Greek War of Independence 1821 in Art 

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The Battle of Peta or Battle of Petta was fought between the Greeks (with Philhellenes) led by Alexandros Mavrokordatos with Markos Botsaris and the Ottomans led by Omer Vrioni on July 16, 1822 (July 4 Julian calendar). The conflict occurred on a hillside near the village of Peta in Epirus.[2]

Background

After the Souliotes defeated the forces of Khourshid Pasha in May and June 1822, they joined Prince Alexander Mavrocordatos who landed at Missolonghi with a contingent of Greek regulars. At the same time, however, Khourshid Pasha surrendered command of the Ottoman forces in Epirus to the Albanian general Omer Vrioni.[3] Joining the Greeks were one battalion of German, Polish, Swiss, French and Italian philhellene volunteers with Karl von Normann-Ehrenfels, formerly of the Wurttemberg army, serving as Mavrokordatos's chief of staff.[4] Several of the Italian, German and French philhellenes were veterans of the Napoleonic wars and who trained a battalion of Greeks to fight in the Western-style of war.[5] The philhellenes were far from united and in a duel a German shot a Frenchman dead.[6] One French philhellene Jean-François-Maxime Raybaud reported: "It was unimaginably difficult to train the men in the harsh and precise details of service in the ranks, in strict discipline and in the advantages of systematic instruction, when these men were Europeans of a generally difficult temperament and different in their habits, education, language and weapons".[7] Mavrokordhatos's force of about 2,000 men, both regular and irregular were outnumbered by the Ottoman force of 10,000 (or 14.000[8])Turks and Albanians.[7] Mavrokordhatos placed his men on two ridges to the west and east of the village of Peta, which stands on a low hill at the beginning of a coastal plain.[9] On the higher ridge to the east of the village were placed Greek forces under Gogos Bakolas on the right, forces commanded by other captains Varnakiotis and Vlachopoulos in the middle while Markos Botsaris were on the left.[10] On the western and lower ridge were the philhellenes with the Greek regulars under the Italian captain Taralla in the middle, volunteers from the British protectorate of the Ionian islands on the right and the philhellenes under the Italian Dania on the left.[10] Bakolas and Botsaris were old enemies, both being rival klephts (bandits) and Mavrokordhatos wanted to keep the two rivals as far as apart as possible as the two men hated on another.[10]
Battle

The Greek forces were encamped at Peta in Arta when a force of 7,000-8,000 Ottoman troops attacked their positions.[11] The Ottomans advanced before dawn in a crescent formation with 600 horsemen charging on the right towards the western ridge.[10] The Ottoman cavalry were surprised that no fire was returned, and only when they reached within a hundred feet of the ridge, did the philhellenes and the Greek regulars return fire, bringing down a lethal rain of bullets that cut down the Ottomans, who not used to fighting a disciplined opponent in Greece.[12] Over the next two hours, the Ottomans charged and charged again against the ridge, and were beaten off with heavy losses every time.[13] On the north of the eastern ridge, Albanian irregulars attacked, but were initially repulsed by Bakolas's men.[14] During the conflict, the Greeks and Philhellenes were betrayed by Gogos Bakolas, an old klepht and captain of the armatoloi.[3] According to some accounts, Bakolas deliberately left his right flank unguarded and made no effort to fire upon the Albanians as they advanced on his right flank. When the Albanians scaled the ridge, Bakolas ordered his men to retreat and the Albanians made no effort to attack him as Bakolas had agreed before the battle to betray his own side. With the Albanians on the upper ridge, the other Greek forces were driven off.[14] Once the eastern ridge was in Ottoman hands, the Ottoman seized the village of Peta and then attacked the Greek forces on the western ridge from behind.[14] Attacked from both sides, the forces on the lower ridge were overwhelmed with most of the philhellenes and Greek regulars, who were now disorganized and out of formation making a desperate last stand against the Ottoman cavalry who cut them down without mercy.[13] Bakolas's treachery resulted in the overall defeat of the Greeks.
Aftermath

At the end of the conflict, the entire Philhellenes' Battalion suffered massive casualties.[2] Of the philhellenes killed included both the Italian officers Dania and Tarella and the overall losses were 67 philhellenes killed, of whom 34 were German, 12 Italian, 9 Polish, 7 French, 1 Dutch and 1 Hungarian.[15] Despite Botsaris's brave efforts, he was forced to flee to Mesolonghi with Prince Mavrocordatos.[3]

The defeat had a negative impact on the prestige of Mavrocordatos, such as to the supporters of the necessity for a regular Greek army. The sympathies and support of the Greek revolutionaries were moved towards the military leaders (captains) of Peloponnese, especially Kolokotronis.
References

