Greek War of Independence 1821 in Art 

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The Chios expedition (Greek: Εκστρατεία της Χίου) was an unsuccessful attempt of the regular Greek army and irregular military units for the recapture of Chios island during the final stages of the Greek War of Independence. Chios had participated in the Greek uprising against the Ottoman Empire, but had been captured and its population massacred by the Ottoman fleet in 1822.

Historical background

In the last months of 1827, as independence loomed, the Greek rebels launched simultaneous military operations from Peloponnese to Chios, Crete, eastern and western Greece. This happened because they were very concerned that large areas would remain outside the prospective Greek state, even areas that had revolted and had suffered many hardships during the previous stages of the War of Independence.

In 1827, Chian merchants who lived in Syros sent letters to the Greek government begging them to undertake an expedition to regain Chios. The newly formed Chian Committee sent a letter to their fellow Chian, Adamantios Korais, asking him to find basic resources (like water and food) for the campaign. The Vice-gubernatorial Committee that administered Greece until the arrival of Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias ordered Sir Richard Church to assign the task of recovering Chios to Charles Nicolas Fabvier in August 1827. At first, Fabvier didn't act, but soon began organizing an expeditionary force of 600-700 men, mostly from the regular army, as well as a small artillery force (4 field guns, 6-7 siege guns, 3 mortars). The force was complemented by 200 cavalry (although less than a quarter actually had horses), which did not arrive until November, and over a thousand irregulars from Central Greece and Chian refugees.
Initial campaign

vte

Greek
War of Independence

The expedition assembled at the island of Psara, near Chios, which likewise had been captured and ravaged by the Ottomans in 1824. The expeditionary force landed on Chios on 17 October, facing the Ottoman garrison of 2,000 men under Yusuf Pasha. The next day, the Greek fleet under Thomas Cochrane offloaded further 5 mortars and 1,000 shells. The Greek expedition had already caused the reaction of the Great Powers, whose admirals in the Aegean on 12 October had issued a proclamation opposing any renewed uprising on Chios. Undeterred, Fabvier defeated the first Ottoman forces that opposed him, forcing them to shut themselves in the medieval Castle of Chios, which he laid siege to. The siege was incomplete, however, as Fabvier lacked a fleet to blockade the fortress from the sea as well.
The Portuguese Antonio Figueira d' Almeida was commander of the Greek cavalry at Chios

Α serious problem that Fabvier was facing was the order from the French admiral Henri de Rigny to quit and leave. Fabvier replied that he only took orders from the Greek government. On 5 November 1827 he was reinforced by the cavalry under the philhellene Portuguese colonel Antonio Figueira d'Almeida. Few days later the famed mine-digger Konstantinos Lagoumitzis came to the island in order to help undermine the walls of the castle.

At the same time, Fabvier launched raids on the Anatolian shores, and prepared a large-scale attack on the port of Çesme, in conjunction with a fireship attack under Konstantinos Kanaris against the ships in port there. In the event, string winds prevented the execution of this operation. A similar raid against the environs of Smyrna was thwarted after the brig Sotir sunk in a storm on 6 January 1828.
Ottoman garrison

On 12 January, the Ottomans launched a strong sortie against the poorly guarded bastion of the Greek siege lines, and soon made rapid progress until stopped by the strong resistance of irregulars under the kapetanios Gekas, who bought precious time for the intervention of the 2nd Regular Battalion, which drove the Turks back. Fabvier himself, seeing Turkish banners on his trenches, took the 3rd Battalion and recaptured the original bastion the Turks had captured. The Turks lost 240 (according to other sources as many as 524) men, but the victory was not decisive as the blockade remained loose. The new governor, Kapodistrias, sent money and reinforcements to the island and ordered the fleet to assist, but the situation was critical: the Chian Committee had ceased providing pay and supplies to the troops, while the exactions of the irregular fighters exacerbated relations with the locals.
Evacuation

