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The Extreme Universe Space Observatory onboard Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) is the first space mission concept devoted to the investigation of cosmic rays and neutrinos of extreme energy (E > 5×1019 eV). Using the Earth's atmosphere as a giant detector, the detection is performed by looking at the streak of fluorescence produced when such a particle interacts with the Earth's atmosphere.

EUSO

EUSO was a mission of the European Space Agency, designed to be hosted on the International Space Station as an external payload of the Columbus. EUSO successfully completed the "Phase A" study, however in 2004, ESA decided not to proceed with the mission because of programmatic and financial constraints. The mission was then re-oriented as a payload to be hosted on board the JEM module of the Japanese KIBO facility of the ISS. The mission was then renamed JEM-EUSO.
JEM-EUSO

JEM-EUSO is currently (2013) studied by RIKEN and JAXA, in collaboration with 95 other institutions from 16 countries aiming for a flight after 2020. The proposed instrument consists of a set of three large Fresnel lenses of 2.65-metre diameter (with top and bottom cut off to reduce the minimum diameter to 1.9-metre so that they fit in the HTV resupply vehicle in which the instrument is to be launched) feeding a detector consisting of 137 modules each a 48 x 48 array of photomultipliers. The imaging takes place in the 300 nm-450 nm band (low-energy UV through deep-blue), and photons are time-tagged with 2.5-microsecond precision.[2]
Orbital debris detection

In addition to its main, science mission, EUSO might also be used to detect orbiting space junk that could pose a threat to ISS, but is too small to be spotted by astronomers (1 to 10 cm). The ISS is shielded adequately against particles that are smaller than 1 cm. Particles in this range, or larger, can inflict serious damage, especially to other objects in orbit, since many of them are traveling at speeds of about 36,000 km/h. Nearly 3,000 tons of space debris resides in low-Earth orbit; more than 700,000 pieces of debris larger than 1 cm now orbit Earth. A laser might then be used to deflect dangerous particles. The project could be ready to implement after about 2017–2018, using better lasers.[3]
Other projects under the EUSO framework

[4][5]

EUSO-TA (Extreme Universe Space Observatory-Telescope Array): a ground-based telescope designed to prove the technology of EUSO telescopes. Was installed at Black Rock Mesa, Utah, United States at one of the Telescope Array fluorescence detectors in March 2013 (first observations in 2015). The experiment was on-going in 2018. The experiment has detected some UHECR-events (Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray).
EUSO-Balloon: a balloon-based EUSO telescope meant to further validate the technology. The balloon flight took place in 2014 in Canada and lasted 5 hours. The telescope observed laser-simulated cosmic ray events.
EUSO-SPB (EUSO-Super Pressure Balloon): a high-altitude heavy-lift balloon EUSO telescope. Launched in 2017 from New Zealand (EUSO-SPB1-mission). The flight took 13 days, but was cut substantially shorter than the planned 100 days. Second mission (EUSO-SPB2) is planned for 2021.
TUS (Tracking Ultraviolet Setup): a Russian mission on board the Lomonosov-satellite (launched 2016); included in the EUSO program as of 2018 (originally was not part of EUSO program).
Mini-EUSO: an ultraviolet telescope operated at the ISS. The telescope serves as a pathfinder mission for UCHER-missions in space and maps the ultraviolet background produced by Earth atmosphere. The mapping of the UV-background is important for the follow-up missions K-EUSO and JEM-EUSO. The mission started as a co-operation between Italian Space Agency and Russian Space Agency. The Mini-EUSO telescope was launched to ISS on 22 August 2019.[6]
K-EUSO (KLYPVE-EUSO; KLYPVE is a Russian acronym for extreme energy cosmic rays): a Russian Space Agency project to place an UHECR telescope in the Russian segment of ISS. The project builds upon the TUS-experiment of the Russian Lomonosov-satellite. In 2017, the launch was scheduled for 2022.
JEM-EUSO (Japanese Experiment Module-EUSO): the final goal of the JEM-EUSO program is to have the JEM-EUSO telescope installed into ISS.
POEMMA (Probe Of Multi-Messenger Astrophysics): a dedicated satellite mission (2 satellites) to observe UHECR-events in the atmosphere. As of 2018, it is a NASA-sponsored concept study.

