]

Background

Moscopole, now Voskopojë, a small village in south Albania, was an 18th-century city inhabited predominantly by Aromanians. It became a center of Greek culture, with Greek being the language of education in the local schools, as well as the language of the books published by the local printing house,[4] founded either in 1720[5] or in 1731.[6] Seemingly it was the second printing press founded in the Ottoman Empire, after the also Greek printing press in Istanbul.[7] Education was so actively promoted, that the city emerged as a leading center of Greek intellectual activity.[2]

An educational institution, called The Greek College, was active in the city as early as 1700.[5][8] Its first director, Chrysanthos, was a monk from Zitsa, while, in 1724, Ioannina born scholar, Nicolaos Stigmis, became schoolmaster.[9] After 1730 and for a short period, Ioannis Chalkeus an Aristotelian philosopher also taught in the school.[10] During that time the teaching staff included scholars from various ethnic backgrounds: Aromanian, Greek and Albanian.[5]
History

In 1738, Sevastos Leontiadis, a scholar and priest from Kastoria (now Greece), was put in charge.[10] It was during his directorate that the school was upgraded and endowed with additional classes. In 1744 the school was named New Academy and in 1750 it was re-housed in a new, imposing building.[6][8] In accordance to 18th-century Greek educational mores, a school could only acquire the title 'Academy' if it achieved a higher standard of educational quality and prestige.[11] Similar educational institutions this period were operating in a number of urban center in the Ottoman Empire: Bucharest, Iaşi, Ioannina, Istanbul (Constantinople).[12]

It was also alternatively called Ellinikon Frontistirion (Greek: Ελληνικόν Φροντιστήριον Greek College).[8] In 1750 Theodore Kavalliotis, already a member of the teaching staff since 1743, became the headmaster of the New Academy.[6] Kavalliotis was instrumental in establishing the reputation of the Academy, which, under his direction, reached its floruit.[13] Becoming the virtual soul of the Academy, Kavalliotis taught grammar, poetry, philosophical disciplines, and theology. Moreover, with the purpose of meeting class needs, he wrote a number of introductory manuals in Greek, as well as treatises and other material, necessary for teaching, many of which are still preserved in unpublished manuscripts.[14]

Apart from Kavalliotis, another teacher of the New Academy was the owner of the Academy’s printing press, Gregory Konstantinidis (not to be confused with Gregory of Durrës[15]), who was also responsible for the printing of the books that were taught.[16] He taught from 1745 to 1748.[7] The printing house had notably close ties to the Monastery of Saint Naum, near Ohrid.[6] Notably 19 publications from Moscopole's printing press, mainly religious ones, appeared after 1760.[6] The last known publication of the press was the Introduction to Grammar by Kavalliotis.[6]
Aftermath

The New Academy, was destroyed during the first wave of destruction of Moscopole, by Muslim Albanian bands in 1769.[17][18] Although the city never rose to its former glory, a new Greek school was established at the end of the 18th century whose headmaster at 1802 was Daniel Moscopolites. This school functioned the following decades, thanks to donations and bequests mainly by baron Simon Sinas, a member of the Moscopole diaspora.[19] The school functioned until the 1916 wave of destruction, and his last director was Theophrastos Georgiadis.[20]
Notable alumni

Daniel Moscopolites
Konstantinos Tzechanis

References

Sampimon, Janette (2006). Becoming Bulgarian: the articulation of Bulgarian identity in the nineteenth century in its international context: an intellectual history. Pegasus. p. 44. ISBN 978-90-6143-311-8. "One very famous Greek academy was that in Moschopolis, a city now called Voskopoja in the south of Albania"
Cohen, Mark (2003). Last century of a Sephardic community: the Jews of Monastir, 1839-1943. Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-886857-06-3. "Moschopolis emerged as the leading center of Greek intellectual activity in the 18th"
Winnifrith, Tom (2002). Badlands, borderlands: a history of Northern Epirus/Southern Albania. Duckworth. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-7156-3201-7. "This culture was of course Greek culture"
Bardu (2007): 2
Lloshi (2008) p.103
Mikropoulos, Tassos A. (2008). Elevating and Safeguarding Culture Using Tools of the Information Society: Dusty traces of the Muslim culture. Earthlab. pp. 315–316. ISBN 978-960-233-187-3.
Kekridis (1989): p. 44
Peyfuss, Max Demeter (1989). Die Druckerei von Moschopolis, 1731-1769: Buchdruck und Heiligenverehrung im Erzbistum Achrida (in German). Böhlau. p. 38.
Peyfuss (1976): p. 116
Kekridis (1989): p. 41
Kekridis (1989): p. 42
Peyfuss (1976): p. 116
Kekridis (1989): p. 282
Bardu (2007): 4-5
Elsie, Robert. "GREGORY OF DURRËS". Archived from the original on 2012-01-13.
Peyfuss (1976): p. 117
Stavrianos, Leften Stavros (2000). The Balkans Since 1453. Hurst. ISBN 9781850655510. "In 1769 the Moslem Albanians were permitted to wipe out completely the prosperous town of Moschopolis with a population of sixty thousand Greeks and Vlachs."
Sakellariou (1997): p. 268.
Sakellariou (1997): p. 308

