Physics Gifts

- Art Gallery -

A stellar black hole (or stellar-mass black hole) is a black hole formed by the gravitational collapse of a star.[1] They have masses ranging from about 5 to several tens of solar masses.[2] The process is observed as a hypernova explosion[3] or as a gamma ray burst.[3] These black holes are also referred to as collapsars.

Properties

By the no-hair theorem, a black hole can only have three fundamental properties: mass, electric charge and angular momentum (spin). It is believed that black holes formed in nature all have some spin. The spin of a stellar black hole is due to the conservation of angular momentum of the star or objects that produced it.

The gravitational collapse of a star is a natural process that can produce a black hole. It is inevitable at the end of the life of a large star, when all stellar energy sources are exhausted. If the mass of the collapsing part of the star is below the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff (TOV) limit for neutron-degenerate matter, the end product is a compact star — either a white dwarf (for masses below the Chandrasekhar limit) or a neutron star or a (hypothetical) quark star. If the collapsing star has a mass exceeding the TOV limit, the crush will continue until zero volume is achieved and a black hole is formed around that point in space.

The maximum mass that a neutron star can possess (without becoming a black hole) is not fully understood. In 1939, it was estimated at 0.7 solar masses, called the TOV limit. In 1996, a different estimate put this upper mass in a range from 1.5 to 3 solar masses.[4]

In the theory of general relativity, a black hole could exist of any mass. The lower the mass, the higher the density of matter has to be in order to form a black hole. (See, for example, the discussion in Schwarzschild radius, the radius of a black hole.) There are no known processes that can produce black holes with mass less than a few times the mass of the Sun. If black holes that small exist, they are most likely primordial black holes. Until 2016, the largest known stellar black hole was 15.65±1.45 solar masses.[5] In September 2015, a rotating black hole of 62±4 solar masses was discovered by gravitational waves as it formed in a merger event of two smaller black holes.[6] As of June 2020, the binary system 2MASS J05215658+4359220 was reported[7] to host the smallest-mass black hole currently known to science, with a mass 3.3 solar masses and a diameter of only 19.5 kilometers.

There is observational evidence for two other types of black holes, which are much more massive than stellar black holes. They are intermediate-mass black holes (in the centre of globular clusters) and supermassive black holes in the centre of the Milky Way and other galaxies.
X-ray compact binary systems

Stellar black holes in close binary systems are observable when matter is transferred from a companion star to the black hole; the energy release in the fall toward the compact star is so large that the matter heats up to temperatures of several hundred million degrees and radiates in X-rays. The black hole therefore is observable in X-rays, whereas the companion star can be observed with optical telescopes. The energy release for black holes and neutron stars are of the same order of magnitude. Black holes and neutron stars are therefore often difficult to distinguish.

However, neutron stars may have additional properties. They show differential rotation, and can have a magnetic field and exhibit localized explosions (thermonuclear bursts). Whenever such properties are observed, the compact object in the binary system is revealed as a neutron star.

The derived masses come from observations of compact X-ray sources (combining X-ray and optical data). All identified neutron stars have a mass below 3.0 solar masses; none of the compact systems with a mass above 3.0 solar masses display the properties of a neutron star. The combination of these facts make it more and more likely that the class of compact stars with a mass above 3.0 solar masses are in fact black holes.

Note that this proof of existence of stellar black holes is not entirely observational but relies on theory: we can think of no other object for these massive compact systems in stellar binaries besides a black hole. A direct proof of the existence of a black hole would be if one actually observes the orbit of a particle (or a cloud of gas) that falls into the black hole.
Black hole kicks

The large distances above the galactic plane achieved by some binaries are the result of black hole natal kicks. The velocity distribution of black hole natal kicks seems similar to that of neutron star kick velocities. One might have expected that it would be the momenta that were the same with black holes receiving lower velocity than neutron stars due to their higher mass but that doesn't seem to be the case,[8] which may be due to the fall-back of asymmetrically expelled matter increasing the momentum of the resulting black hole.[9]
Mass gaps

It is predicted by some models of stellar evolution that black holes with masses in two ranges cannot be directly formed by the gravitational collapse of a star. These are sometimes distinguished as the "lower" and "upper" mass gaps, roughly representing the ranges of 2 to 5 and 50 to 150 solar masses (M☉), respectively.[10] Another range given for the upper gap is 52 to 133 M☉.[11] 150 M☉ has been regarded as the upper mass limit for stars in the current era of the universe.[12]
Lower mass gap