Paparigopoulos, K, History of the Greek Nation (Greek edition), vol. 6, p. 68-70
Emden, Christian and Midgley, David R. Papers from the Conference 'The Fragile Tradition' (Volume 2). Cambridge, 2002, ISBN 3-03910-169-2, p. 108. "The battle of Peta, one of the few actual field battles between the Greeks and the Turks in the War of Independence, was fought in 1822 on a hillside near the Epirote village of Peta and resulted in the large-scale and traumatic defeat of the Philhellenes' Battalion."
Knight, Charles. Biography: Or, Third Division of "The English Encyclopedia" (Volume 1). Bradbury, Evans & Co., 1866, pp. 886-887. "On the taking of Jannina and the death of Ali in February 1822, the Souliotes continued the war on their own account, and being attacked by Khourshid in their mountains, they defeated him with great loss in May and June of that year. Khourshid at last quitted Epirus, leaving Omer Vrioni in command there, while at the same time Prince Mavrocordato landed at Mesolonghi with a body of regular troops in the Greek service, and being joined by Bozzaris advanced towards Arta. This movement led to the battle of Petta, on the 16th of July 1822, which the Greeks and Philhellenes lost through the treachery of Gogos, an old Kleftis and captain of Armatoles. Bozzaris, after fighting bravely, was obliged to retire with Mavrocordato to Mesolonghi."
Brewer, David The Greek War of Independence, London: Overlook Duckworth, 2011 pages 146-147
Brewer, David The Greek War of Independence, London: Overlook Duckworth, 2011 pages 146.
Brewer, David The Greek War of Independence, London: Overlook Duckworth, 2011 page 148.
Brewer, David The Greek War of Independence, London: Overlook Duckworth, 2011 pages 148.
Paparigopoulos, K, History of the Greek Nation (Greek edition), vol. 6, p. 67
Brewer, David The Greek War of Independence, London: Overlook Duckworth, 2011 pages 149
Brewer, David The Greek War of Independence, London: Overlook Duckworth, 2011 pages 149.
Army History Directorate (Greece), Hellenic Army General Staff (Greece). An Index of Events in the Military History of the Greek Nation. Hellenic Army General Staff, Army History Directorate, 1998, ISBN 960-7897-27-7, p. 397. "4/7/1822 19. The Battle of Peta. A force of 7,000-8,000 Turks attacked the Greek regular army and irregular units which were encamped in the village of Peta in Arta..."
Brewer, David The Greek War of Independence, London: Overlook Duckworth, 2011 pages 149-150.
Brewer, David The Greek War of Independence, London: Overlook Duckworth, 2011 pages 150
Brewer, David The Greek War of Independence, London: Overlook Duckworth, 2011 pages 150.

Brewer, David The Greek War of Independence, London: Overlook Duckworth, 2011 pages 150-151.

External links

Battle of Peta (in Greek)

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Greek War of Independence (1821–1829)
Background
Ottoman Greece
People

Armatoloi Proestoi Klephts Dionysius the Philosopher Daskalogiannis Panagiotis Benakis Konstantinos Kolokotronis Lambros Katsonis Cosmas of Aetolia Ali Pasha Maniots Phanariots Souliotes Gregory V of Constantinople

Events

Orlov Revolt Souliote War (1803)

Greek Enlightenment
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Athanasios Christopoulos Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais Eugenios Voulgaris

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Nikolaos Skoufas Athanasios Tsakalov Emmanuil Xanthos Panagiotis Anagnostopoulos Philomuse Society Society of the Phoenix

Publications

Adelphiki Didaskalia Asma Polemistirion Hellenic Nomarchy Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios Salpisma Polemistirion Thourios or Patriotic hymn

European intervention and
Greek involvement in
the Napoleonic Wars

Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Greek Plan of Catherine the Great Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars
Fall of the Republic of Venice Republican French rule in the Ionian Islands Septinsular Republic Greek Legion Imperial French rule in the Ionian Islands Albanian Regiment Adriatic campaign of 1807–1814 1st Regiment Greek Light Infantry United States of the Ionian Islands

Ideas

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Events
Sieges

Patras Salona Navarino Livadeia 1st Acropolis Tripolitsa Arta Acrocorinth Nauplia 1st Messolonghi 2nd Messolonghi 3rd Messolonghi 2nd Acropolis

Battles

Kalamata Wallachian uprising Alamana Gravia Valtetsi Doliana Lalas Vasilika Dragashani Sculeni Vasilika Trench Peta Dervenakia Karpenisi Greek civil wars Sphacteria Maniaki Lerna Mills Mani Distomo Arachova Kamatero Phaleron Chios expedition Martino Koronisia Petra

Massacres

Constantinople Thessaloniki Navarino Tripolitsa Naousa <a href="MassacreOfSamothrace.html">Samothrace</a> <a href="ChiosMassacre.html">Chios</a> Psara Kasos

Naval conflicts

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Ships

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Greek national assemblies

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International Conferences,
Treaties and Protocols