Kekridis (1989): p. 29

Sources

Bardu, Nistor (2007), "Eighteenth Century Aromanian Writers: the Enlightenment and the Awakening of National and Balkan Consciousness" (PDF), Philologica Jassyensia, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-18
Kekridis Eustathios (1989), Θεόδωρος Αναστασίου Καβαλλιώτης (1718; 1789). Ο Διδάσκαλος του Γένους, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (in Greek and English), retrieved 2010-09-11
Lloshi, Xhevat (2008), Rreth Alfabetit te shqipes [Around the Albanian Alphabet)] (in Albanian), Logos, ISBN 978-9989-58-268-4, retrieved 2010-06-01
Peyfuss, Max Demeter (1976), "Die Akademie von Moschopolis und ihre Nachwirkungen im Geistesleben Sudosteuropas", Wissenschaftspolitik im Mittel- und Osteuropa: Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaften, Akademien und Hochschulen im 18. und beginnenden 19. Jahrhundert (in German), Hobbing, pp. 114–128, ISBN 978-3-921515-00-6
Sakellariou, M. V. (1997). Epirus, 4000 years of Greek history and civilization. Ekdotikē Athēnōn. ISBN 978-960-213-371-2.

Further reading
Shuteriqi, Dhimitër S. (1971), Historia e letërsisë shqipe (in Albanian), Enti i teksteve dhe i mjeteve mësimore i Krahinës Socialiste Autonome të Kosovës
Várvaro, Alberto (1978), Congresso Internazionale di Linguistica e Filologia Romanza ; 1: Napoli, 15 - 20 aprile 1974 (in Italian), John Benjamins Publishing Company, p. 431, ISBN 978-90-272-0941-2

vte

Modern Greek Enlightenment
Main Ideas

Greek Independence Nationalism Liberalism Constitutionalism Education Westernization Hellenization Freedom of religion Greek language


Cover of Hermes o Logios
Publications

Asma Polemistirion Salpisma Polemistirion Adelphiki Didaskalia Geographia Neoteriki Hellenic Nomarchy Hellenic Library Ephimeris Calliope Rossaglogallos Hermes o Logios Politika Parallela Thourios or Patriotic hymn Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios Map of Greece New Map of Wallachia and part of Transylvania Real Bliss General Map of Moldavia Gnostike, Stoicheia Philosophias

Academies

Ottoman Empire: Athonite Academy Evangelical School Kaplaneios Maroutsaia New Academy Phanar Greek Orthodox College Phrontisterion of Trapezous

Diaspora: Flanginian School Princely Academy of Bucharest Princely Academy of Iași

Representatives

Methodios Anthrakites Kosmas Balanos Athanasios Christopoulos Neophytos Doukas Vikentios Damodos Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Georgios Gennadios Theophilos Kairis Theodore Kavalliotis Grigorios Konstantas Adamantios Korais Konstantinos Koumas Stefanos Kanellos Sevastos Leontiadis Benjamin of Lesbos Iosipos Moisiodax Minas Minoidis Konstantinos Michail Daniel Moscopolites Konstantinos Nikolopoulos Michail Papageorgiou Christodoulos Pablekis Daniel Philippidis Athanasios Psalidas Theoklitos Polyeidis Athanasios Stageiritis Konstantinos Tzechanis Neophytos Vamvas Ioannis Vilaras Eugenios Voulgaris

Related

Philomuse Society Filiki Eteria Ionian Academy Orphanage of Kairis

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