A lower mass gap is suspected on the basis of a scarcity of observed candidates with masses within a few solar masses above the maximum possible neutron star mass.[10] The existence and theoretical basis for this possible gap are uncertain.[13] The situation may be complicated by the fact that any black holes found in this mass range may have been created via the merging of binary neutron star systems, rather than stellar collapse.[14] The LIGO/Virgo collaboration has reported three candidate events among their gravitational wave observations in run O3 with component masses that fall in this lower mass gap. There has also been reported an observation of a bright, rapidly rotating giant star in a binary system with an unseen companion emitting no light, including x-rays, but having a mass of 3.3+2.8
−0.7 solar masses. This is interpreted to suggest that there may be many such low-mass black holes that are not currently consuming any material and are hence undetectable via the usual x-ray signature.[15]
Upper mass gap

The upper mass gap is predicted by comprehensive models of late-stage stellar evolution. It is expected that with increasing mass, supermassive stars reach a stage where a pair-instability supernova occurs, during which pair production, the production of free electrons and positrons in the collision between atomic nuclei and energetic gamma rays, temporarily reduces the internal pressure supporting the star's core against gravitational collapse.[16] This pressure drop leads to a partial collapse, which in turn causes greatly accelerated burning in a runaway thermonuclear explosion, resulting in the star being blown completely apart without leaving a stellar remnant behind.[17]

Pair-instability supernovae can only happen in stars with a mass range from around 130 to 250 solar masses (M☉) (and low to moderate metallicity (low abundance of elements other than hydrogen and helium – a situation common in Population III stars)). However, this mass gap is expected to be extended down to about 45 solar masses by the process of pair-instability pulsational mass loss, before the occurrence of a "normal" supernova explosion and core collapse.[18] In nonrotating stars the lower bound of the upper mass gap may be as high as 60 M☉.[19] The possibility of direct collapse into black holes of stars with core mass > 133 M☉, requiring total stellar mass of > 260 M☉ has been considered, but there may be little chance of observing such a high-mass supernova remnant; i.e., the lower bound of the upper mass gap may represent a mass cutoff.[11]

Observations of the LB-1 system of a star and unseen companion were initially interpreted in terms of a black hole with a mass of about 70 solar masses, which would be excluded by the upper mass gap. However, further investigations have weakened this claim.

Black holes may also be found in the mass gap through mechanisms other than those involving a single star, such as the merger of black holes.
Candidates
See also: List of black holes and List of nearest black holes

Our Milky Way galaxy contains several stellar-mass black hole candidates (BHCs) which are closer to us than the supermassive black hole in the galactic center region. Most of these candidates are members of X-ray binary systems in which the compact object draws matter from its partner via an accretion disk. The probable black holes in these pairs range from three to more than a dozen solar masses.[20][21][22]

Name BHC mass
(solar masses)
Companion mass
(solar masses )
Orbital period
(days)
Distance from Earth
(light years)
Location[23]
LB-1 68 +11/-13[24] 8[25] 78.9[24] 15,000[25] 06:11:49 +22:49:32[24]
A0620-00/V616 Mon 11 ± 2 2.6–2.8 0.33 3,500 06:22:44 -00:20:45
GRO J1655-40/V1033 Sco 6.3 ± 0.3 2.6–2.8 2.8 5,000–11,000 16:54:00 -39:50:45
XTE J1118+480/KV UMa 6.8 ± 0.4 6−6.5 0.17 6,200 11:18:11 +48:02:13
Cyg X-1 11 ± 2 ≥18 5.6 6,000–8,000 19:58:22 +35:12:06
GRO J0422+32/V518 Per 4 ± 1 1.1 0.21 8,500 04:21:43 +32:54:27
GRO J1719-24 ≥4.9 ~1.6 possibly 0.6[26] 8,500 17:19:37 -25:01:03
GS 2000+25/QZ Vul 7.5 ± 0.3 4.9–5.1 0.35 8,800 20:02:50 +25:14:11
V404 Cyg 12 ± 2 6.0 6.5 7,800 ± 460[27] 20:24:04 +33:52:03
GX 339-4/V821 Ara 5.8 5–6 1.75 15,000 17:02:50 -48:47:23
GRS 1124-683/GU Mus 7.0 ± 0.6 0.43 17,000 11:26:27 -68:40:32
XTE J1550-564/V381 Nor 9.6 ± 1.2 6.0–7.5 1.5 17,000 15:50:59 -56:28:36
4U 1543-475/IL Lupi 9.4 ± 1.0 0.25 1.1 24,000 15:47:09 -47:40:10
XTE J1819-254/V4641 Sgr 7.1 ± 0.3 5–8 2.82 24,000–40,000[28] 18:19:22 -25:24:25
GRS 1915+105/V1487 Aql 14 ± 4.0 ~1 33.5 40,000 19:15:12 +10:56:44
XTE J1650-500 9.7 ± 1.6[29] . 0.32[30] 16:50:01 -49:57:45

