Physics Gifts

- Art Gallery -

The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths.

Overview

Scale Range (m) Unit Example items
<
Subatomic 0 Singularity
10−35 P Fixed value (not a range). Quantum foam, string
10−18 10−15 am proton, neutron, pion
Atomic to cellular 10−15 10−12 fm Atomic nucleus
10−12 10−9 pm Wavelength of gamma rays and X-rays, hydrogen atom
10−9 10−6 nm DNA helix, virus, wavelength of optical spectrum
Cellular to human 10−6 10−3 μm Bacterium, fog water droplet, human hair's diameter[note 1]
10−3 1 mm Mosquito, golf ball, domestic cat, violin, football
Human to astronomical 100 103 m Piano, human, automobile, sperm whale, football field, Eiffel Tower
103 106 km Mount Everest, length of Panama Canal and Trans-Siberian Railway, larger asteroid
Astronomical 106 109 Mm The Moon, Earth, one light-second
109 1012 Gm Sun, one light-minute, Earth's orbit
1012 1015 Tm Orbits of outer planets, Solar System
1015 1018 Pm A light-year, the distance to Proxima Centauri
1018 1021 Em Galactic arm
1021 1024 Zm Milky Way, distance to Andromeda Galaxy
1024 Ym Huge-LQG, Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall, visible universe

Detailed list

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various lengths between \( {\displaystyle 1.6\times 10^{-35}} \) metres and 1\( 10^{10^{10^{122}}} \) metres.
Subatomic scale

Factor (m) Multiple Value Item
0 0 0 Singularity
10−35 1 Planck length 0.0000000000162 ym  Planck length; typical scale of hypothetical loop quantum gravity or size of a hypothetical string and of branes; according to string theory lengths smaller than this do not make any physical sense.[1] Quantum foam is thought to exist at this level.
10−24 1 yoctometre (ym) 142 ym Effective cross section radius of 1 MeV neutrinos[2]
10−21 1 zeptometre (zm) Preons, hypothetical particles proposed as subcomponents of quarks and leptons; the upper bound for the width of a cosmic string in string theory
7 zm Effective cross section radius of high-energy neutrinos[3]
310 zm De Broglie wavelength of protons at the Large Hadron Collider (4 TeV as of 2012)
10−18 1 attometre (am) Upper limit for the size of quarks and electrons
Sensitivity of the LIGO detector for gravitational waves[4]
Upper bound of the typical size range for "fundamental strings"[1]
10−17 10 am Range of the weak force
10−16 100 am 850 am Approximate proton radius[5]

Atomic to cellular scale

Factor (m) Multiple Value Item

10−15 1 femtometre (fm, fermi) 1 fm Approximate limit of the gluon-mediated color force between quarks[6][7]
1.5 fm Effective cross section radius of an 11 MeV proton[8]
2.81794 fm Classical electron radius[9]
3 fm Approximate limit of the meson-mediated nuclear binding force[6][7]
1.75 to 15 fm Diameter range of the atomic nucleus[1][10]
10−12 1 picometre (pm) 0.75 to 0.8225 pm Longest wavelength of gamma rays
1 pm Distance between atomic nuclei in a white dwarf
2.4 pm Compton wavelength of electron
5 pm Wavelength of shortest X-rays
10−11 10 pm
31 pm Radius of helium atom
53 pm Bohr radius (radius of a hydrogen atom)
10−10 100 pm 100 pm 1 ångström (also covalent radius of sulfur atom[11])
154 pm Length of a typical covalent bond (C–C)
280 pm Average size of the water molecule (actual lengths may vary)
500 pm Width of protein α helix
10−9 1 nanometre (nm) 1 nm Diameter of a carbon nanotube[12] Diameter of smallest transistor gate (as of 2016)[13]
2 nm Diameter of the DNA helix[14]
2.5 nm Smallest microprocessor transistor gate oxide thickness (as of January 2007)
3.4 nm Length of a DNA turn (10 bp)[15]
6–10 nm Thickness of cell membrane
10−8 10 nm 10 nm Thickness of cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria
10 nm As of 2016, the 10 nanometre was the smallest semiconductor device fabrication node[16]
40 nm Extreme ultraviolet wavelength
50 nm Flying height of the head of a hard disk[17]
10−7 100 nm 121.6 nm Wavelength of the Lyman-alpha line[18]
120 nm Typical diameter of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)[19]
400–700 nm Approximate wavelength range of visible light[20]

Cellular to human scale

Factor (m) Multiple Value Item

10−6 1 micrometre (μm)

(also called 1 micron)

1–4 μm Typical length of a bacterium[21]
4 μm Typical diameter of spider silk[22]
7 μm Typical size of a red blood cell[23]
10−5 10 μm 10 μm Typical size of a fog, mist, or cloud water droplet
10 μm Width of transistors in the Intel 4004, the world's first commercial microprocessor
12 μm Width of acrylic fiber
17-181 μm Width range of human hair[24]
10−4 100 μm 340 μm Size of a single pixel on a 17-inch monitor with a resolution of 1024×768
560 μm Thickness of the central area of a human cornea[25]
750 μm Maximum diameter of Thiomargarita namibiensis, the largest bacterium ever discovered (as of 2010)
10−3 1 millimetre (mm) ~5 mm Length of an average flea is 1–10 mm (usually <5 mm) [26]
2.54 mm 1/10th inch; distance between pins in DIP (dual-inline-package) electronic components
5.70 mm Diameter of the projectile in 5.56×45mm NATO ammunition
10−2 1 centimetre (cm) 20 mm Approximate width of an adult human finger
54 mm x 86 mm Dimensions of a credit card, according to the ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 standard
73–75 mm Diameter of a baseball, according to Major League Baseball guidelines[27]
10−1 1 decimetre (dm) 120 mm Diameter of a compact disk
660 mm Length of the longest pine cones, produced by the sugar pine[28]
900 mm Average length of a rapier, a fencing sword[29]

Human to astronomical scale

Factor (m) Multiple Value Item

1 metre 1 metre (m) 1 m (exactly) Since 1983, defined as length of the path travelled by light in vacuum
during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. See History of the metre for previous definitions.
2.72 m Height of Robert Wadlow, tallest known human being.[30]
8.38 m Length of a London bus (AEC Routemaster)
101 1 decametre (dam) 33 m Length of the longest known blue whale[31]
52 m Height of the Niagara Falls.[32]
93.47 m Height of the Statue of Liberty
102 1 hectometre (hm) 105 m Length of a typical football field
137 m (147 m) Height (present and original) of the Great Pyramid of Giza
300 m Height of the Eiffel Tower, one of the famous monuments of Paris
979 m Height of the Salto Angel, the world's highest free-falling waterfall (Venezuela)
103 1 kilometre (km) 2.3 km Length of the Three Gorges Dam, the largest dam in the world[33][34]
3.1 km Narrowest width of the Strait of Messina, separating Italy and Sicily
8.848 km Height of Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth
104 10 km 10.9 km Depth of the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, the deepest known point on Earth's surface
27 km Circumference of the Large Hadron Collider, as of May 2010 the largest and highest energy particle accelerator
42.195 km Length of a marathon
105 100 km
100 km The distance the IAU considers to be the limit to space, called the Karman line
163 km Length of the Suez Canal, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea
491 km Length of the Pyrenees, the mountain range separating Spain and France
974.6 km Greatest diameter of the dwarf planet Ceres.[35]
106 1 megametre (Mm) 2.38 Mm Diameter of dwarf planet Pluto, formerly the smallest planet category[note 2] in the Solar System
3.48 Mm Diameter of the Moon
5.2 Mm Typical distance covered by the winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans automobile endurance race
6.4 Mm Length of the Great Wall of China
6.6 Mm Approximate length of the two longest rivers, the Nile and the Amazon
7.821 Mm Length of the Trans-Canada Highway
9.288 Mm Length of the Trans-Siberian Railway, longest in the world

