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Methodios Anthrakites (Greek: Μεθόδιος Ανθρακίτης; 1660–1736) was a Greek scholar, priest and director of the Gioumeios and Epiphaneios Schools in Ioannina. He made a significant contribution in the growth of Greek Enlightenment (Diafotismos) during the Ottoman occupation of Greece. He was also supporter for the use of the people's language in education instead of archaic forms of Greek.

Life

Methodios Anthrakites

Methodios Anthrakites' signature.

Anthrakites was born in the village of Kaminia (Καμινιά) or Kamnia (Καμνιά), in the Zagori region (Epirus). He studied in the Gioumeios (later Balaneios) School in Ioannina under Georgios Sougdouris. After becoming a priest, he left for Venice in 1697, where he studied Philosophy and Mathematics (geometry, trigonometry, astronomy and physics).[1] His stay in Venice lasted until 1708, during which period he was priest at the San Giorgio dei Greci. He returned to Greece in 1708 to become the first director of the Ierospoudasterion, a new school founded in Kastoria in Macedonia with a benefaction from Georgios Kastriotis, a wealthy Greek from Kastoria, living in Wallachia. There he focused on teaching contemporary European philosophy and mathematics.

In his book “The Way of Mathematics”, later edited and re-printed by his student Balanos Vasilopoulos, Anthrakites referred to the Copernican heliocentric system, although he supported the geocentric system.[2] His teachings were regarded as unusual enough at the time to give rise to suspicion in Church circles. Anthrakites resigned from the Ierospoudasterion in 1718 and moved to Siatista, also in Macedonia, where he taught for another two years. He returned to Kastoria and in 1723 appeared before the Bishop of Achris Ioasaph to defend his Christian faith. After that journey he moved back to Ioannina where he became director of the Gioumeios.[3]

On 23 August 1723, the Patriarchate of Constantinople formally accused him for heresy as a “Cartesianist” and issued a condemnation of his teachings. Anthrakites was also suspended (“unfrocked”) from the Church. Scholars from Ioannina protested the decision to the bishop of Nikopolis Paisios. Subsequently Anthrakites went to Constantinople, where he publicly burned his manuscripts after defending himself at the Orthodox Synod. He was restored but was forbidden from teaching anything other than accepted theological doctrine.[4] From 1725 he became director of the Epiphaneios School in Ioannina, probably until his death in 1736.
Works

Some of his manuscripts have been lost because of his excommunication. His known works are:

Επίσκεψις Πνευματική “Spiritual Visitation“, Venice, 1707
Βοσκός λογικών προβάτων “Shepherd of rational sheep“, Venice, 1708
Θεωρίαι χριστιανικαί και ψυχοφελείς νουθεσίαι “Christian Theories and Spiritual Advises“, Venice, 1708
Οδός Μαθηματική “The Way of Mathematics” (edited Balanos Vasilopoulos), Venice, 1749
Λογική ελάττων “Lesser Logic”, 1953
Εισαγωγή της Λογικής “Introduction to Logic”, (manuscript)
Λόγος εις τον προφήτην Ηλίαν ”Sermon on Prophetes Elias“, (manuscript)

References

Χρήστου Π. Μεθόδιος Ανθρακίτης. Βίος – Δράσις – Ανέκδοτα έργα, Ioannina 1953.
Pappas V & Karas I. "The printed Book of Physics: the Dissemination of Scientific Thought in Greece 1750-1821 before the Greek Revolution", Annals of Science 44(1987):237–244
Χρήστου Π. Μεθόδιος Ανθρακίτης. Βίος – Δράσις – Ανέκδοτα έργα, Ioannina 1953.

Μπόμπου-Σταμάτη Β., "Ο Μεθόδιος Ανθρακίτης και τα ‘Τετράδια’", Ελληνικά 45, 1995.

vte

Modern Greek Enlightenment
Main Ideas

Greek Independence Nationalism Liberalism Constitutionalism Education Westernization Hellenization Freedom of religion Greek language


Cover of Hermes o Logios
Publications

Asma Polemistirion Salpisma Polemistirion Adelphiki Didaskalia Geographia Neoteriki Hellenic Nomarchy Hellenic Library Ephimeris Calliope Rossaglogallos Hermes o Logios Politika Parallela Thourios or Patriotic hymn Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios Map of Greece New Map of Wallachia and part of Transylvania Real Bliss General Map of Moldavia Gnostike, Stoicheia Philosophias

Academies

Ottoman Empire: Athonite Academy Evangelical School Kaplaneios Maroutsaia New Academy Phanar Greek Orthodox College Phrontisterion of Trapezous

Diaspora: Flanginian School Princely Academy of Bucharest Princely Academy of Iași

Representatives

Methodios Anthrakites Kosmas Balanos Athanasios Christopoulos Neophytos Doukas Vikentios Damodos Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Georgios Gennadios Theophilos Kairis Theodore Kavalliotis Grigorios Konstantas Adamantios Korais Konstantinos Koumas Stefanos Kanellos Sevastos Leontiadis Benjamin of Lesbos Iosipos Moisiodax Minas Minoidis Konstantinos Michail Daniel Moscopolites Konstantinos Nikolopoulos Michail Papageorgiou Christodoulos Pablekis Daniel Philippidis Athanasios Psalidas Theoklitos Polyeidis Athanasios Stageiritis Konstantinos Tzechanis Neophytos Vamvas Ioannis Vilaras Eugenios Voulgaris

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Philomuse Society Filiki Eteria Ionian Academy Orphanage of Kairis

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