Extragalactic

Candidates outside our galaxy come from gravitational wave detections:

Outside our galaxy
Name BHC mass
(solar masses)
Companion mass
(solar masses )
Orbital period
(days)
Distance from Earth
(light years)
Location[23]
GW150914 (62 ± 4) M 36 ± 4 29 ± 4 . 1.3 billion
GW170104 (48.7 ± 5) M 31.2 ± 7 19.4 ± 6 . 1.4 billion
GW151226 (21.8 ± 3.5) M 14.2 ± 6 7.5 ± 2.3 . 2.9 billion

The disappearance of N6946-BH1 following a failed supernova in NGC 6946 may have resulted in the formation of a black hole.[31]
See also

iconStar portal

Black holes in fiction
Supermassive black hole

References

Celotti, A.; Miller, J.C.; Sciama, D.W. (1999). "Astrophysical evidence for the existence of black holes". Classical and Quantum Gravity. 16 (12A): A3–A21.arXiv:astro-ph/9912186. Bibcode:1999CQGra..16A...3C. doi:10.1088/0264-9381/16/12A/301. S2CID 17677758.
Hughes, Scott A. (2005). "Trust but verify: The case for astrophysical black holes".arXiv:hep-ph/0511217.
"HubbleSite: Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull interactive: Encyclopedia". hubblesite.org. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
I. Bombaci (1996). "The Maximum Mass of a Neutron Star". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 305: 871–877. Bibcode:1996A&A...305..871B.
Bulik, Tomasz (2007). "Black holes go extragalactic". Nature. 449 (7164): 799–801. doi:10.1038/449799a. PMID 17943114. S2CID 4389109.
Abbott, BP; et al. (2016). "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Physical Review Letters 116 (6): 061102.arXiv:1602.03837. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116f1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. PMID 26918975. S2CID 124959784.
Thompson, Todd (1 November 2019). "A noninteracting low-mass black hole–giant star binary system". Science. 366 (6465): 637–640.arXiv:1806.02751. Bibcode:2019Sci...366..637T. doi:10.1126/science.aau4005. PMID 31672898. S2CID 207815062. Archived from the original on 11 September 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
Repetto, Serena; Davies, Melvyn B.; Sigurdsson, Steinn (2012). "Investigating stellar-mass black hole kicks". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 425 (4): 2799–2809.arXiv:1203.3077. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.425.2799R. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21549.x. S2CID 119245969.
Janka, Hans-Thomas (2013). "Natal kicks of stellar mass black holes by asymmetric mass ejection in fallback supernovae". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 434 (2): 1355–1361.arXiv:1306.0007. Bibcode:2013MNRAS.434.1355J. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt1106. S2CID 119281755.
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abraham, S.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Aloy, M. A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; et al. (2019). "Binary Black Hole Population Properties Inferred from the First and Second Observing Runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo". The Astrophysical Journal. 882 (2): L24.arXiv:1811.12940. Bibcode:2019ApJ...882L..24A. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab3800. S2CID 119216482. Archived from the original on 11 September 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
Woosley, S.E. (2017). "Pulsational Pair-instability Supernovae". The Astrophysical Journal. 836 (2): 244.arXiv:1608.08939. Bibcode:2017ApJ...836..244W. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/836/2/244. S2CID 119229139.
Figer, D.F. (2005). "An upper limit to the masses of stars". Nature. 434 (7030): 192–194.arXiv:astro-ph/0503193. Bibcode:2005Natur.434..192F. doi:10.1038/nature03293. PMID 15758993. S2CID 4417561.
Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D.; Farr, Will M.; Kalogera, Vicky (2012). "Mass Measurements of Black Holes in X-Ray Transients: Is There a Mass Gap?". The Astrophysical Journal. 757 (1): 36.arXiv:1205.1805. Bibcode:2012ApJ...757...36K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/36. ISSN 0004-637X. S2CID 118452794.
Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Hamers, Adrian S.; Loeb, Abraham; Berger, Edo (2019). "Formation and Merging of Mass Gap Black Holes in Gravitational-wave Merger Events from Wide Hierarchical Quadruple Systems". The Astrophysical Journal. 888 (1): L3.arXiv:1911.04495. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab5dc8. ISSN 2041-8213. S2CID 208527307.