Astronomical scale

Factor (m) Multiple Value Item
107 10 Mm 12.756 Mm Equatorial diameter of Earth
40.075 Mm Length of Earth's equator
108 100 Mm 142.984 Mm Diameter of Jupiter
299.792 Mm Distance traveled by light in one second
384.4 Mm Moon's orbital distance from Earth
109 1 gigametre (Gm) 1.39 Gm Diameter of the Sun
4.8 Gm Greatest mileage ever recorded by a car (3 million miles by a 1966 Volvo P-1800S, still driving)
1010 10 Gm 18 Gm Approximately one light-minute
1011 100 Gm 150 Gm 1 astronomical unit (AU); mean distance between Earth and Sun
1012 1 terametre (Tm) 1.3 Tm Optical diameter of Betelgeuse
1.4 Tm Orbital distance of Saturn from Sun
2 Tm Estimated optical diameter of VY Canis Majoris, one of the largest known stars
5.9 Tm Orbital distance of Pluto from Sun
~ 7.5 Tm Outer boundary of the Kuiper belt, inner boundary of the Oort cloud (~ 50 AU)
1013 10 Tm Diameter of the Solar System as a whole[1]
21.49 Tm Distance of the Voyager 1 spacecraft from Sun (as of Oct 2018), the farthest man-made object so far[36]
62.03 Tm Estimated radius of the event horizon of the supermassive black hole in NGC 4889, the largest known black hole to date
1014 100 Tm 180 Tm Size of the debris disk around the star 51 Pegasi[37]
200 Tm Total length of DNA molecules in all cells of an adult human body
1015 1 petametre (Pm) ~7.5 Pm Supposed outer boundary of the Oort cloud (~ 50,000 AU)
9.461 Pm Distance traveled by light in one year; at its current speed, Voyager 1 would need 17,500 years to travel this distance
1016 10 Pm 30.857 Pm 1 parsec
39.9 Pm Distance to nearest star (Proxima Centauri)
41.3 Pm As of March 2013, distance to nearest discovered extrasolar planet (Alpha Centauri Bc)
1017 100 Pm 193 Pm As of October 2010, distance to nearest discovered extrasolar planet with potential to support life as we know it (Gliese 581 d)
615 Pm Approximate radius of humanity's radio bubble, caused by high-power TV broadcasts leaking through the atmosphere into outer space
1018 1 exametre (Em) 1.9 Em Distance to nearby solar twin (HIP 56948), a star with properties virtually identical to our Sun[38]
1019 10 Em 9.46 Em Average thickness of Milky Way Galaxy[39] (1000 to 3000 ly by 21 cm observations[40])
1020 100 Em 113.5 Em Thickness of Milky Way Galaxy's gaseous disk[41]
1021 1 zettametre (Zm)
1.54 Zm Distance to SN 1987A, the most recent naked eye supernova
1.62 Zm Distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (a dwarf galaxy orbiting the Milky Way)
1.66 Zm Distance to the Small Magellanic Cloud (another dwarf galaxy orbiting the Milky Way)
1.9 Zm Diameter of galactic disk of Milky Way Galaxy[42][43][44][45]
6.15 Zm Diameter of the low surface brightness disc halo of the giant spiral galaxy Malin 1
1022 10 Zm 13.25 Zm Radius of the diffuse stellar halo of IC 1101, one of the largest known galaxies
24 Zm Distance to Andromeda Galaxy
30.857 Zm 1 megaparsec
50 Zm Diameter of Local Group of galaxies
1023 100 Zm 300–600 Zm Distance to Virgo cluster of galaxies
1024 1 yottametre (Ym) 2.19 Ym Diameter of the Local Supercluster and the largest voids and filaments
2.8 Ym End of Greatness
~5 Ym Diameter of the Horologium Supercluster[46]
9.461 Ym Diameter of the Pisces–Cetus Supercluster Complex, the supercluster complex where we live
1025 10 Ym 13 Ym Length of the Sloan Great Wall, a giant wall of galaxies (galactic filament)[47]
30.857 Ym 1 gigaparsec
37.84 Ym Length of the Huge-LQG, a group of 73 quasars
1026 100 Ym 95 Ym Estimated light travel distance to certain quasars. Length of the Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall, a colossal wall of galaxies, the largest and the most massive structure in the observable universe as of 2014
127 Ym Estimated light travel distance to GN-z11, the most distant object ever observed
870 Ym Approximate diameter (comoving distance) of the visible universe[1]
1027 1000 Ym 1200 Ym Lower bound of the (possibly infinite) radius of the universe, if it is a 3-sphere, according to one estimate using the WMAP data at 95% confidence[48] It equivalently implies that there are at minimum 21 particle horizon-sized volumes in the universe.
\( 10^{10^{115}} \) \( 10^{10^{115}} \) Ym \( 10^{10^{115}}\) Ym According to the laws of probability, the distance one must travel until one encounters a volume of space identical to our observable universe with conditions identical to our own.[49][50]
\( 10^{10^{10^{122}}} \) \( 10^{10^{10^{122}}} \) Ym \( 10^{10^{10^{122}}} \) Ym Maximum size of universe after cosmological inflation, implied by one resolution of the No-Boundary Proposal[51]


Less than 1 zeptometre

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths shorter than 10−21 m (10 ym).

1 zeptometre

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−21 m and 10−20 m (1 zm and 10 zm).

10 zeptometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−20 m and 10−19 m (10 zm and 100 zm).

100 zeptometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−19 m and 10−18 m (100 zm and 1 am).

1 attometre

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−18 m and 10−17 m (1 am and 10 am).

10 attometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−17 m and 10−16 m (10 am and 100 am).

100 attometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−16 m and 10−15 m (100 am and 1 fm).

100 am – all lengths shorter than this distance are not confirmed in terms of size
850 am – approximate proton radius

1 femtometre

The femtometre (symbol fm) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to 10−15 metres. In particle physics, this unit is more commonly called a fermi, also with abbreviation "fm". To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−15 metres and 10−14 metres (1 femtometre and 10 fm).

1 fm – diameter of a neutron, approximate range-limit of the color force carried between quarks by gluons[6][7]
1.5 fm – diameter of the scattering cross section of an 11 MeV proton with a target proton
1.75 fm – the effective charge diameter of a proton[52]
2.81794 fm – classical electron radius
3 fm – approximate range-limit of the nuclear binding force mediated by mesons[6][7]
7 fm – the radius of the effective scattering cross section for a gold nucleus scattering a 6 MeV alpha particle over 140 degrees

10 femtometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−14 m and 10−13 m (10 fm and 100 fm).

1.75 to 15 fm – Diameter range of the atomic nucleus

100 femtometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−13 m and 10−12 m (100 fm and 1 pm).

570 fm – typical distance from the atomic nucleus of the two innermost electrons (electrons in the 1s shell) in the uranium atom, the heaviest naturally-occurring atom

1 picometre

To help compare different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths between 10−12 and 10−11 m (1 pm and 10 pm).

1 pm – distance between atomic nuclei in a white dwarf
1 pm – reference value of particle displacement in acoustics[53]
2.4 pm – The Compton wavelength of the electron
5 pm – shorter X-ray wavelengths (approx.)

10 picometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths between 10−11 and 10−10 m (10 pm and 100 pm).