References

"ISS – Orbit". Heavens Above. October 27, 2015. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; et al. (2013). "An evaluation of the exposure in nadir observation of the JEM-EUSO mission". Astroparticle Physics. 44 (76): 76. arXiv:1305.2478. Bibcode:2013APh....44...76A. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.01.008.
https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/space-station-could-get-laser-cannon-to-destroy-orbital-debris/ar-BBjUyxb
Abdellaoui, G.; Abe, S.; Adams, J.H.; Ahriche, A.; Allard, D.; Allen, L.; Alonso, G.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Attallah, R.; Attoui, H.; Ave Pernas, M.; Bacholle, S.; Bakiri, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Bartocci, S.; Bayer, J.; Beldjilali, B.; Belenguer, T.; Belkhalfa, N.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, A.; Belov, K.; Belz, J.W.; Benmessai, K.; Bertaina, M.; et al. (2018). "EUSO-TA – First results from a ground-based EUSO telescope". Astroparticle Physics. 102: 98–111. Bibcode:2018APh...102...98A. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2018.05.007. hdl:2318/1694899.
"JEM-EUSO Experiment | Extreme Universe Space Observatory on-board the Experiment Module".

http://jem-euso.roma2.infn.it/?page_id=818

External links

JEM-EUSO webpage
ESA EUSO webpage

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Components of the International Space Station
Orbiting
Major
components

Zarya (Functional Cargo Block) Zvezda (Service Module) Destiny (laboratory) Columbus (laboratory) Kibō (PM, ELM-PS, EF) Unity (Node 1) Harmony (Node 2) Tranquility (Node 3) Quest Joint Airlock Pirs (docking module, airlock) Rassvet (MRM 1) Poisk (MRM 2) Leonardo (PMM) Cupola Integrated Truss Structure (ITS) Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM)

Subsystems

Mobile Servicing System (MSS)
Canadarm2 Dextre (SPDM) Boom Assembly Strela cranes Kibō Remote Manipulator System External Stowage Platforms (ESPs) ExPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELCs) 1-4 Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) International Docking Adapters (IDAs) Electrical System Life Support System

Experimental
devices

AMS-02 CALET CATS GEDI HDEV MAXI NICER PK-3 Plus SAGE III


ISS components
Future
Planned

Axiom Orbital Segment Bishop (airlock module) European Robotic Arm (ERA) Nauka (Multipurpose Laboratory Module) Prichal (Uzlovoy Module) Science Power Module (NEM-1)

Proposed

Node 4 XBASE Independence-1

Spare
hardware

Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLMs) Kibō (ELM-ES) ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) 5 Interim Control Module (ICM)

Cancelled

Propulsion Module Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM) Habitation Module Crew Return Vehicle (CRV/ACRV) Science Power Platform (SPP) Universal Docking Module (UDM) Russian Research Module (RM)

Category Category

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Neutrino detectors, experiments, and facilities
Discoveries

Cowan–Reines ( ν e) Lederman–Schwartz–Steinberger ( ν μ) DONUT ( ν τ) Neutrino oscillation SN 1987 neutrino burst

Operating
(divided by
primary
neutrino
source)
Astronomical

ANITA ANTARES ASD BDUNT Borexino BUST HALO IceCube LVD NEVOD SAGE Super-Kamiokande SNEWS

Reactor

Daya Bay Double Chooz KamLAND RENO STEREO

Accelerator

ANNIE ICARUS (Fermilab) MicroBooNE MINERνA MiniBooNE NA61/SHINE NOνA NuMI T2K

0νββ

AMoRE COBRA CUORE EXO GERDA KamLAND-Zen MAJORANA NEXT PandaX SNO+ XMASS

Other

KATRIN WITCH

Construction

ARA ARIANNA Baikal-GVD BEST DUNE Hyper-Kamiokande JUNO KM3NeT SuperNEMO FASERν

Retired

AMANDA CDHS Chooz CNGS Cuoricino DONUT ERPM GALLEX Gargamelle GNO Heidelberg-Moscow Homestake ICARUS IGEX IMB K2K Kamiokande KARMEN KGF LSND MACRO MINOS MINOS+ NARC NEMO OPERA RICE SciBooNE SNO Soudan 2 Utah

Proposed

CUPID GRAND INO LAGUNA LEGEND LENA Neutrino Factory nEXO Nucifer SBND UNO JEM-EUSO WATCHMAN

Cancelled

DUMAND Project Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment NEMO Project NESTOR Project SOX BOREX

See also

BNO (Baksan or Baxan Neutrino Observatory) Kamioka Observatory LNGS SNOLAB List of neutrino experiments

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Space observatories
Operating

ACE (since 1997) AGILE (since 2007) AMS-02 (since 2011) Aoi (since 2018) Astrosat (since 2015) BRITE constellation (since 2013) CALET (since 2015) Chandra (AXAF) (since 1999) CHEOPS (since 2019) DAMPE (since 2015) DSCOVR (since 2015) Fermi (since 2008) Gaia (since 2013) HXMT (Insight) (since 2017) Hinode (Solar-B) (since 2006) HiRISE (since 2005) Hisaki (SPRINT-A) (since 2013) Hubble (since 1990) INTEGRAL (since 2002) IBEX (since 2008) IRIS (since 2013) ISS-CREAM (since 2017) Max Valier Sat (since 2017) MAXI (since 2009) Mikhailo Lomonosov (since 2016) Mini-EUSO (since 2019) NCLE (since 2018) NEOSSat (since 2013) NICER (since 2017) NuSTAR (since 2012) Odin (since 2001) SDO (since 2010) SOHO (since 1995) SOLAR (since 2008) Spektr-RG (since 2019) STEREO (since 2006) Swift (since 2004) TESS (since 2018) Wind (since 1994) WISE (since 2009) XMM-Newton (since 1999)