Congress of Laibach Congress of Verona Protocol of St. Petersburg (1826) Treaty of London Conference of Poros London Protocol of 1828 London Protocol of 1829 Treaty of Adrianople London Protocol of 1830 London Conference Treaty of Constantinople

Related

Greek expedition to Syria (1825) Russo-Turkish War (1828-29)

Personalities
Greece

Chian Committee Odysseas Androutsos Anagnostaras Markos Botsaris Laskarina Bouboulina Constantin Denis Bourbaki Hatzimichalis Dalianis Kanellos Deligiannis Athanasios Diakos Germanos III of Old Patras Dimitrios Kallergis Athanasios Kanakaris Constantine Kanaris Ioannis Kapodistrias Stamatios Kapsas Panagiotis Karatzas Georgios Karaiskakis Nikolaos Kasomoulis Ioannis Kolettis Theodoros Kolokotronis Georgios Kountouriotis Antonios Kriezis Nikolaos Kriezotis Kyprianos of Cyprus Georgios Lassanis Lykourgos Logothetis Andreas Londos Yannis Makriyannis Manto Mavrogenous Alexandros Mavrokordatos Petrobey Mavromichalis Andreas Metaxas Andreas Miaoulis Theodoros Negris Nikitaras Antonis Oikonomou Ioannis Orlandos Papaflessas Dimitrios Papanikolis Emmanouel Pappas Christoforos Perraivos Nikolaos Petimezas Panagiotis Rodios Georgios Sachtouris Georgios Sisinis Iakovos Tombazis Anastasios Tsamados Meletis Vasileiou Demetrios Ypsilantis

Philhellenes

António Figueira d'Almeida Michail Komninos Afentoulief Joseph Balestra Lord Byron François-René de Chateaubriand Richard Church Giuseppe Chiappe Lord Cochrane Vincenzo Gallina Charles Fabvier Thomas Gordon Frank Abney Hastings Carl von Heideck Vasos Mavrovouniotis Johann Jakob Meyer
Ellinika Chronika Karl Normann Maxime Raybaud Giuseppe Rosaroll Santorre di Santa Rosa Friedrich Thiersch Auguste Hilarion Touret German Legion [el] Serbs Olivier Voutier

Moldavia and Wallachia
(Danubian Principalities)

Alexander Ypsilantis Sacred Band Nikolaos Ypsilantis Alexandros Kantakouzinos Georgios Kantakouzinos Athanasios Agrafiotis Giorgakis Olympios Yiannis Pharmakis Dimitrie Macedonski Tudor Vladimirescu Konstantinos Xenokratis Anastasios Manakis Stamatios Kleanthis

Ottoman Empire, Algeria, and Egypt

Sultan Mahmud II Hurshid Pasha Nasuhzade Ali Pasha Ismael Gibraltar Omer Vrioni Kara Mehmet Mahmud Dramali Pasha Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha Reşid Mehmed Pasha Yussuf Pasha Ibrahim Pasha Soliman Pasha al-Faransawi

Britain, France and Russia

George Canning Stratford Canning Edward Codrington Henri de Rigny Lodewijk van Heiden Alexander I of Russia Nicholas I of Russia

Financial aid

London Philhellenic Committee Ludwig I of Bavaria Jean-Gabriel Eynard Lazaros Kountouriotis Ioannis Papafis Georgios Stavros Ioannis Varvakis Rothschild & Co

Morea expedition
Military

Nicolas Joseph Maison Antoine Simon Durrieu Antoine Virgile Schneider Auguste Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély Camille Alphonse Trézel

Scientific

Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent Léon-Jean-Joseph Dubois Pierre Peytier Stamatis Voulgaris Guillaume-Abel Blouet Gabriel Bibron Prosper Baccuet Eugène Emmanuel Amaury Duval Pierre-Narcisse Guérin Charles Lenormant Edgar Quinet

Historians/Memoirists

Dimitrios Ainian Fotis Chrysanthopoulos Ioannis Filimon George Finlay Ambrosios Frantzis Konstantinos Metaxas Panoutsos Notaras Panagiotis Papatsonis Anastasios Polyzoidis Georgios Tertsetis Spyridon Trikoupis

Art

Eugène Delacroix Louis Dupré Peter von Hess Victor Hugo François Pouqueville Alexander Pushkin Karl Krazeisen Andreas Kalvos Dionysios Solomos Theodoros Vryzakis Hellas The Reception of Lord Byron at Missolonghi Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi Le siège de Corinthe The Massacre at Chios The Free Besieged Hymn to Liberty The Archipelago on Fire Loukis Laras The Apotheosis of Athanasios Diakos

Remembrance

25 March (Independence Day) Hymn to Liberty Eleftheria i thanatos Pedion tou Areos Propylaea (Munich) Garden of Heroes (Missolonghi) Royal Phalanx Evzones (Presidential Guard)

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