Physics Gifts

- Art Gallery -

In the field of stellar evolution, a blue loop is a stage in the life of an evolved star where it changes from a cool star to a hotter one before cooling again. The name derives from the shape of the evolutionary track on a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram which forms a loop towards the blue (i.e. hotter) side of the diagram.

Blue loops can occur for red supergiants, red giant branch stars, or asymptotic giant branch stars. Some stars may undergo more than one blue loop. Many pulsating variable stars such as Cepheids are blue loop stars. Stars on the horizontal branch are not generally referred to as on a blue loop even though they are temporarily hotter than on the red giant or asymptotic giant branches. Loops occur far too slowly to be observed for individual stars, but are inferred from theory and from the properties and distribution of stars in the H–R diagram.

Red giants
Main article: Red giant branch
Stellar evolutionary tracks, some showing blue loops in the more massive red giants

Most stars on the red giant branch (RGB) have an inert helium core and remain on the RGB until a helium flash moves them to the horizontal branch. However, stars more massive than about 2.3 M☉ do not have an inert core. They smoothly ignite helium before reaching the tip of the red-giant branch and become hotter while they burn helium in their cores. More massive stars become hotter during this phase and stars from about 5 M☉ upwards are generally treated as experiencing a blue loop, which lasts on the order of a million years. This type of blue loop occurs only once in the lifetime of a star.[1][2][3]
Asymptotic giant branch
Main article: Asymptotic giant branch

Stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) have largely inert cores of carbon and oxygen, and alternately fuse hydrogen and helium in concentric shells around the core. The onset of helium shell burning causes a thermal pulse and in some cases this will cause the star to temporarily increase its temperature and execute a blue loop. Many thermal pulses may occur as the shells alternately switch on and off, and multiple blue loops can occur in the same star.[4]
Red supergiants
Main article: Red supergiant

Red supergiants are massive stars that have left the main sequence and greatly expanded and cooled. Their high luminosity and low surface gravity means they are rapidly losing mass. The most luminous red supergiants can lose mass quickly enough that they become hotter and smaller. In the most massive stars, this can result in the star evolving permanently away from the red supergiant stage to become a blue supergiant, but in some cases the star will execute a blue loop and return to being a red supergiant.[5][6]

Instability strip
Main article: Instability strip

Stars which are executing blue loops cross the yellow portion of the H–R diagram above the main sequence, so that many of them cross a region called the instability strip because the outer layers of stars in that region are unstable and pulsate. Stars from the asymptotic giant branch that cross the instability strip during a blue loop are thought to become W Virginis variables. More massive stars, crossing the instability strip during a blue loop from the red giant branch, are thought to make up the δ Cephei variables. Both types of star have luminous and unstable photospheres at this stage of their lives and often have the spectra of supergiants, although most are not massive enough to ever fuse carbon or reach a supernova.[4][7][8]
References

Pols, Onno (September 2009). "Chapter 9: Post-main sequence evolution through helium burning" (PDF). Stellar Structure and Evolution (lecture notes). Retrieved 2019-01-17.
Xu, H. Y.; Li, Y. (2004). "Blue loops of intermediate mass stars . I. CNO cycles and blue loops". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 418: 213–224. Bibcode:2004A&A...418..213X. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20040024.
Halabi, Ghina M.; El Eid, Mounib (2012). "Sensitivity of the blue loops of intermediate-mass stars to nuclear reactions". American Institute of Physics Conference Series. 1498 (1): 334. arXiv:1410.1652. Bibcode:2012AIPC.1498..334H. doi:10.1063/1.4768514.
Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Jurkovic, M. I. (2017). "Luminosities and infrared excess in Type II and anomalous Cepheids in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 603: A70. arXiv:1705.00886. Bibcode:2017A&A...603A..70G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201730687.
Meynet, Georges; Georgy, Cyril; Hirschi, Raphael; Maeder, André; Massey, Phil; Przybilla, Norbert; Nieva, M. -Fernanda (2011). "Red Supergiants, Luminous Blue Variables and Wolf-Rayet stars: The single massive star perspective". Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège. 80: 266. arXiv:1101.5873. Bibcode:2011BSRSL..80..266M.
Saio, Hideyuki; Georgy, Cyril; Meynet, Georges (2013). "Evolution of blue supergiants and α Cygni variables: Puzzling CNO surface abundances". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 433 (2): 1246. arXiv:1305.2474. Bibcode:2013MNRAS.433.1246S. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt796.
Turner, David G.; Abdel-Sabour Abdel-Latif, Mohamed; Berdnikov, Leonid N. (2006). "Rate of Period Change as a Diagnostic of Cepheid Properties". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 118 (841): 410–418. arXiv:astro-ph/0601687. Bibcode:2006PASP..118..410T. doi:10.1086/499501.

