Theodosius of Bithynia (Greek: Θεοδόσιος; c. 169 BC – c. 100 BC) was a Greek astronomer and mathematician who wrote the Sphaerics, a book on the geometry of the sphere.
Life
Born in Tripolis, in Bithynia, Theodosius was mentioned by Strabo as among the residents of Bithynia distinguished for their learning, and one whose sons were also mathematicians. He was cited by Vitruvius as having invented a sundial suitable for any place on Earth.[1]
His chief work, the Sphaerics (Greek: σφαιρικά), provided the mathematics for spherical astronomy, and may have been based on a work by Eudoxus of Cnidus. It is reasonably complete, and remained the main reference on the subject at least until the time of Pappus of Alexandria (4th century AD).[1] The work was translated into Arabic in the 10th century, and then into Latin in the early 16th century, but these versions were faulty. Francesco Maurolico translated the works later in the 16th century.[1]
In addition to the Sphaerics, two other works by Theodosius have survived: On Habitations, describing the appearances of the heavens at different climes and different times of the year, and On Days and Nights, a study of the apparent motion of the Sun. Both were published in Latin in the 16th century.[2]
Notes
Heath 1911, p. 771.
Heath 1911, pp. 771–772.
References
Ivor BulmerThomas, "Theodosius of Bithynia," Dictionary of Scientific Biography 13:319–320.
also on line [1] "Theodosius of Bithynia." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Mar. 2015 .
Heath, Thomas Little (1911). "Theodosius of Tripolis" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 771–772.

Ancient Greek and Hellenistic mathematics (Euclidean geometry)
Mathematicians
(timeline)
Anaxagoras Anthemius Archytas Aristaeus the Elder Aristarchus Apollonius Archimedes Autolycus Bion Bryson Callippus Carpus Chrysippus Cleomedes Conon Ctesibius Democritus Dicaearchus Diocles Diophantus Dinostratus Dionysodorus Domninus Eratosthenes Eudemus Euclid Eudoxus Eutocius Geminus Heliodorus Heron Hipparchus Hippasus Hippias Hippocrates Hypatia Hypsicles Isidore of Miletus Leon Marinus Menaechmus Menelaus Metrodorus Nicomachus Nicomedes Nicoteles Oenopides Pappus Perseus Philolaus Philon Philonides Porphyry Posidonius Proclus Ptolemy Pythagoras Serenus Simplicius Sosigenes Sporus Thales Theaetetus Theano Theodorus Theodosius Theon of Alexandria Theon of Smyrna Thymaridas Xenocrates Zeno of Elea Zeno of Sidon Zenodorus
Treatises
Almagest Archimedes Palimpsest Arithmetica Conics (Apollonius) Catoptrics Data (Euclid) Elements (Euclid) Measurement of a Circle On Conoids and Spheroids On the Sizes and Distances (Aristarchus) On Sizes and Distances (Hipparchus) On the Moving Sphere (Autolycus) Euclid's Optics On Spirals On the Sphere and Cylinder Ostomachion Planisphaerium Sphaerics The Quadrature of the Parabola The Sand Reckoner
Problems
Angle trisection Doubling the cube Squaring the circle Problem of Apollonius
Concepts/definitions
Circles of Apollonius
Apollonian circles Apollonian gasket Circumscribed circle Commensurability Diophantine equation Doctrine of proportionality Golden ratio Greek numerals Incircle and excircles of a triangle Method of exhaustion Parallel postulate Platonic solid Lune of Hippocrates Quadratrix of Hippias Regular polygon Straightedge and compass construction Triangle center
Results
In Elements
Angle bisector theorem Exterior angle theorem Euclidean algorithm Euclid's theorem Geometric mean theorem Greek geometric algebra Hinge theorem Inscribed angle theorem Intercept theorem Pons asinorum Pythagorean theorem Thales's theorem Theorem of the gnomon
Apollonius
Apollonius's theorem
Other
Aristarchus's inequality Crossbar theorem Heron's formula Irrational numbers Menelaus's theorem Pappus's area theorem Problem II.8 of Arithmetica Ptolemy's inequality Ptolemy's table of chords Ptolemy's theorem Spiral of Theodorus
Centers
Cyrene Library of Alexandria Platonic Academy
Other
Ancient Greek astronomy Greek numerals Latin translations of the 12th century Neusis construction
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