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Quantum information science is an area of study about information science related to quantum effects in physics. It includes theoretical issues in computational models as well as more experimental topics in quantum physics including what can and cannot be done with quantum information. The term quantum information theory is also used, but it fails to encompass experimental research in the area and can be confused with a subfield of quantum information science that studies the processing of quantum information.

Scientific and engineering studies

Quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement and the manufacturing of quantum computer hardware are just physical and engineering studies. They require serious understanding of quantum physics and engineering. Compared to before the 2010s, there was some remarkable progress in manufacturing quantum computers. Google and IBM are investing heavily in quantum computer hardware research. A quantum computer with more than 100 qubits is possible today. The error occurrence is so serious that we cannot say that we have a material suitable for quantum computers yet. Majorana fermions may be one of the key materials.

Devices for quantum cryptography have been commercialized already. There is an old cipher called a one time pad, which was widely used among the spies in the Cold War era. It uses a long sequence of random keys. If two people exchanged same random keys safely, it is impossible to decrypt one time pad except by accident, but key exchanging is not easy. However, the key exchanging problems can be solved by exchanging quantum entangled particle pairs. Quantum mechanical laws such as no cloning theorem and wave function collapse provide secure exchange of random keys. So, manufacturing devices that can transport quantum entangled particles is an important scientific and engineering problem.

Programming languages for quantum computers are also needed. Q Sharp and Qiskit are popular quantum programming languages.
Related mathematical subjects

Quantum algorithm and quantum complexity theory are two of the subjects in algorithms and computational complexity theory. In 1994, mathematician Peter Shor published his prime factorization algorithm. If one has a 1,000-qubit quantum computer, one can threaten most widely used ciphers such as RSA and ECC by using Shor's algorithm. It can result in serious security problems for many countries. Therefore, his paper triggered a lot of investment in quantum computing research. Many mathematicians and cryptologists are preparing to enter the quantum computing era. See post quantum cryptography.
See also

Information theory
Quantum mechanics
Quantum computing
Quantum error correction
Quantum information theory
Quantum cryptography and its generalization, quantum communication
Quantum communication complexity
Quantum entanglement, as seen from an information-theoretic point of view
Quantum dense coding
Quantum teleportation
Entanglement-assisted classical capacity
No-communication theorem
Quantum capacity
Quantum communication channel
Quantum decision tree complexity
Timeline of quantum computing and communication


Nielsen, Michael A.; Chuang, Isaac L. (June 2012). Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (10th anniversary ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780511992773. OCLC 700706156.

External links

Quantiki – quantum information science portal and wiki.
ERA-Pilot QIST WP1 European roadmap on Quantum Information Processing and Communication
QIIC – Quantum Information, Imperial College London.
QIP – Quantum Information Group, University of Leeds. The quantum information group at the University of Leeds is engaged in researching a wide spectrum of aspects of quantum information. This ranges from algorithms, quantum computation, to physical implementations of information processing and fundamental issues in quantum mechanics. Also contains some basic tutorials for the lay audience.
mathQI Research Group on Mathematics and Quantum Information.
CQIST Center for Quantum Information Science & Technology at the University of Southern California
CQuIC Center for Quantum Information and Control, including theoretical and experimental groups from University of New Mexico, University of Arizona.
CQT Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore
CQC2T Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology
QST@LSU Quantum Science and Technologies Group at Louisiana State University


Quantum mechanics

Introduction History
timeline Glossary Classical mechanics Old quantum theory


Bra–ket notation Casimir effect Coherence Coherent control Complementarity Density matrix Energy level
degenerate levels excited state ground state QED vacuum QCD vacuum Vacuum state Zero-point energy Hamiltonian Heisenberg uncertainty principle Pauli exclusion principle Measurement Observable Operator Probability distribution Quantum Qubit Qutrit Scattering theory Spin Spontaneous parametric down-conversion Symmetry Symmetry breaking
Spontaneous symmetry breaking No-go theorem No-cloning theorem Von Neumann entropy Wave interference Wave function
collapse Universal wavefunction Wave–particle duality
Matter wave Wave propagation Virtual particle


quantum coherence annealing decoherence entanglement fluctuation foam levitation noise nonlocality number realm state superposition system tunnelling Quantum vacuum state


Dirac Klein–Gordon Pauli Rydberg Schrödinger


Heisenberg Interaction Matrix mechanics Path integral formulation Phase space Schrödinger


algebra calculus
differential stochastic geometry group Q-analog


Bayesian Consistent histories Cosmological Copenhagen de Broglie–Bohm Ensemble Hidden variables Many worlds Objective collapse Quantum logic Relational Stochastic Transactional


Afshar Bell's inequality Cold Atom Laboratory Davisson–Germer Delayed-choice quantum eraser Double-slit Elitzur–Vaidman Franck–Hertz experiment Leggett–Garg inequality Mach-Zehnder inter. Popper Quantum eraser Quantum suicide and immortality Schrödinger's cat Stern–Gerlach Wheeler's delayed choice


Measurement problem QBism


biology chemistry chaos cognition complexity theory computing
Timeline cosmology dynamics economics finance foundations game theory information nanoscience metrology mind optics probability social science spacetime


Quantum technology
links Matrix isolation Phase qubit Quantum dot
cellular automaton display laser single-photon source solar cell Quantum well


Dirac sea Fractional quantum mechanics Quantum electrodynamics
links Quantum geometry Quantum field theory
links Quantum gravity
links Quantum information science
links Quantum statistical mechanics Relativistic quantum mechanics De Broglie–Bohm theory Stochastic electrodynamics


Quantum mechanics of time travel Textbooks

Physics Encyclopedia



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