Thompson, Todd A.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Badenes, Carles; Post, Richard S.; Jayasinghe, Tharindu; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Tayar, Jamie; Lindegren, Lennart; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Auchettl, Katie; Covey, Kevin (2019). "A noninteracting low-mass black hole–giant star binary system". Science. 366 (6465): 637–640.arXiv:1806.02751. Bibcode:2019Sci...366..637T. doi:10.1126/science.aau4005. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 31672898. S2CID 207815062.
Rakavy, G.; Shaviv, G. (June 1967). "Instabilities in Highly Evolved Stellar Models". The Astrophysical Journal. 148: 803. Bibcode:1967ApJ...148..803R. doi:10.1086/149204.
Fraley, Gary S. (1968). "Supernovae Explosions Induced by Pair-Production Instability" (PDF). Astrophysics and Space Science. 2 (1): 96–114. Bibcode:1968Ap&SS...2...96F. doi:10.1007/BF00651498. S2CID 122104256. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 December 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
Farmer, R.; Renzo, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Marchant, P.; Justham, S. (2019). "Mind the Gap: The Location of the Lower Edge of the Pair-instability Supernova Black Hole Mass Gap" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 887 (1): 53.arXiv:1910.12874. Bibcode:2019ApJ...887...53F. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab518b. ISSN 1538-4357. S2CID 204949567. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
Mapelli, M.; Spera, M.; Montanari, E.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Giacobbo, N.; Bressan, A.; Bouffanais, Y. (2020). "Impact of the Rotation and Compactness of Progenitors on the Mass of Black Holes". The Astrophysical Journal. 888 (2): 76.arXiv:1909.01371. Bibcode:2020ApJ...888...76M. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab584d. S2CID 213050523.
Casares, Jorge (2006). "Observational evidence for stellar-mass black holes". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 2: 3–12.arXiv:astro-ph/0612312. doi:10.1017/S1743921307004590. S2CID 119474341.
Garcia, M.R.; et al. (2003). "Resolved Jets and Long Period Black Hole Novae". Astrophys. J. 591: 388–396.arXiv:astro-ph/0302230. doi:10.1086/375218. S2CID 17521575.
McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Remillard, Ronald A. (2003). "Black Hole Binaries".arXiv:astro-ph/0306213.
ICRS coordinates obtained from SIMBAD. Format: right ascension (hh:mm:ss) ±declination (dd:mm:ss).
Liu, Jifeng; et al. (27 November 2019). "A wide star–black-hole binary system from radial-velocity measurements". Nature. 575 (7784): 618–621.arXiv:1911.11989. Bibcode:2019Natur.575..618L. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1766-2. PMID 31776491. S2CID 208310287.
Chinese Academy of Science (27 November 2019). "Chinese Academy of Sciences leads discovery of unpredicted stellar black hole". EurekAlert!. Archived from the original on 28 November 2019. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
Masetti, N.; Bianchini, A.; Bonibaker, J.; della Valle, M.; Vio, R. (1996), "The superhump phenomenon in GRS 1716-249 (=X-Ray Nova Ophiuchi 1993)", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 314: 123, Bibcode:1996A&A...314..123M
Miller-Jones, J. A. C.; Jonker; Dhawan (2009). "The first accurate parallax distance to a black hole". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 706 (2): L230.arXiv:0910.5253. Bibcode:2009ApJ...706L.230M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/706/2/L230. S2CID 17750440.
Orosz; et al. (2001). "A Black Hole in the Superluminal source SAX J1819.3-2525 (V4641 Sgr)". The Astrophysical Journal. 555 (1): 489.arXiv:astro-ph/0103045v1. Bibcode:2001ApJ...555..489O. doi:10.1086/321442. S2CID 50248739.
Shaposhnikov, N.; Titarchuk, L. (2009). "Determination of Black Hole Masses in Galactic Black Hole Binaries using Scaling of Spectral and Variability Characteristics". The Astrophysical Journal. 699 (1): 453–468.arXiv:0902.2852v1. Bibcode:2009ApJ...699..453S. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/699/1/453. S2CID 18336866.
Orosz, J.A.; et al. (2004). "Orbital Parameters for the Black Hole Binary XTE J1650–500". The Astrophysical Journal. 616 (1): 376–382.arXiv:astro-ph/0404343. Bibcode:2004ApJ...616..376O. doi:10.1086/424892. S2CID 13933140.