Duerbeck, H. W.; Seitter, W. C. (1996). "5.1.2.1 Cepheids - CEP". Stars and Star Clusters. Landolt-Börnstein - Group VI Astronomy and Astrophysics. 3B. pp. 134–139. doi:10.1007/10057805_40. ISBN 978-3-540-56080-7.

vte

Stars
Formation

Accretion Molecular cloud Bok globule Young stellar object
Protostar Pre-main-sequence Herbig Ae/Be T Tauri FU Orionis Herbig–Haro object Hayashi track Henyey track

Evolution

Main sequence Red-giant branch Horizontal branch
Red clump Asymptotic giant branch
super-AGB Blue loop Protoplanetary nebula Planetary nebula PG1159 Dredge-up OH/IR Instability strip Luminous blue variable Blue straggler Stellar population Supernova Superluminous supernova / Hypernova

Spectral classification

Early Late Main sequence
O B A F G K M Brown dwarf WR OB Subdwarf
O B Subgiant Giant
Blue Red Yellow Bright giant Supergiant
Blue Red Yellow Hypergiant
Yellow Carbon
S CN CH White dwarf Chemically peculiar
Am Ap/Bp HgMn Helium-weak Barium Extreme helium Lambda Boötis Lead Technetium Be
Shell B[e]

Remnants

White dwarf
Helium planet Black dwarf Neutron
Radio-quiet Pulsar
Binary X-ray Magnetar Stellar black hole X-ray binary
Burster

Hypothetical

Blue dwarf Green Black dwarf Exotic
Boson Electroweak Strange Preon Planck Dark Dark-energy Quark Q Black Gravastar Frozen Quasi-star Thorne–Żytkow object Iron Blitzar

Stellar nucleosynthesis

Deuterium burning Lithium burning Proton–proton chain CNO cycle Helium flash Triple-alpha process Alpha process Carbon burning Neon burning Oxygen burning Silicon burning S-process R-process Fusor Nova
Symbiotic Remnant Luminous red nova

Structure

Core Convection zone
Microturbulence Oscillations Radiation zone Atmosphere
Photosphere Starspot Chromosphere Stellar corona Stellar wind
Bubble Bipolar outflow Accretion disk Asteroseismology
Helioseismology Eddington luminosity Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism

Properties

Designation Dynamics Effective temperature Luminosity Kinematics Magnetic field Absolute magnitude Mass Metallicity Rotation Starlight Variable Photometric system Color index Hertzsprung–Russell diagram Color–color diagram

Star systems

Binary
Contact Common envelope Eclipsing Symbiotic Multiple Cluster
Open Globular Super Planetary system

Earth-centric
observations

Sun
Solar System Sunlight Pole star Circumpolar Constellation Asterism Magnitude
Apparent Extinction Photographic Radial velocity Proper motion Parallax Photometric-standard

Lists

Proper names
Arabic Chinese Extremes Most massive Highest temperature Lowest temperature Largest volume Smallest volume Brightest
Historical Most luminous Nearest
Nearest bright With exoplanets Brown dwarfs White dwarfs Milky Way novae Supernovae
Candidates Remnants Planetary nebulae Timeline of stellar astronomy

Related articles

Substellar object
Brown dwarf Sub-brown dwarf Planet Galactic year Galaxy Guest Gravity Intergalactic Planet-hosting stars Tidal disruption event

Physics Encyclopedia

World

Index

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License