Finally, on 27 February 1828, an Ottoman squadron drove away the Greek ships aiding the siege. On the next day, they escorted 3,000 troops from Çesme across the sea to Chios. The first attempts to land elsewhere on the island were thwarted by the regular Greek troops, forcing the Ottomans to land in the fortress. Their arrival led to the collapse of morale of the Chian population, many of whom fled the island. Fabvier decided to lift the siege and withdraw, and in early March, he and his men were evacuated from the island.
References
Sources
Παναγής Δ. Ζούβας (1971). Η εκστρατεία της Χίου υπό τον Φαβιέρον κατά την Ελληνικήν Επανάστασιν. Athens.
Η Ελληνική Επανάσταση και η ίδρυση του Ελληνικού Κράτους (1821-1832) - (τόμος ΙΒ). Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους. Athens: Εκδοτική Αθηνών. 1975. ISBN 960-213-095-4.
Σπυρίδωνας Τρικούπης (1994). Από τη Γ΄ Εθνοσυνέλευση στην Επίδαυρο ως την ανακύρηξη της Ανεξαρτησίας - (τόμος Τέταρτος). Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Επανάστασης. Athens: Νέα σύνορα - Α. Α. Λιβάνη. ISBN 960-236-370-3.

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Greek War of Independence (1821–1829)
Background
Ottoman Greece
People

Armatoloi Proestoi Klephts Dionysius the Philosopher Daskalogiannis Panagiotis Benakis Konstantinos Kolokotronis Lambros Katsonis Cosmas of Aetolia Ali Pasha Maniots Phanariots Souliotes Gregory V of Constantinople

Events

Orlov Revolt Souliote War (1803)

Greek Enlightenment
People

Athanasios Christopoulos Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais Eugenios Voulgaris

Organizations

Ellinoglosso Xenodocheio Filiki Eteria
Nikolaos Skoufas Athanasios Tsakalov Emmanuil Xanthos Panagiotis Anagnostopoulos Philomuse Society Society of the Phoenix

Publications

Adelphiki Didaskalia Asma Polemistirion Hellenic Nomarchy Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios Salpisma Polemistirion Thourios or Patriotic hymn

European intervention and
Greek involvement in
the Napoleonic Wars

Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Greek Plan of Catherine the Great Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars
Fall of the Republic of Venice Republican French rule in the Ionian Islands Septinsular Republic Greek Legion Imperial French rule in the Ionian Islands Albanian Regiment Adriatic campaign of 1807–1814 1st Regiment Greek Light Infantry United States of the Ionian Islands

Ideas

Nationalism Eastern Orthodox Christianity Liberalism Constitutionalism

Events
Sieges

Patras Salona Navarino Livadeia 1st Acropolis Tripolitsa Arta Acrocorinth Nauplia 1st Messolonghi 2nd Messolonghi 3rd Messolonghi 2nd Acropolis

Battles

Kalamata Wallachian uprising Alamana Gravia Valtetsi Doliana Lalas Vasilika Dragashani Sculeni Vasilika Trench Peta Dervenakia Karpenisi Greek civil wars Sphacteria Maniaki Lerna Mills Mani Distomo Arachova Kamatero Phaleron Chios expedition Martino Koronisia Petra

Massacres

Constantinople Thessaloniki Navarino Tripolitsa Naousa <a href="MassacreOfSamothrace.html">Samothrace</a> <a href="ChiosMassacre.html">Chios</a> Psara Kasos

Naval conflicts

Eresos Chios Nauplia Samos Andros Sphacteria Gerontas Souda Alexandria Volos Itea Navarino

Ships

Greek sloop Karteria Greek brig Aris

Greek regional councils and statutes

Messenian Senate Directorate of Achaea Peloponnesian Senate Senate of Western Continental Greece Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece Provisional Regime of Crete Military-Political System of Samos

Greek national assemblies

First (Epidaurus) (Executive of 1822) Second (Astros) Third (Troezen) Fourth (Argos) Fifth (Nafplion)

International Conferences,
Treaties and Protocols

Congress of Laibach Congress of Verona Protocol of St. Petersburg (1826) Treaty of London Conference of Poros London Protocol of 1828 London Protocol of 1829 Treaty of Adrianople London Protocol of 1830 London Conference Treaty of Constantinople

Related

Greek expedition to Syria (1825) Russo-Turkish War (1828-29)