Adams, S. M.; Kochanek, C. S; Gerke, J. R.; Stanek, K. Z.; Dai, X. (9 September 2016). "The search for failed supernovae with the Large Binocular Telescope: conformation of a disappearing star".arXiv:1609.01283v1 [astro-ph.SR].

External links
Look up collapsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull Award-winning interactive multimedia Web site about the physics and astronomy of black holes from the Space Telescope Science Institute
Black hole diagrams
Ziółkowski, Janusz (2003). "Black Hole Candidates". Frontier Objects in Astrophysics and Particle Physics: 411.arXiv:astro-ph/0307307. Bibcode:2003foap.conf..411Z.
Heaviest Stellar Black Hole Discovered in Nearby Galaxy, Newswise, 17-Oct-2007

vte

Black holes
Types

Schwarzschild Rotating Charged Virtual Kugelblitz Primordial Planck particle


Size

Micro
Extremal Electron Stellar
Microquasar Intermediate-mass Supermassive
Active galactic nucleus Quasar Blazar

Formation

Stellar evolution Gravitational collapse Neutron star
Related links Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit White dwarf
Related links Supernova
Related links Hypernova Gamma-ray burst Binary black hole

Properties

Gravitational singularity
Ring singularity Theorems Event horizon Photon sphere Innermost stable circular orbit Ergosphere
Penrose process Blandford–Znajek process Accretion disk Hawking radiation Gravitational lens Bondi accretion M–sigma relation Quasi-periodic oscillation Thermodynamics
Immirzi parameter Schwarzschild radius Spaghettification

Issues

Black hole complementarity Information paradox Cosmic censorship ER=EPR Final parsec problem Firewall (physics) Holographic principle No-hair theorem

Metrics

Schwarzschild (Derivation) Kerr Reissner–Nordström Kerr–Newman Hayward

Alternatives

Nonsingular black hole models Black star Dark star Dark-energy star Gravastar Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object Planck star Q star Fuzzball

Analogs

Optical black hole Sonic black hole

Lists

Black holes Most massive Nearest Quasars Microquasars

Related

Black Hole Initiative Black hole starship Compact star Exotic star
Quark star Preon star Gamma-ray burst progenitors Gravity well Hypercompact stellar system Membrane paradigm Naked singularity Quasi-star Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Timeline of black hole physics White hole Wormhole

vte

Stars
Formation

Accretion Molecular cloud Bok globule Young stellar object
Protostar Pre-main-sequence Herbig Ae/Be T Tauri FU Orionis Herbig–Haro object Hayashi track Henyey track

Evolution

Main sequence Red-giant branch Horizontal branch
Red clump Asymptotic giant branch
super-AGB Blue loop Protoplanetary nebula Planetary nebula PG1159 Dredge-up OH/IR Instability strip Luminous blue variable Blue straggler Stellar population Supernova Superluminous supernova / Hypernova

Spectral classification

Early Late Main sequence
O B A F G K M Brown dwarf WR OB Subdwarf
O B Subgiant Giant
Blue Red Yellow Bright giant Supergiant
Blue Red Yellow Hypergiant
Yellow Carbon
S CN CH White dwarf Chemically peculiar
Am Ap/Bp HgMn Helium-weak Barium Extreme helium Lambda Boötis Lead Technetium Be
Shell B[e]

Remnants

White dwarf
Helium planet Black dwarf Neutron
Radio-quiet Pulsar
Binary X-ray Magnetar Stellar black hole X-ray binary
Burster

Hypothetical

Blue dwarf Green Black dwarf Exotic
Boson Electroweak Strange Preon Planck Dark Dark-energy Quark Q Black Gravastar Frozen Quasi-star Thorne–Żytkow object Iron Blitzar