25 pm – approximate radius of a helium atom, the smallest neutral atom
50 pm – radius of a hydrogen atom
50 pm – bohr radius: approximate radius of a hydrogen atom
~50 pm – best resolution of a high-resolution transmission electron microscope
60 pm – radius of a carbon atom
93 pm – length of a diatomic carbon molecule
96 pm – H–O bond length in a water molecule

100 picometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths between 10−10 and 10−9 m (100 pm and 1 nm; 1 Å and 10 Å).

100 pm – 1 ångström
100 pm – covalent radius of sulfur atom
120 pm – van der Waals radius of a neutral hydrogen atom
120 pm – radius of a gold atom
126 pm – covalent radius of ruthenium atom
135 pm – covalent radius of technetium atom
150 pm – Length of a typical covalent bond (C–C)
153 pm – covalent radius of silver atom
155 pm – covalent radius of zirconium atom
175 pm – covalent radius of thulium atom
200 pm – highest resolution of a typical electron microscope
225 pm – covalent radius of caesium atom
280 pm – Average size of the water molecule
298 pm – radius of a caesium atom, calculated to be the largest atomic radius (except possibly francium)
340 pm – thickness of single layer graphene
356.68 pm – width of diamond unit cell
403 pm – width of lithium fluoride unit cell
500 pm – Width of protein α helix
543 pm – silicon lattice spacing
560 pm – width of sodium chloride unit cell
700 pm – width of glucose molecule
780 pm – mean width of quartz unit cell
820 pm – mean width of ice unit cell
900 pm – mean width of coesite unit cell

1 nanometre

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−9 and 10−6 m (1 nm and 10 nm).

1 nm – length of a buckyball[54]
1 nm – diameter of a carbon nanotube
1 nm – roughly the length of a sucrose molecule, calculated by Albert Einstein
2.3 nm – length of a phospholipid
2.3 nm – smallest gate oxide thickness in microprocessors
3 nm – width of a DNA helix
3 nm – flying height of the head of a hard disk
3 nm – as of 2019, the average half-pitch of a memory cell expected to be manufactured circa 2022
3.4 nm – length of a DNA turn (10 bp)
3.8 nm – size of an albumin molecule
5 nm – size of the gate length of a 16 nm processor
5 nm – as of October 2018, the average half-pitch of a memory cell expected to be manufactured circa 2019–2020
6 nm – length of a phospholipid bilayer
6–10 nm – thickness of cell membrane
6.8 nm – width of a haemoglobin molecule
7 nm – the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured circa 2018
10 nm – Thickness of cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria

10 nanometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths between 10−8 and 10−7 m (10 nm and 100 nm).

10 nm – the average length of a nanowire
10 nm – lower size of tobacco smoke[55]
10 nm – the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured circa 2016–2017
13 nm – the length of the wavelength that is used for EUV lithography
14 nm – Length of a porcine circovirus
14 nm – the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured circa 2013
15 nm – Length of an antibody
18 nm – diameter of tobacco mosaic virus[56] (Generally, viruses range in size from 20 nm to 450 nm.)
20 nm – Length of a nanobe, could be one of the smallest forms of life
20 nm to 80 nm – thickness of cell wall in Gram-positive bacteria[57]
20 nm – thickness of bacterial flagellum
22 nm – the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured circa 2011–2012
22 nm – Smallest feature size of production microprocessors in September 2009[58]
30 nm – lower size of cooking oil smoke
32 nm – the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured circa 2009–2010
40 nm – extreme ultraviolet wavelength
45 nm – the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured circa 2007–2008
50 nm – upper size for airborne virus particles
50 nm – flying height of the head of a hard disk[59]
65 nm – the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured circa 2005–2006
58 nm – height of a T7 bacteriophage
90 nm – Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (generally, viruses range in size from 20 nm to 450 nm)
90 nm – the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured circa 2002–2003
100 nm – Length of a mesoporous silica nanoparticle

100 nanometres
Comparison of sizes of semiconductor manufacturing process nodes with some microscopic objects and visible light wavelengths. At this scale, the width of a human hair is about 10 times that of the image.[60]

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−7 and 10−6 m (100 nm and 1 μm).

100 nm – greatest particle size that can fit through a surgical mask[61]
100 nm – 90% of particles in wood smoke are smaller than this.
120 nm – greatest particle size that can fit through a ULPA filter
120 nm – diameter of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)[62]
120 nm – approximate diameter of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19[63]
125 nm – standard depth of pits on compact discs (width: 500 nm, length: 850 nm to 3.5 μm)
180 nm – typical length of the rabies virus
200 nm – typical size of a Mycoplasma bacterium, among the smallest bacteria
300–400 nm – near ultraviolet wavelength
300 nm – greatest particle size that can fit through a HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter (N100 removes up to 99.97% at 0.3 micrometres, N95 removes up to 95% at 0.3 micrometres)
400–420 nm – wavelength of violet light (see Color and Visible spectrum)
420–440 nm – wavelength of indigo light (see Color and Visible spectrum)
440–500 nm – wavelength of blue light (see Color and Visible spectrum)
500–520 nm – wavelength of cyan light (see Color and Visible spectrum)
520–565 nm – wavelength of green light (see Color and Visible spectrum)
565–590 nm – wavelength of yellow light (see Color and Visible spectrum)
590–625 nm – wavelength of orange light (see Color and Visible spectrum)
625–700 nm – wavelength of red light (see Color and Visible spectrum)
700–1.4 μm – wavelength of near-infrared radiation

1 micrometre
The silk for a spider's web is around 5–7μm wide.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists some items with lengths between 10−6 and 10−5 m (between 1 and 10 micrometres, or μm).

~0.7–300 μm – wavelength of infrared radiation
1 μm – the side of square of area 10−12 m2
1 μm – edge of cube of volume 10−18 m3 (1 fL)
1–10 μm – diameter of a typical bacterium
1 μm – length of a lysosome
1–2 μm – anthrax spore[64]
2 μm – length of an average E. coli bacteria
3–4 μm – size of a typical yeast cell[65]
5 μm – length of a typical human spermatozoon's head[66]
6 μm – thickness of the tape in a 120-minute (C120) compact cassette[67]
7 μm – diameter of the nucleus of a typical eukaryotic cell
about 7 μm – diameter of human red blood cells [68]
3–8 μm – width of strand of spider web silk[69]
5–10 μm – width of a chloroplast[70]
8-11 μm – size of a ground-level fog or mist droplet[71][note 4]

10 micrometres
Fog particles are around 10–50 μm long.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−5 m and 10−4 m (10 μm and 100 μm).

10 μm – width of cotton fibre[72]
10 μm – transistor width of the Intel 4004, the world's first commercial microprocessor
10 μm – mean longest dimension of a human red blood cell
5–20 μm – dust mite excreta[73]
10.6 μm – wavelength of light emitted by a carbon dioxide laser
15 μm – width of silk fibre
17 μm – minimum width of a strand of human hair[24]
17.6 μm – one twip, a unit of length in typography
10 to 55 μm – width of wool fibre[72]
25.4 μm – 1/1000 inch, commonly referred to as 1 mil in the U.S. and 1 thou in the UK
30 μm – length of a human skin cell
50 μm – typical length of Euglena gracilis, a flagellate protist
50 μm – typical length of a human liver cell, an average-sized body cell
50 μm – length of a silt particle
60 μm – length of a sperm cell
70 to 180 μm – thickness of paper

100 micrometres
A paramecium is around 300 μm long.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−4 m and 10−3 m (100 μm and 1 mm). The term myriometre (abbr. mom, equivalent to 100 micrometres; frequently confused with the myriametre, 10 kilometres)[74] is deprecated; the decimal metric prefix myrio-[75] is obsolete[76][77][78] and was not included among the prefixes when the International System of Units was introduced in 1960.