Planned

iWF-MAXI (2020) Astro-1 Telescope (2020) Nano-JASMINE (2020) ORBIS (2020) ILO-X (2021) IXPE (2021) James Webb Space Telescope (2021) XPoSat (2021) Euclid (2022) Space Solar Telescope (2022) SVOM (2022) XRISM (2022) K-EUSO (2023) Solar-C (2023) LORD (2024) JASMINE (2024) SPHEREx (2024) Xuntian (2024) Near-Earth Object Surveillance Mission (2025+) Spektr-UV (2025) Roman Space Telescope (2025+) PLATO (2026) LiteBIRD (2027) ARIEL (2028) Spektr-M (2030+) ATHENA (2031) LISA (2034)

Proposed

Arcus AstroSat-2 EXCEDE Fresnel Imager FOCAL HabEx Hayabusa2 Hibari Hypertelescope ILO-1 JEM-EUSO LUCI LUVOIR Lynx Nautilus Deep Space Observatory New Worlds Mission NRO donation to NASA OST PhoENiX Solar-D SPICA THEIA THESEUS

Retired

Akari (Astro-F) (2006–2011) ALEXIS (1993–2005) Alouette 1 (1962–1972) Ariel 1 (1962, 1964) Ariel 2 (1964) Ariel 3 (1967–1969) Ariel 4 (1971–1972) Ariel 5 (1974–1980) Ariel 6 (1979–1982) ASTERIA (2017–2019) ATM (1973–1974) ASCA (Astro-D) (1993–2000) Astro-1 (1990)
BBXRT HUT Astro-2 (HUT) (1995) Astron (1983–1989) ANS (1974–1976) BeppoSAX (1996–2003) CHIPSat (2003–2008) Compton (CGRO) (1991–2000) CoRoT (2006–2013) Cos-B (1975–1982) COBE (1989–1993) DXS (1993) EPOCh (2008) EPOXI (2010) Explorer 11 (1961) EXOSAT (1983–1986) EUVE (1992–2001) FUSE (1999–2007) Kvant-1 (1987–2001) GALEX (2003–2013) Gamma (1990–1992) Ginga (Astro-C) (1987–1991) Granat (1989–1998) Hakucho (CORSA-b) (1979–1985) HALCA (MUSES-B) (1997–2005) HEAO-1 (1977–1979) Herschel (2009–2013) Hinotori (Astro-A) (1981–1991) HEAO-2 (Einstein Obs.) (1978–1982) HEAO-3 (1979–1981) HETE-2 (2000–2008) Hipparcos (1989–1993) IUE (1978–1996) IRAS (1983) IRTS (1995–1996) ISO (1996–1998) IXAE (1996–2004) Kepler (2009–2018) Kristall (1990–2001) LEGRI (1997–2002) LISA Pathfinder (2015–2017) MOST (2003–2019) MSX (1996–1997) OAO-2 (1968–1973) OAO-3 (Copernicus) (1972–1981) Orbiting Solar Observatory
OSO 1 OSO B OSO 3 OSO 4 OSO 5 OSO 6 OSO 7 OSO 8 Orion 1 (1971) Orion 2 (1973) PAMELA (2006–2016) PicSat (2018) Planck (2009–2013) RELIKT-1 (1983–1984) R/HESSI (2002–2018) ROSAT (1990–1999) RXTE (1995–2012) SAMPEX (1992–2004) SAS-B (1972–1973) SAS-C (1975–1979) Solwind (1979–1985) Spektr-R (2011–2019) Spitzer (2003-2020) Suzaku (Astro-EII) (2005–2015) Taiyo (SRATS) (1975–1980) Tenma (Astro-B) (1983–1985) Uhuru (1970–1973) Vanguard 3 (1959) WMAP (2001–2010) Yokoh (Solar-A) (1991–2001)

Hibernating
(Mission completed)

SWAS (1998–2005) TRACE (1998–2010)

Lost

OAO-1 (1966) OAO-B (1970) CORSA (1976) OSO C (1965) ABRIXAS (1999) HETE-1 (1996) WIRE (1999) Astro-E (2000) Tsubame (2014–2015) Hitomi (Astro-H) (2016)

Cancelled

AOSO Astro-G Constellation-X Darwin Destiny EChO Eddington FAME FINESSE GEMS HOP IXO JDEM LOFT OSO J OSO K Sentinel SIM & SIMlite SNAP SPOrt TAUVEX TPF XEUS XIPE

See also

Great Observatories program List of space telescopes List of proposed space observatories List of X-ray space telescopes

Physics Encyclopedia

World

Index

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

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