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The BSSN formalism is a formalism of general relativity that was developed by Thomas W. Baumgarte, Stuart L. Shapiro, Masaru Shibata and Takashi Nakamura between 1987 and 1999.[1] It is a modification of the ADM formalism developed during the 1950s.

The ADM formalism is a Hamiltonian formalism that does not permit stable and long-term numerical simulations. In the BSSN formalism, the ADM equations are modified by introducing auxiliary variables. The formalism has been tested for a long-term evolution of linear gravitational waves and used for a variety of purposes such as simulating the non-linear evolution of gravitational waves or the evolution and collision of black holes.[2][3]
See also

ADM formalism
Canonical coordinates
Canonical gravity
Hamiltonian mechanics

References

Jinho Kim (2008-07-28). "General Relativistic Hydrodynamics Using BSSN formalism" (PDF). Seoul National University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-27. Retrieved 2009-10-19.
Masaru Shibata (October 2004). "Status of numerical relativity". Indian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2009-10-19.

Takashi Nakamura (2006). "Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves". Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B. 82 (9): 311–327. Bibcode:2006PJAB...82..311N. doi:10.2183/pjab.82.311. PMC 4338837. PMID 25792793.

Relativity
Special relativity
Background

Principle of relativity (Galilean relativity Galilean transformation) Special relativity Doubly special relativity

Fundamental
concepts

Frame of reference Speed of light Hyperbolic orthogonality Rapidity Maxwell's equations Proper length Proper time Relativistic mass

Formulation

Lorentz transformation

Phenomena

Time dilation Mass–energy equivalence Length contraction Relativity of simultaneity Relativistic Doppler effect Thomas precession Ladder paradox Twin paradox

Spacetime

Light cone World line Minkowski diagram Biquaternions Minkowski space

General relativity
Background

Introduction Mathematical formulation

Fundamental
concepts

Equivalence principle Riemannian geometry Penrose diagram Geodesics Mach's principle

Formulation

ADM formalism BSSN formalism Einstein field equations Linearized gravity Post-Newtonian formalism Raychaudhuri equation Hamilton–Jacobi–Einstein equation Ernst equation

Phenomena

Black hole Event horizon Singularity Two-body problem

Gravitational waves: astronomy detectors (LIGO and collaboration Virgo LISA Pathfinder GEO) Hulse–Taylor binary

Other tests: precession of Mercury lensing redshift Shapiro delay frame-dragging / geodetic effect (Lense–Thirring precession) pulsar timing arrays

Advanced
theories

Brans–Dicke theory Kaluza–Klein Quantum gravity

Solutions

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Spherical: Schwarzschild (interior Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff equation) Reissner–Nordström Lemaître–Tolman

Axisymmetric: Kerr (Kerr–Newman) Weyl−Lewis−Papapetrou Taub–NUT van Stockum dust discs

Others: pp-wave Ozsváth–Schücking metric

Scientists

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