100 μm – 1/10 of a millimetre
100 μm – 0.00394 inches
100 μm – smallest distance that can be seen with the naked eye
100 μm – average diameter of a strand of human hair[24]
100 μm – thickness of a coat of paint
100 μm – length of a dust particle
120 μm – the geometric mean of the Planck length and the diameter of the observable universe: √8.8 × 1026 m × 1.6 × 10−35 m
120 μm – diameter of a human ovum
170 μm – length of the largest sperm cell in nature, belonging to the Drosophila bifurca fruit fly[79][80]
181 μm – maximum width of a strand of human hair[24]
100–400 μm – length of Demodex mites living in human hair follicles
200 μm – typical length of Paramecium caudatum, a ciliate protist
200 μm – nominal width of the smallest commonly available mechanical pencil lead (0.2 mm)
250–300 μm – length of a dust mite[81]
340 μm – length of a single pixel on a 17-inch monitor with a resolution of 1024×768
500 μm – typical length of Amoeba proteus, an amoeboid protist
500 μm – MEMS micro-engine
500 μm – average length of a grain of sand
500 μm – average length of a grain of salt
500 μm – average length of a grain of sugar
560 μm – thickness of the central area of a human cornea[25]
750 μm – diameter of a Thiomargarita namibiensis, the largest bacteria known[82]
760 μm – thickness of an identification card

1 millimetre
An average red ant is about 5 mm long.
"1mm" redirects here. For the Perfume song, see Level3 (Perfume album). For the measure, see millimetre.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−3 m and 10−2 m (1 mm and 1 cm).

1.0 mm – 1/1000 of a metre
1.0 mm – 0.03937 inches or 5/127 (exactly)
1.0 mm – side of square of area 1 mm²
1.0 mm – diameter of a pinhead
1.5 mm – length of average flea[26]
2.54 mm – distance between pins on old dual in-line package (DIP) electronic components
5 mm – length of an average red ant
5 mm – diameter of an average grain of rice
5.56×45mm NATO – standard ammunition size
6 mm – approximate width of a pencil
7 mm – length of a Paedophryne amauensis, the smallest known vertebrate[83]
7.1 mm – length of a sunflower seed
7.62×51mm NATO – common military ammunition size[84]
8 mm – width of old-format home movie film
8 mm – length of a Paedocypris progenetica, the smallest known fish[85]

1 centimetre
An average human fingernail is about 1 cm wide.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−2 m and 10−1 m (1 cm and 1 dm).

1 cm – 10 millimetres
1 cm – 0.39 inches
1 cm – edge of square of area 1 cm2
1 cm – edge of cube of volume 1 mL
1 cm – length of a coffee bean
1 cm – approximate width of average fingernail
1.2 cm – length of a bee
1.2 cm – diameter of a die
1.5 cm – length of a very large mosquito
1.6 cm – length of a Jaragua Sphaero, a very small reptile
1.7 cm – length of a Thorius arboreus, the smallest salamander[86]
2 cm – approximate width of an adult human finger
2.54 cm – 1 inch
3.1 cm – 1 attoparsec (10−18 parsecs)
3.4 cm – length of a quail egg[87]
3.5 cm – width of film commonly used in motion pictures and still photography
4.3 cm – minimum diameter of a golf ball[88]
5 cm – usual diameter of a chicken egg
5 cm – height of a hummingbird, the smallest known bird
5.5 × 5.5 × 5.5 cm – dimensions of a 3x3x3 Rubik's Cube
6.1 cm – average height of an apple
7.3–7.5 cm – diameter of a baseball[27]
8.6 cm × 5.4 cm – dimensions of a standard credit card
9 cm – length of a speckled padloper, the smallest known turtle

1 decimetre
"10cm" redirects here. For the band, see 10cm (band).
An adult human foot is about 28 centimetres long.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10 centimetres and 100 centimetres (10−1 metre and 1 metre).

Conversions

10 centimetres (abbreviated to 10 cm) is equal to:

1 decimetre (dm), a term not in common use (1 L = 1 dm3.)
100 millimetres
3.9 inches
a side of a square of area 0.01 m2
the edge of a cube with a volume of 1×10−3 m3 (1 L)

Wavelengths

10 cm = 1.0 dm – wavelength of the highest UHF radio frequency, 3 GHz
12 cm = 1.2 dm – wavelength of the 2.45 GHz ISM radio band
21 cm = 2.1 dm – wavelength of the 1.4 GHz hydrogen emission line, a hyperfine transition of the hydrogen atom
100 cm = 10 dm – wavelength of the lowest UHF radio frequency, 300 MHz

Human-defined scales and structures

10.16 cm = 1.016 dm – 1 hand used in measuring height of horses (4 inches)
12 cm = 1.2 dm – diameter of a compact disc (CD) (= 120 mm)
15 cm = 1.5 dm – length of a Bic pen with cap on
22 cm = 2.2 dm – diameter of a typical association football (soccer ball)
30 cm = 3 dm – typical school-use ruler length (= 300 mm)
30.48 cm = 3.048 dm – 1 foot (measure)
60 cm = 6 dm – standard depth (front to back) of a domestic kitchen worktop in Europe (= 600 mm)
90 cm = 9 dm – average length of a rapier, a fencing sword[29]
91.44 cm = 9.144 dm – one yard (measure)

Nature

10 cm = 1 dm – diameter of the human cervix upon entering the second stage of labour
11 cm = 1.1 dm – diameter of an average potato in the US
15 cm = 1.5 dm – approximate size of largest beetle species
19 cm = 1.9 dm – length of a banana
26.3 cm = 2.6 dm – length of average male human foot
29.98 cm = 2.998 dm – distance light travels in one nanosecond
31 cm = 3.1 dm – wingspan of largest butterfly species Ornithoptera alexandrae
46 cm = 4.6 dm – length of an average domestic cat
50 to 65 cm = 5–6.5 dm – a coati's tail
66 cm = 6.6 dm – length of the longest pine cones (produced by the sugar pine[89])

Astronomical

84 cm = 8.4 dm – approximate diameter of 2008 TS26, a meteoroid

1 metre
"1m" redirects here. For other uses, see 1M.
Leonardo da Vinci drew the Vitruvian Man within a square of side 1.83 metres and a circle about 1.2 metres in radius

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between one metre and ten metres. Light travels 1 metre in ​1⁄299,792,458, or 3.3356409519815E-9 of a second.
Conversions

1 metre is:

10 decimetres
100 centimetres
1,000 millimetres
39.37 inches
3.28 feet
side of square with area 1 m2
edge of cube with surface area 6 m2 and volume 1 m3
radius of circle with area 3.14 m2
radius of sphere with surface area 12.56 m2 and volume 4.19 m3

Human-defined scales and structures

1 m – approximate height of the top part of a doorknob on a door
1 m – diameter of a very large beach ball
1.435 m – standard gauge of railway track used by about 60% of railways in the world = 4 ft 8½ in
2.5 m – distance from the floor to the ceiling in an average residential house[90]
2.7 m – length of the Starr Bumble Bee II, the smallest plane
2.77–3.44 m – wavelength of the broadcast radio FM band 87–108 MHz
3.05 m – the length of an old Mini
8.38 m – the length of a London Bus (AEC Routemaster)

Sports

2.44 m – height of an association football goal[91]
2.45 m – highest high jump by a human being (Javier Sotomayor)[92]
3.05 m – (10 feet) height of the basket in basketball
8.95 m – longest long jump by a human being (Mike Powell)[93]

Nature

1 m – height of Homo floresiensis (the "Hobbit")
1.15 m – a pizote (mammal)
1.37 m – average height of an Andamanese person
1.63 m – (5 feet 4 inches) (or 64 inches) – height of average US female human as of 2002 (source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))
1.75 m – (5 feet 8 inches) – height of average US male human as of 2002 (source: US CDC as per female above)
2.5 m – height of a sunflower
2.72 m – (8 feet 11 inches) – tallest known human being (Robert Wadlow)[30]
3.63 m – the record wingspan for living birds (a wandering albatross)
5 m – length of an elephant
5.2 m – height of a giraffe[94]
5.5 m – height of a Baluchitherium, the largest land mammal ever lived
7 m – wingspan of Argentavis, the largest flying bird known
7.5 m – approximate length of the human gastrointestinal tract

Astronomical

3–6 m – approximate diameter of 2003 SQ222, a meteoroid
4.1 m – diameter of 2008 TC3, a small asteroid that flew into the Earth's atmosphere on October 7, 2008.[95]

1 decametre
A blue whale has been measured as 33 metres long; this drawing compares its length to that of a human diver and a dolphin

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10 metres and 100 metres.
Conversions

10 metres (very rarely termed a decametre which is abbreviated as dam) is equal to:

10 metres
100 decimetres
1,000 centimetres
10,000 millimetres
32.8 feet
side of square with area 100 m²

Human-defined scales and structures

10 metres – wavelength of the highest shortwave radio frequency, 30 MHz
23 metres – height of the obelisk of the Place de la Concorde, Paris, France
25 metres – wavelength of the broadcast radio shortwave band at 12 MHz
29 metres – height of the lighthouse at Savudrija, Slovenia
31 metres – wavelength of the broadcast radio shortwave band at 9.7 MHz
34 metres – height of the Split Point Lighthouse in Aireys Inlet, Victoria, Australia
40 metres – average depth beneath the seabed of the Channel tunnel
49 metres – wavelength of the broadcast radio shortwave band at 6.1 MHz
50 metres – length of a road train
55 metres – height of the Leaning Tower of Pisa
62.5 metres – height of Pyramid of Djoser
64 metres – wingspan of a Boeing 747-400
69 metres – wingspan of an Antonov An-124 Ruslan
70 metres – length of the Bayeux Tapestry
70 metres – width of a typical association football field
77 metres – wingspan of a Boeing 747-8
88.4 metres – wingspan of the Antonov An-225 Mriya transport aircraft
93 metres – height of the Statue of Liberty
96 metres – height of Big Ben
100 metres – wavelength of the lowest shortwave radio frequency, 3 MHz

Sports

11 metres – approximate width of a doubles tennis court
15 metres – width of a standard FIBA basketball court
15.24 metres – width of an NBA basketball court (50 feet)
18.44 metres – distance between the front of the pitcher's rubber and the rear point of home plate on a baseball field (60 feet, 6 inches)[96]
20 metres – length of cricket pitch (22 yards)[97]
27.43 metres – distance between bases on a baseball field (90 feet)
28 metres – length of a standard FIBA basketball court
28.65 metres – length of an NBA basketball court (94 feet)
49 metres – width of an American football field (53⅓ yards)
59.436 metres – width of a Canadian football field (65 yards)
70 metres – typical width of soccer field
91 metres – length of American football field (100 yards, measured between the goal lines)
105 metres – length of football pitch (UEFA Stadium Category 3 and 4)

Nature

10 metres – average length of human digestive tract
12 metres – length of a whale shark, largest living fish
12 metres – wingspan of a Quetzalcoatlus, a pterosaur
13 metres – length of a giant squid and colossal squid, the largest living invertebrates
15 metres – approximate distance the tropical circles of latitude are moving towards the equator and the polar circles are moving towards the poles each year due to a natural, gradual decrease in the Earth's axial tilt
18 metres – height of a Sauroposeidon, the tallest known dinosaur
20 metres – length of a Leedsichthys, the largest known fish ever lived
21 metres – height of High Force waterfall in England
33 metres – length of a blue whale,[98] the largest animal on earth, living or extinct, in terms of mass
35 metres – length of a Supersaurus, the longest known dinosaur and longest vertebrate
52 metres – height of Niagara Falls[32]
55 metres – length of a bootlace worm, the longest known animal[99]
83 metres – height of a Western hemlock

Astronomical

30 metres – diameter of 1998 KY26, a rapidly spinning meteoroid
32 metres – approximate diameter of 2008 HJ, a small meteoroid

1 hectometre
The Great Pyramid of Giza is 138.8 metres high.
British driver location sign and location marker post on the M27 in Hampshire. The location marker posts are installed at 100-metre intervals[100]

To compare different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths between 100 metres and 1000 metres (1 kilometre).
Conversions

100 metres (sometimes termed a hectometre) is equal to:

328 feet
one side of a 1 hectare square
a fifth of a modern li, a Chinese unit of measurement
the approximate distance travelled by light in 300 nanoseconds

Human-defined scales and structures

100 metres – wavelength of the highest medium wave radio frequency, 3 MHz
100 metres – spacing of location marker posts on British motorways
138.8 metres – height of the Great Pyramid of Giza (Pyramid of Cheops)
139 metres – height of the world's tallest roller coaster, Kingda Ka[101]
187 metres – shortest wavelength of the broadcast radio AM band, 1600 kHz
202 metres – length of the Széchenyi Chain Bridge connecting Buda and Pest
318 metres – height of The New York Times Building
318.9 metres – height of the Chrysler Building
320.75 metres – height of the Eiffel Tower(including antenna)[102]
328 metres – height of Auckland's Sky Tower, the tallest free-standing structure in the Southern Hemisphere[when?]
341 metres – height of the world's tallest bridge, the Millau Viaduct[when?]
390 metres – height of the Empire State Building
400–800 metres – approximate heights of the world's tallest skyscrapers of the past 80 years[when?]
458 metres – length of the Knock Nevis, the world's largest supertanker
553.33 metres – height of the CN Tower[103]
555 metres – longest wavelength of the broadcast radio AM band, 540 kHz
630 metres – height of the KVLY-TV mast, second tallest structure in the world
646 metres – height of the Warsaw radio mast, the world's tallest structure until its collapse in 1991
828 metres – height of Burj Khalifa, world's tallest structure on 17 January 2009[104]
1,000 metres – wavelength of the lowest mediumwave radio frequency, 300 kHz

Sports

100 metres – the distance a very fast human being can run in about 10 seconds
100.584 metres – length of a Canadian football field between the goal lines (110 yards)
91.5 metres – 137 metres – length of a soccer field[91]
105 metres – length of a typical football field
109.73 metres – total length of an American football field (120 yards, including the end zones)
110–150 metres – the width of an Australian football field
135–185 metres – the length of an Australian football field
137.16 metres – total length of a Canadian football field, including the end zones (150 yards)

Nature

115.5 metres – height of the world's tallest tree in 2007, the Hyperion sequoia[105]
310 metres – maximum depth of Lake Geneva
340 metres – distance sound travels in air at sea level in one second; see Speed of sound
979 metres – height of the Salto Angel, the world's highest free-falling waterfall (Venezuela)
1500 metres – distance sound travels in water in one second;

Astronomical

270 metres – length of 99942 Apophis
535 metres – length of 25143 Itokawa,[106] a small asteroid visited by a spacecraft

1 kilometre
Mount Fuji is 3.776 kilometres (3,776 metres) high

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 1 kilometre and 10 kilometres (103 and 104 metres).
Conversions

1 kilometre (unit symbol km) is equal to:

1,000 metres
0.621371 miles
1,093.61 yards
3,280.84 feet
39,370.1 inches
100,000 centimetres
1,000,000 millimetres
Side of a square of area 1 km2
Radius of a circle of area π km2

Human-defined scales and structures

1 km – wavelength of the highest long wave radio frequency, 300 kHz[107]
1.280 km – span of the Golden Gate Bridge (distance between towers)[108]
1.609 km – 1 mile
1.852 km – 1 nautical mile, equal to 1 arc minute of latitude at the surface of the Earth[109]
1.991 km – span of the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge[110]
2.309 km – axial length of the Three Gorges Dam, the largest dam in the world[33]
3.991 km – length of the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge, longest suspension bridge in the world as of December 2008[111]
5.072 km – height of Tanggula Mountain Pass, below highest peak in the Tanggula Mountains, highest railway pass in the world as of August 2005[112]
5.727 km – height of Cerro Aucanquilcha, highest road in the world, located in Chile[113][failed verification]
98 airports have paved runways from 4 km to 5.5 km in length.
8 km – length of Palm Jebel Ali, an artificial island built off the coast of Dubai
9.8 km – length of The World, an artificial archipelago that is also built off the coast of Dubai, whose islands resemble a world map

Geographical

See also: List of highest mountains on Earth

1.637 km – deepest dive of Lake Baikal in Russia, the world's largest fresh water lake[114]
2.228 km – height of Mount Kosciuszko, highest point on mainland Australia[115]
Most of Manhattan is from 3 to 4 km wide.
4.810 km – height of Mont Blanc, highest peak in the Alps
4.884 km – height of Carstensz Pyramid, highest peak in Oceania[116]
4.892 km – height of Mount Vinson, highest peak in Antarctica
5.610 km – height of Mount Damavand, highest peak in Iran
5.642 km – height of Mount Elbrus, highest peak in Europe
5.895 km – height of Mount Kilimanjaro, highest peak in Africa
6.081 km – height of Mount Logan, highest peak in Canada
6.194 km – height of Denali, highest peak in North America
6.959 km – height of Aconcagua, highest peak in South America
7.5 km – depth of Cayman Trench, deepest point in the Caribbean Sea
8.848 km – height of Mount Everest, highest peak on Earth, on the border between Nepal and China

Astronomical

1 km – diameter of 1620 Geographos
1 km – very approximate size of the smallest known moons of Jupiter
1.4 km – diameter of Dactyl, the first confirmed asteroid moon
4.8 km – diameter of 5535 Annefrank, an inner belt asteroid
5 km – diameter of 3753 Cruithne
5 km – length of PSR B1257+12
8 km – diameter of Themisto, one of Jupiter's moons
8 km – diameter of the Vela Pulsar
8.6 km – diameter of Callirrhoe, also known as Jupiter XVII
9.737 km – length of PSR B1919+21

10 kilometres
The Strait of Gibraltar is 13 kilometres wide

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10 and 100 kilometres (104 to 105 metres). The myriametre[117] (sometimes also spelled myriameter, myriometre and myriometer) (10,000 metres) is a deprecated unit name; the decimal metric prefix myria-[75] (sometimes also written as myrio-[118][119][120]) is obsolete[76][77][78] and not included among the prefixes when the International System of Units was introduced in 1960.
Conversions

10 kilometres is equal to:
Distance marker on the Rhine: 36 (XXXVI) myriametres from Basel. The stated distance is 360 km; comma is the decimal separator in Germany.

10,000 metres
6.2 miles
1 mil (the Scandinavian mile), now standardized as 10 km:
1 mil, the unit of measure commonly used in Norway and Sweden[121] used to be 11,295 m in Norway and 10,688 m in Sweden.
farsang, unit of measure commonly used in Iran and Turkey[122]

Sports

42.195 km – length of the marathon[123]

Human-defined scales and structures

18 km – cruising altitude of Concorde
27 km – circumference of the Large Hadron Collider, as of May 2010 the largest and highest energy particle accelerator
34.668 km – highest manned balloon flight (Malcolm D. Ross and Victor E. Prather on 4 May 1961)[124]
38.422 km – length of the Second Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in Louisiana, US
39 km – undersea portion of the Channel tunnel
53.9 km – length of the Seikan Tunnel, as of October 2009, the longest rail tunnel in the world[125]
77 km – Rough total length of the Panama Canal[126]

Geographical

10 km – height of Mauna Kea in Hawaii, measured from its base on the ocean floor
11 km – deepest known point of the ocean, Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench
11 km – average height of the troposphere
14 km – width of the Gibraltar strait
21 km – length of Manhattan
23 km – depth of the largest earthquake ever recorded in the United Kingdom, in 1931 at the Dogger Bank of the North Sea
34 km – narrowest width of the English Channel at the Strait of Dover
50 km – approximate height of the stratosphere
90 km – width of the Bering Strait

Astronomical

10 km – diameter of the most massive neutron stars (3–5 solar masses)
13 km – mean diameter of Deimos, the smaller moon of Mars
20 km – diameter of the least massive neutron stars (1.44 solar masses)
20 km – diameter of Leda, one of Jupiter's moons
20 km – diameter of Pan, one of Saturn's moons
22 km – diameter of Phobos, the larger moon of Mars
27 km – height of Olympus Mons above the Mars reference level,[127][128] the highest known mountain of the Solar System
43 km – diameter difference of Earth's equatorial bulge
66 km – diameter of Naiad, the innermost of Neptune's moons

100 kilometres
The Suez Canal is 163 kilometres long

A length of 100 kilometres (about 62 miles), as a rough amount, is relatively common in measurements on Earth and for some astronomical objects. It is the altitude at which the FAI defines spaceflight to begin.

To help compare orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 100 and 1,000 kilometres (105 and 106 metres).
Conversions

A distance of 100 kilometres is equal to about 62 miles (or 62.13711922 miles).
Human-defined scales and structures

100 km – the Karman line: the official boundary of outer space
105 km – distance from Giridih to Bokaro
109 km – length of High Speed 1 between London and the Channel Tunnel[129]
130 km – range of a Scud-A missile
163 km – length of the Suez Canal
164 km – length of the Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge
213 km – length of Paris Métro
217 km – length of the Grand Union Canal
223 km – length of the Madrid Metro
300 km – range of a Scud-B missile
386 km – altitude of the International Space Station
408 km – length of the London Underground (active track)
460 km – distance from London to Paris
470 km – distance from Dublin to London as the crow flies
600 km – range of a Scud-C missile
600 km – height above ground of the Hubble Space Telescope
804.67 km – (500 miles) distance of the Indy 500 automobile race

Geographical

111 km – distance covered by one degree of latitude on Earth's surface
180 km – distance between Mumbai and Nashik
203 km – length of Sognefjorden, the third largest fjord in the world
220 km – distance between Pune and Nashik
240 km – widest width of the English Channel
430 km – length of the Pyrenees
500 km – widest width of Sweden from east to west
550 km – distance from San Francisco to Los Angeles as the crow flies
560 km – distance of Bordeaux–Paris, formerly the longest one-day professional cycling race[130]
590 km – length of land boundary between Finland and Sweden
724 km – length of the Om River
871 km – distance from Sydney to Melbourne (along the Hume Highway)
897 km – length of the River Douro
900 km – distance from Berlin to Stockholm
956 km – distance from Washington, DC to Chicago, Illinois as the crow flies

Astronomical

100 km – the altitude at which the FAI defines spaceflight to begin
167 km – diameter of Amalthea, one of Jupiter's inner moons
200 km – width of Valles Marineris
220 km – diameter of Phoebe, the largest of Saturn's outer moons
300 km – the approximate distance travelled by light in one millisecond
340 km – diameter of Nereid, the third largest moon of Neptune
350 km – lower bound of Low Earth orbit
420 km – diameter of Proteus, the second largest moon of Neptune
468 km – diameter of the asteroid 4 Vesta
472 km – diameter of Miranda, one of Uranus' major moons
974.6 km – greatest diameter of 1 Ceres,[35] the largest solar system asteroid[note 2]