Personalities
Greece

Chian Committee Odysseas Androutsos Anagnostaras Markos Botsaris Laskarina Bouboulina Constantin Denis Bourbaki Hatzimichalis Dalianis Kanellos Deligiannis Athanasios Diakos Germanos III of Old Patras Dimitrios Kallergis Athanasios Kanakaris Constantine Kanaris Ioannis Kapodistrias Stamatios Kapsas Panagiotis Karatzas Georgios Karaiskakis Nikolaos Kasomoulis Ioannis Kolettis Theodoros Kolokotronis Georgios Kountouriotis Antonios Kriezis Nikolaos Kriezotis Kyprianos of Cyprus Georgios Lassanis Lykourgos Logothetis Andreas Londos Yannis Makriyannis Manto Mavrogenous Alexandros Mavrokordatos Petrobey Mavromichalis Andreas Metaxas Andreas Miaoulis Theodoros Negris Nikitaras Antonis Oikonomou Ioannis Orlandos Papaflessas Dimitrios Papanikolis Emmanouel Pappas Christoforos Perraivos Nikolaos Petimezas Panagiotis Rodios Georgios Sachtouris Georgios Sisinis Iakovos Tombazis Anastasios Tsamados Meletis Vasileiou Demetrios Ypsilantis

Philhellenes

António Figueira d'Almeida Michail Komninos Afentoulief Joseph Balestra Lord Byron François-René de Chateaubriand Richard Church Giuseppe Chiappe Lord Cochrane Vincenzo Gallina Charles Fabvier Thomas Gordon Frank Abney Hastings Carl von Heideck Vasos Mavrovouniotis Johann Jakob Meyer
Ellinika Chronika Karl Normann Maxime Raybaud Giuseppe Rosaroll Santorre di Santa Rosa Friedrich Thiersch Auguste Hilarion Touret German Legion [el] Serbs Olivier Voutier

Moldavia and Wallachia
(Danubian Principalities)

Alexander Ypsilantis Sacred Band Nikolaos Ypsilantis Alexandros Kantakouzinos Georgios Kantakouzinos Athanasios Agrafiotis Giorgakis Olympios Yiannis Pharmakis Dimitrie Macedonski Tudor Vladimirescu Konstantinos Xenokratis Anastasios Manakis Stamatios Kleanthis

Ottoman Empire, Algeria, and Egypt

Sultan Mahmud II Hurshid Pasha Nasuhzade Ali Pasha Ismael Gibraltar Omer Vrioni Kara Mehmet Mahmud Dramali Pasha Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha Reşid Mehmed Pasha Yussuf Pasha Ibrahim Pasha Soliman Pasha al-Faransawi

Britain, France and Russia

George Canning Stratford Canning Edward Codrington Henri de Rigny Lodewijk van Heiden Alexander I of Russia Nicholas I of Russia

Financial aid

London Philhellenic Committee Ludwig I of Bavaria Jean-Gabriel Eynard Lazaros Kountouriotis Ioannis Papafis Georgios Stavros Ioannis Varvakis Rothschild & Co

Morea expedition
Military

Nicolas Joseph Maison Antoine Simon Durrieu Antoine Virgile Schneider Auguste Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély Camille Alphonse Trézel

Scientific

Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent Léon-Jean-Joseph Dubois Pierre Peytier Stamatis Voulgaris Guillaume-Abel Blouet Gabriel Bibron Prosper Baccuet Eugène Emmanuel Amaury Duval Pierre-Narcisse Guérin Charles Lenormant Edgar Quinet

Historians/Memoirists

Dimitrios Ainian Fotis Chrysanthopoulos Ioannis Filimon George Finlay Ambrosios Frantzis Konstantinos Metaxas Panoutsos Notaras Panagiotis Papatsonis Anastasios Polyzoidis Georgios Tertsetis Spyridon Trikoupis

Art

Eugène Delacroix Louis Dupré Peter von Hess Victor Hugo François Pouqueville Alexander Pushkin Karl Krazeisen Andreas Kalvos Dionysios Solomos Theodoros Vryzakis Hellas The Reception of Lord Byron at Missolonghi Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi Le siège de Corinthe The Massacre at Chios The Free Besieged Hymn to Liberty The Archipelago on Fire Loukis Laras The Apotheosis of Athanasios Diakos

Remembrance

25 March (Independence Day) Hymn to Liberty Eleftheria i thanatos Pedion tou Areos Propylaea (Munich) Garden of Heroes (Missolonghi) Royal Phalanx Evzones (Presidential Guard)

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