Stellar nucleosynthesis

Deuterium burning Lithium burning Proton–proton chain CNO cycle Helium flash Triple-alpha process Alpha process Carbon burning Neon burning Oxygen burning Silicon burning S-process R-process Fusor Nova
Symbiotic Remnant Luminous red nova

Structure

Core Convection zone
Microturbulence Oscillations Radiation zone Atmosphere
Photosphere Starspot Chromosphere Stellar corona Stellar wind
Bubble Bipolar outflow Accretion disk Asteroseismology
Helioseismology Eddington luminosity Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism

Properties

Designation Dynamics Effective temperature Luminosity Kinematics Magnetic field Absolute magnitude Mass Metallicity Rotation Starlight Variable Photometric system Color index Hertzsprung–Russell diagram Color–color diagram

Star systems

Binary
Contact Common envelope Eclipsing Symbiotic Multiple Cluster
Open Globular Super Planetary system

Earth-centric
observations

Sun
Solar System Sunlight Pole star Circumpolar Constellation Asterism Magnitude
Apparent Extinction Photographic Radial velocity Proper motion Parallax Photometric-standard

Lists

Proper names
Arabic Chinese Extremes Most massive Highest temperature Lowest temperature Largest volume Smallest volume Brightest
Historical Most luminous Nearest
Nearest bright With exoplanets Brown dwarfs White dwarfs Milky Way novae Supernovae
Candidates Remnants Planetary nebulae Timeline of stellar astronomy

Related articles

Substellar object
Brown dwarf Sub-brown dwarf Planet Galactic year Galaxy Guest Gravity Intergalactic Planet-hosting stars Tidal disruption event

vte

Neutron star
Types

Radio-quiet Pulsar

Single pulsars

Magnetar
Soft gamma repeater Anomalous X-ray Rotating radio transient

Binary pulsars

Binary X-ray pulsar
X-ray binary X-ray burster List Millisecond Be/X-ray Spin-up

Properties

Blitzar
Fast radio burst Bondi accretion Chandrasekhar limit Gamma-ray burst Glitch Neutronium Neutron-star oscillation Optical Pulsar kick Quasi-periodic oscillation Relativistic Rp-process Starquake Timing noise Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit Urca process

Related

Gamma-ray burst progenitors Asteroseismology Compact star
Quark star Exotic star Supernova
Supernova remnant Related links Hypernova Kilonova Neutron star merger Quark-nova White dwarf
Related links Stellar black hole
Related links Radio star Pulsar planet Pulsar wind nebula Thorne–Żytkow object

Discovery

LGM-1 Centaurus X-3 Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae

Satellite
investigation

Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Chandra X-ray Observatory

Other

X-ray pulsar-based navigation Tempo software program Astropulse The Magnificent Seven

vte

Supernovae
Classes

Type Ia Type Ib and Ic Type II (IIP, IIL, IIn, and IIb) Hypernova Superluminous Pair-instability


Supernova&galaxia.png
G299-Remnants-SuperNova-Type1a-20150218.jpg
Physics of

Calcium-rich Carbon detonation Foe Near-Earth Phillips relationship Nucleosynthesis
P-process R-process Neutrinos

Related

Imposter
pulsational pair-instability Failed Gamma-ray burst Kilonova Luminous red nova Nova Pulsar kick Quark-nova Symbiotic nova

Progenitors

Hypergiant
yellow Luminous blue variable Supergiant
blue red yellow White dwarf
related links Wolf–Rayet star

Remnants

Supernova remnant
Pulsar wind nebula Neutron star
pulsar magnetar related links Stellar black hole
related links Compact star
quark star exotic star Zombie star Local Bubble Superbubble
Orion–Eridanus

Discovery

Guest star History of supernova observation Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae

Lists

Candidates Notable Massive stars Most distant Remnants In fiction

Notable

Barnard's Loop Cassiopeia A Crab
Crab Nebula iPTF14hls Tycho's Kepler's SN 1987A SN 185 SN 1006 SN 2003fg Remnant G1.9+0.3 SN 2007bi SN 2011fe SN 2014J SN Refsdal Vela Remnant

Research

ASAS-SN Calán/Tololo Survey High-Z Supernova Search Team Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope Monte Agliale Supernovae and Asteroid Survey Nearby Supernova Factory Sloan Supernova Survey Supernova/Acceleration Probe Supernova Cosmology Project SuperNova Early Warning System Supernova Legacy Survey Texas Supernova Search

Physics Encyclopedia

World

Index

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License