1 megametre
Small planets, the Moon and dwarf planets in our solar system have diameters from one to ten million metres. Top row: Mars (left), Mercury (right); bottom row: Moon (left), Pluto (center), and Haumea (right), to scale.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths starting at 106 m (1 Mm or 1,000 km).
Conversions

1 megametre is equal to:

1 E+6 m (one million metres)
approximately 621.37 miles
Side of square with area 1,000,000 km2

Human-defined scales and structures

2.100 Mm – Length of proposed gas pipeline from Iran to India via Pakistan
2.100 Mm – Distance from Casablanca to Rome
2.288 Mm – Length of the official Alaska Highway when it was built in the 1940s[131]
3.069 Mm – Length of Interstate 95 (from Houlton, Maine to Miami, Florida)
3.846 Mm – Length of U.S. Route 1 (from Fort Kent, Maine to Key West, Florida)
5.000 Mm – Width of the United States
5.007 Mm – Estimated length of Interstate 90 (Seattle, Washington to Boston, Massachusetts)
5.614 Mm – Length of the Australian Dingo Fence[132]
6.4 Mm – Length of the Great Wall of China
7.821 Mm – Length of the Trans-Canada Highway, the world's longest national highway (from Victoria, British Columbia to St. John's, Newfoundland)
8.836 Mm – Road distance between Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, and Key West, Florida, the endpoints of the U.S. road network
8.852 Mm – Aggregate length of the Great Wall of China, including trenches, hills and rivers[133]
9.259 Mm – Length of the Trans-Siberian railway[134]

Sports

The Munda Biddi Trail in WA, Australia is over 1000 km long – the world's longest off-road cycle trail
1.200 Mm – the length of the Paris–Brest–Paris bicycling event
Several endurance auto races are, or were, run for 1,000 km:
Bathurst 1000
1000 km Brands Hatch
1000 km Buenos Aires
1000 km Donington
1000 km Monza
1000 km Nürburgring
1000 km Silverstone
1000 km Spa
1000 km Suzuka
1000 km Zeltweg

Geographical

1.010 Mm – Distance from San Diego to El Paso as the crow flies
2.000 Mm – Distance from Beijing to Hong Kong as the crow flies
2.800 Mm – Narrowest width of Atlantic Ocean (Brazil-West Africa)
2.850 Mm – Length of the Danube river
2.205 Mm – Length of Sweden's total land boundaries
2.515 Mm – Length of Norway's total land boundaries
3.690 Mm – Length of the Volga river, longest in Europe
4.350 Mm – Length of the Yellow River
4.800 Mm – Widest width of Atlantic Ocean (U.S.-Northern Africa)
5.100 Mm – Distance from Dublin to New York as the crow flies
6.270 Mm – Length of the Mississippi-Missouri River system
6.380 Mm – Length of the Yangtze River
6.400 Mm – Length of the Amazon River
6.758 Mm – Length of the Nile system, longest on Earth
8.200 Mm – Distance from Dublin to San Francisco as the crow flies

Astronomical

1.000 Mm – Estimated shortest axis of triaxial dwarf planet Haumea
1.186 Mm – Diameter of Charon, the largest moon of Pluto
1.280 Mm – Diameter of the trans-Neptunian object 50000 Quaoar
1.436 Mm – Diameter of Iapetus, one of Saturn's major moons
1.578 Mm – Diameter of Titania, the largest of Uranus' moons
1.960 Mm – Estimated longest axis of Haumea
2.326 Mm – Diameter of the dwarf planet Eris, the largest trans-Neptunian object found to date
2.376 Mm – Diameter of Pluto
2.707 Mm – Diameter of Triton, largest moon of Neptune
3.122 Mm – Diameter of Europa, the smallest Galilean satellite of Jupiter
3.476 Mm – Diameter of Earth's Moon
3.643 Mm – Diameter of Io, a moon of Jupiter
4.821 Mm – Diameter of Callisto, a moon of Jupiter
4.879 Mm – Diameter of Mercury
5.150 Mm – Diameter of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn
5.262 Mm – Diameter of Jupiter's moon Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system
6.371 Mm – Radius of Earth
6.792 Mm – Diameter of Mars

10 megametres
Planets from Venus up to Uranus have diameters from ten to one hundred million metres. Top row: Uranus (left), Neptune (right); middle row: Earth (left), Sirius B (center), and Venus (right), to scale

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths starting at 107 metres (10 megametres or 10,000 kilometres).
Conversions

10 megametres (10 Mm) is

6,215 miles
side of a square of area 100,000,000 square kilometres (km2)
radius of a circle of area 314,159,265 km2

Human-defined scales and structures

11.085 Mm – Length of the Kiev-Vladivostok railway, a longer variant of the Trans-Siberian railway[135]
13.300 Mm – Length of roads being rehabilitated and widened under the National Highway Development Project (launched in 1998) in India
39.000 Mm – Length of the SEA-ME-WE 3 optical submarine telecommunications cable, joining 39 points between Norden, Germany and Okinawa, Japan
67.000 Mm – Total length of National Highways in India
80.000 Mm – 20,000 (metric, French) leagues (see Jules Verne, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea)

Geographical

10 Mm – Approximate altitude of the outer boundary of the exosphere
10.001 Mm – Length of the meridian arc from the North Pole to the Equator (the original definition of the metre was based on this length)
60.000 Mm – Total length of the mid-ocean ridges

Astronomical

12.000 Mm – Diameter of Sirius B, a white dwarf[136]
12.104 Mm – Diameter of Venus
12.742 Mm – Diameter of Earth
12.900 Mm – Minimum distance of the meteoroid 2004 FU162 from the centre of Earth on 31 March 2004, closest on record
14.000 Mm – Smallest diameter of Jupiter's Great Red Spot
19.000 Mm – Separation between Pluto and Charon
34.770 Mm – Minimum distance of the asteroid 99942 Apophis on 13 April 2029 from the centre of Earth
35.786 Mm – Altitude of geostationary orbit
40.005 Mm – Polar circumference of the Earth
40.077 Mm – Equatorial circumference of the Earth
49.528 Mm – Diameter of Neptune
51.118 Mm – Diameter of Uranus

100 megametres
The Earth-Moon orbit, Saturn, OGLE-TR-122b, Jupiter, and other objects, to scale. Click on image for detailed view and links to other length scales.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths starting at 108 metres (100 megametres or 100,000 kilometres or 62,150 miles).

102 Mm – Diameter of HD 149026 b, an unusually dense Jovian planet
115 Mm – Width of Saturn's Rings
120 Mm – Diameter of EBLM J0555-57Ab, the smallest known star
120 Mm – Diameter of Saturn
142 Mm – Diameter of Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system
170 Mm – Diameter of TRAPPIST-1, a star recently discovered to have 7 planets around it
174 Mm – Diameter of OGLE-TR-122b
180 Mm – Average distance covered during life
196 Mm – Diameter of Proxima Centauri, a typical red dwarf
257 Mm – Diameter of TrES-4 b
272 Mm – Diameter of WASP-12b
299.792 Mm – One light second; the distance light travels in vacuum in one second (see speed of light)
300 Mm – Diameter of WASP-79b
314 Mm – Diameter of CT Cha b
384.4 Mm (238,855 mi) – Average Earth-Moon distance[137]
671 Mm – Separation between Jupiter and Europa
428 Mm – Diameter of GQ Lupi b, one of the largest known planets
986 Mm – Diameter of HD 100546 b's surrounding disk

1 gigametre
13 things in the gigameter group
Upper part: Gamma Orionis, Algol B, the Sun (centre), underneath their darker mirror images (artist's interpretation), and other objects, to scale.

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 109 metres (1 gigametre (Gm) or 1 billion metres).

1.2 Gm – Separation between Saturn and Titan
1.39 Gm – Diameter of Sun[138]
1.5 Gm – (proposed) Expected orbit from Earth of the James Webb Space Telescope
2.19 Gm – Closest approach of Comet Lexell to Earth, happened on 1 July 1770; closest comet approach on record
3 Gm – Total length of "wiring" in the human brain[139]
4.2 Gm – Diameter of Algol B
5.0 Gm – Closest approach of Comet Halley to Earth, happened on 10 April 837
5.0 Gm – (proposed) Size of the arms of the giant triangle shaped Michelson interferometer of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) planned to start observations sometime in the 2030s.
7.9 Gm – Diameter of Gamma Orionis
9.0 Gm – Estimated diameter of the event horizon of Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy

10 gigametres
Rigel and Aldebaran (top left and right) compared to smaller stars, the Sun (very small dot in lower middle, with orbit of Mercury as yellow ellipse) and transparent sphere with radius of one light minute.

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 1010 metres (10 gigametres (Gm) or 10 million kilometres, or 0.07 Astronomical units).

15 Gm – Closest distance of Comet Hyakutake from Earth
18 Gm – One light-minute (see yellow sphere in right-hand diagram)
24 Gm – Radius of a heliostationary orbit
46 Gm – Perihelion distance of Mercury (yellow ellipse on the right)
55 Gm – 60,000-year perigee of Mars (last achieved on 27 August 2003)
55 Gm – Radius of Rigel, a blue supergiant star (largest star on right)[140]
58 Gm – Average passing distance between Earth and Mars at the moment they overtake each other in their orbits
61 Gm[141] – Diameter of Aldebaran, an orange giant star (large star on right)
70 Gm – Aphelion distance of Mercury
76 Gm – Neso's apocentric distance; greatest distance of a natural satellite from its parent planet (Neptune)

100 gigametres
From largest to smallest: Jupiter's orbit, red supergiant star Betelgeuse, Mars' orbit, Earth's orbit, star R Doradus, and orbits of Venus, Mercury. Inside R Doradus' depiction are the blue giant star Rigel and red giant star Aldebaran. The faint yellow glow around the Sun represents one light minute. Click image to see more details and links to their scales.

To help compare distances at different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths starting at 1011 metres (100 gigametre or 100 million kilometres or 0.7 astronomical units).

109 Gm (0.7 AU) Distance between Venus and the Sun
149.6 Gm (93.0 million mi; 1.0 AU) – Distance between the Earth and the Sun – the original definition of the astronomical unit
180 Gm (1.2 AU) – Maximum diameter of Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole in the center of Milky Way galaxy
228 Gm (1.5 AU) – Distance between Mars and the Sun
570 Gm (3.8 AU) – Length of the tail of Comet Hyakutake measured by Ulysses; the actual value could be much higher
591 Gm (4.0 AU) – Minimum distance between the Earth and Jupiter
780 Gm (5.2 AU) – Distance between Jupiter and the Sun
947 Gm (6.4 AU) – Diameter of Antares A
965 Gm (6.4 AU) – Maximum distance between the Earth and Jupiter

1 terametre
8 things in the terameter group
Comparison of size of the Kuiper belt (large faint torus) with the star VY Canis Majoris (within Saturn's orbit), Betelgeuse (inside Jupiter's orbit) and R Doradus (small central red sphere) together with the orbits of Neptune and Uranus, to scale. The yellow ellipses represent the orbits of each planet and the dwarf planet Pluto.

To help compare different distances, this section lists lengths starting at 1012 m (1 Tm or 1 billion km or 6.7 astronomical units).

1.079 Tm – 7.2 AU – One light-hour
1.4 Tm – 9.5 AU – Distance between Saturn and the Sun
1.83 Tm – 12.2 AU – Diameter of HR 5171 A, the largest known yellow hypergiant star although the latest research suggests it is a red hypergiant with a diameter about 2.1 Tm (14 AU)[142][143]
1.5 Tm - 10 AU - Estimated diameter of VV Cephei A, a red supergiant.[144]
2 Tm – 13.2 AU – Estimated diameter of VY Canis Majoris, one of the largest known stars.[145]
2.9 Tm – 19.4 AU – Distance between Uranus and the Sun
3 Tm – 20 AU – Diameter of Stephenson 2-18, the largest known star.
4.4 Tm – 29.4 AU – Perihelion distance of Pluto
4.5 Tm – 30.1 AU – Distance between Neptune and the Sun
4.5 Tm – 30.1 AU – Inner radius of the Kuiper belt
5.7 Tm – 38.1 AU – Perihelion distance of Eris
7.3 Tm – 48.8 AU – Aphelion distance of Pluto
7.5 Tm – 50.1 AU – Outer radius of the Kuiper Belt, inner boundary of the Oort Cloud

10 terametres
Sedna's orbit (left) is longer than 100 Tm, but other lengths are between 10 and 100 Tm: Comet Hale-Bopp's orbit (lower, faint orange); one light-day (yellow spherical shell with yellow Vernal point arrow as radius); the heliosphere's termination shock (blue shell); and other arrows show positions of Voyager 1 (red) and Pioneer 10 (green). Click on image for larger view and links to other scales.

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 1013 m (10 Tm or 10 billion km or 67 astronomical units).

10 Tm – 67 AU – Diameter of a hypothetical quasi-star
11.1 Tm – 74.2 AU – Distance that Voyager 1 began detecting returning particles from termination shock
11.4 Tm – 76.2 AU – Perihelion distance of 90377 Sedna
12.1 Tm – 70 to 90 AU – Distance to termination shock (Voyager 1 crossed at 94 AU)
12.9 Tm – 86.3 AU – Distance to 90377 Sedna in March 2014
13.2 Tm – 88.6 AU – Distance to Pioneer 11 in March 2014
14.1 Tm – 94.3 AU – Estimated radius of the solar system
14.4 Tm – 96.4 AU – Distance to Eris in March 2014 (now near its aphelion)
15.1 Tm – 101 AU – Distance to heliosheath
16.5 Tm – 111 AU – Distance to Pioneer 10 as of March 2014
16.6 Tm – 111.2 AU – Distance to Voyager 2 as of May 2016
20.0 Tm – 135 AU – Distance to Voyager 1 as of May 2016
20.6 Tm – 138 AU – Distance to Voyager 1 as of late February 2017
21.1 Tm – 141 AU – Distance to Voyager 1 as of November 2017
25.9 Tm – 172 AU – One light-day
55.7 Tm – 371 AU – Aphelion distance of the comet Hale-Bopp

100 terametres
The largest yellow sphere indicates one light month distance from the Sun. Click the image for larger view, more details and links to other scales.
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 1014 m (100 Tm or 100 billion km or 670 astronomical units).

146 Tm – 975 AU – Aphelion distance of 90377 Sedna
172 Tm – 1150 AU – Schwarzschild diameter of H1821+643, one of the most massive black holes known
181 Tm – 1210 AU – One light-week
653 Tm – 4367 AU – Aphelion distance of comet Hyakutake (current orbit)[146]
757 Tm – 5059 AU – radius of the Stingray Nebula[147]
777 Tm – 5180 AU – One light-month

1 petametre
Largest circle with yellow arrow indicates one light year from Sun; Cat's Eye Nebula on left and Barnard 68 in middle are depicted in front of Comet 1910 A1's orbit. