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In astronomy, blitzars are a hypothetical type of star, specifically pulsars that can rapidly collapse into black holes. Heino Falcke and Luciano Rezzolla[1] proposed these stars in 2013 as an explanation for fast radio bursts.[2]
Overview

These stars, if they exist, are thought to start from a neutron star with a mass that would cause it to collapse into a black hole if it were not rapidly spinning. Instead, the neutron star spins fast enough so that its centripetal force overcomes gravity. This makes the neutron star a typical but doomed pulsar whose strong magnetic field radiates energy away and slows its spin. Eventually the weakening centrifugal force is no longer able to stop the pulsar from its transformation into a black hole. At this moment, part of the pulsar's magnetic field outside the black hole is suddenly cut off from its vanished source. This magnetic energy is instantly transformed into a burst of wide spectrum radio energy.[3] As of January 20, 2015, seven [4] radio events detected so far might represent such possible collapses; they are projected to occur every 10 seconds within the observable universe.[3] Because the magnetic field had previously cleared the surrounding space of gas and dust, there is no nearby material that will fall into the new black hole. Thus there is no burst of X-rays or gamma rays that usually happens when other black holes form.[3]

If blitzars exist, they may offer a new way to observe details of black hole formation.[5]
References

"Afscheidsgroet van een stervende ster" (in Dutch). Radboud University Nijmegen. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2015.[permanent dead link]
Heino Falcke; Luciano Rezzolla (2014). "Fast radio bursts: The last sign of supramassive neutron stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 562: A137. arXiv:1307.1409. Bibcode:2014A&A...562A.137F. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321996. S2CID 32284857.
Thornton, D.; Stappers, B.; Bailes, M.; Barsdell, B.; Bates, S.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Champion, D. J.; Coster, P.; d'Amico, N.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Levin, L.; Milia, S.; Ng, C.; Possenti, A.; Van Straten, W. (5 July 2013). "A Population of Fast Radio Bursts at Cosmological Distances". Science. 341 (6141): 53–56. arXiv:1307.1628. Bibcode:2013Sci...341...53T. doi:10.1126/science.1236789. PMID 23828936. S2CID 206548502.. Summarized in Mysterious Radio Flashes May Be Farewell Greetings from Massive Stars Collapsing Into Black Holes and Cosmic Radio Bursts Point to Cataclysmic Origin
"Extremely short, sharp flash of radio waves from unknown source in the universe, caught as it was happening". 2015-01-19. Retrieved 2016-03-03.

Heino Falcke & Luciano Rezzolla. "Blitzars: Fast Radio Bursts from Supramassive Rotating Neutron Stars". Retrieved 8 July 2013.

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Stars
Formation

Accretion Molecular cloud Bok globule Young stellar object
Protostar Pre-main-sequence Herbig Ae/Be T Tauri FU Orionis Herbig–Haro object Hayashi track Henyey track

Evolution

Main sequence Red-giant branch Horizontal branch
Red clump Asymptotic giant branch
super-AGB Blue loop Protoplanetary nebula Planetary nebula PG1159 Dredge-up OH/IR Instability strip Luminous blue variable Blue straggler Stellar population Supernova Superluminous supernova / Hypernova

Spectral classification

Early Late Main sequence
O B A F G K M Brown dwarf WR OB Subdwarf
O B Subgiant Giant
Blue Red Yellow Bright giant Supergiant
Blue Red Yellow Hypergiant
Yellow Carbon
S CN CH White dwarf Chemically peculiar
Am Ap/Bp HgMn Helium-weak Barium Extreme helium Lambda Boötis Lead Technetium Be
Shell B[e]

Remnants

White dwarf
Helium planet Black dwarf Neutron
Radio-quiet Pulsar
Binary X-ray Magnetar Stellar black hole X-ray binary
Burster

Hypothetical

Blue dwarf Green Black dwarf Exotic
Boson Electroweak Strange Preon Planck Dark Dark-energy Quark Q Black Gravastar Frozen Quasi-star Thorne–Żytkow object Iron Blitzar

Stellar nucleosynthesis

Deuterium burning Lithium burning Proton–proton chain CNO cycle Helium flash Triple-alpha process Alpha process Carbon burning Neon burning Oxygen burning Silicon burning S-process R-process Fusor Nova
Symbiotic Remnant Luminous red nova

Structure

Core Convection zone
Microturbulence Oscillations Radiation zone Atmosphere
Photosphere Starspot Chromosphere Stellar corona Stellar wind
Bubble Bipolar outflow Accretion disk Asteroseismology
Helioseismology Eddington luminosity Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism

Properties

Designation Dynamics Effective temperature Luminosity Kinematics Magnetic field Absolute magnitude Mass Metallicity Rotation Starlight Variable Photometric system Color index Hertzsprung–Russell diagram Color–color diagram

Star systems

Binary
Contact Common envelope Eclipsing Symbiotic Multiple Cluster
Open Globular Super Planetary system

Earth-centric
observations

Sun
Solar System Sunlight Pole star Circumpolar Constellation Asterism Magnitude
Apparent Extinction Photographic Radial velocity Proper motion Parallax Photometric-standard

Lists

Proper names
Arabic Chinese Extremes Most massive Highest temperature Lowest temperature Largest volume Smallest volume Brightest
Historical Most luminous Nearest
Nearest bright With exoplanets Brown dwarfs White dwarfs Milky Way novae Supernovae
Candidates Remnants Planetary nebulae Timeline of stellar astronomy

Related articles

Substellar object
Brown dwarf Sub-brown dwarf Planet Galactic year Galaxy Guest Gravity Intergalactic Planet-hosting stars Tidal disruption event

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Neutron star
Types

Radio-quiet Pulsar

Single pulsars

Magnetar
Soft gamma repeater Anomalous X-ray Rotating radio transient

Binary pulsars

Binary X-ray pulsar
X-ray binary X-ray burster List Millisecond Be/X-ray Spin-up

Properties

Blitzar
Fast radio burst Bondi accretion Chandrasekhar limit Gamma-ray burst Glitch Neutronium Neutron-star oscillation Optical Pulsar kick Quasi-periodic oscillation Relativistic Rp-process Starquake Timing noise Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit Urca process

Related

Gamma-ray burst progenitors Asteroseismology Compact star
Quark star Exotic star Supernova
Supernova remnant Related links Hypernova Kilonova Neutron star merger Quark-nova White dwarf
Related links Stellar black hole
Related links Radio star Pulsar planet Pulsar wind nebula Thorne–Żytkow object

Discovery

LGM-1 Centaurus X-3 Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae

Satellite
investigation

Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Chandra X-ray Observatory

Other

X-ray pulsar-based navigation Tempo software program Astropulse The Magnificent Seven

Physics Encyclopedia

World

Index

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