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SAGE (Soviet–American Gallium Experiment, or sometimes Russian-American Gallium Experiment) is a collaborative experiment devised by several prominent physicists to measure the solar neutrino flux.


The Experiment

SAGE was devised to measure the radio-chemical solar neutrino flux based on the inverse beta decay reaction, 71Ga + \( {\displaystyle +\nu _{e}\rightarrow e^{-}+} \) 71Ge. The target for the reaction was 50-57 tonnes of liquid gallium metal stored deep (2100 meters) underground at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the Caucasus mountains in Russia. The laboratory containing the SAGE-experiment is called gallium-germanium neutrino telescope (GGNT) laboratory, GGNT being the name of the SAGE experimental apparatus. About once a month, the neutrino induced Ge is extracted from the Ga. 71Ge is unstable with respect to electron capture (\( t_{1/2}=11.43 \) days) and, therefore, the amount of extracted germanium can be determined from its activity as measured in small proportional counters.

The experiment had begun to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989 and continued to run in August 2011 with only a few brief interruptions in the timespan. As of 2013 is the experiment was described as "being continued"[1] with the latest published data from August 2011. As of 2014 it was stated that the SAGE experiment continues the once-a-month extractions.[2] The SAGE experiment continued in 2016.[3] As of 2017, the SAGE-experiment continues [4].

The experiment has measured the solar neutrino flux in 168 extractions between January 1990 and December 2007. The result of the experiment based on the whole 1990-2007 set of data is 65.4+3.1−3.0 (stat.) +2.6−2.8 (syst.) SNU. This represents only 56%-60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models, which predict 138 SNU. The difference is in agreement with neutrino oscillations.

The collaboration has used a 518 kCi 51Cr neutrino source to test the experimental operation. The energy of these neutrinos is similar to the solar 7Be neutrinos and thus makes an ideal check on the experimental procedure. The extractions for the Cr experiment took place between January and May 1995 and the counting of the samples lasted until fall. The result, expressed in terms of a ratio of the measured production rate to the expected production rate, is 1.0±0.15. This indicates that the discrepancy between the solar model predictions and the SAGE flux measurement cannot be an experimental artifact. Also calibrations with a 37Ar neutrino source had been performed.

In 2014, the SAGE-experiment's GGNT-apparatus (gallium-germanium neutrino telescope) was upgraded to perform a very-short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment BEST (Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions) with an intense artificial neutrino source based on 51Cr.[5] In 2017, the BEST apparatus was completed, but the artificial neutrino source was missing.[6] As of 2018, the BEST experiment was underway.[7] As of 2018, a follow-up experiment BEST-2 where the source would be changed to 65Zn was under consideration.[8]
Members of SAGE

SAGE is led by the following physicists:

Vladimir Gavrin (leader of the experiment as of 2017)
Georgiy Zatsepin (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia)
Thomas J. Bowles (Los Alamos)

See also

GALLEX/GNO was the second (of two) large gallium-germanium radiochemical experiment. It was running in 1991-2003.
Hans Bethe was the architect of the theory of nuclear fusion reactions in stars.
The University of Washington is playing a major role in the statistical analysis of the SAGE data and in the determination of systematic uncertainties. They are very active in the remaining analysis of the Cr experiment data as well as the solar neutrino data.

References

Gavrin, V. N. (October 2013). "Contribution of gallium experiments to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics". Physics of Atomic Nuclei. 76 (10): 1238–1243. Bibcode:2013PAN....76.1238G. doi:10.1134/S106377881309007X.
https://www.snolab.ca/sites/default/files/Chen3_EvidenceOsc.pdf
http://www.hephy.at/user/mjeitler/TALKS/Baksan_Hephy5.pdf
"Baksan scales new neutrino heights – CERN Courier".
Gavrin, V.; Cleveland, B.; Danshin, S.; Elliott, S.; Gorbachev, V.; Ibragimova, T.; Kalikhov, A.; Knodel, T.; Kozlova, Yu.; Malyshkin, Yu.; Matveev, V.; Mirmov, I.; Nico, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Shikhin, A.; Sinclair, D.; Veretenkin, E.; Wilkerson, J. (2015). "Current status of new SAGE project with 51Cr neutrino source". Physics of Particles and Nuclei. 46 (2): 131. Bibcode:2015PPN....46..131G. doi:10.1134/S1063779615020100. OSTI 1440431.
"Baksan scales new neutrino heights – CERN Courier".
Babenko, Maxim; Overbye, Dennis (2018-07-16). "The Neutrino Trappers". The New York Times.

Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Dzhanelidze, A. A.; Zlokazov, S. B.; Kotelnikov, N. A.; Izhutov, A. L.; Mainskov, S. V.; Pimenov, V. V.; Borisenko, V. P.; Kiselev, K. B.; Tsevelev, M. P. (2018). "On the gallium experiment BEST-2 with a 65Zn source to search for neutrino oscillations on a short baseline". arXiv:1807.02977 [physics.ins-det].

Literature

Abdurashitov, J. N.; et al. (2009). "Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III. Results for the 2002–2007 data-taking period". Physical Review C. 80 (1): 015807. arXiv:0901.2200. Bibcode:2009PhRvC..80a5807A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.80.015807.

External links

The web page of the experiment in the University of Washington
Old page (1994) with results of the experiments
Some results (2001) (in Russian)
Hans Bethe talking about SAGE (video)

Coordinates: 43°16′32″N 42°41′25″E

vte

Neutrino detectors, experiments, and facilities
Discoveries

Cowan–Reines ( νe ) Lederman–Schwartz–Steinberger ( νμ) DONUT ( ντ) Neutrino oscillation SN 1987 neutrino burst

Operating
(divided by primary neutrino source)
Astronomical

ANITA ANTARES ASD BDUNT Borexino BUST HALO IceCube LVD NEVOD SAGE Super-Kamiokande SNEWS

Reactor

Daya Bay Double Chooz KamLAND RENO STEREO

Accelerator

ANNIE ICARUS (Fermilab) MicroBooNE MINERνA MiniBooNE NA61/SHINE NOνA NuMI T2K

0νββ

AMoRE COBRA CUORE EXO GERDA KamLAND-Zen MAJORANA NEXT PandaX SNO+ XMASS

Other

KATRIN WITCH

Construction

ARA ARIANNA Baikal-GVD BEST DUNE Hyper-Kamiokande JUNO KM3NeT SuperNEMO FASERν

Retired

AMANDA CDHS Chooz CNGS Cuoricino DONUT ERPM GALLEX Gargamelle GNO Heidelberg-Moscow Homestake ICARUS IGEX IMB K2K Kamiokande KARMEN KGF LSND MACRO MINOS MINOS+ NARC NEMO OPERA RICE SciBooNE SNO Soudan 2 Utah

Proposed

CUPID GRAND INO LAGUNA LEGEND LENA Neutrino Factory nEXO Nucifer SBND UNO JEM-EUSO WATCHMAN

Cancelled

DUMAND Project Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment NEMO Project NESTOR Project SOX BOREX

See also

BNO (Baksan or Baxan Neutrino Observatory) Kamioka Observatory LNGS SNOLAB List of neutrino experiments

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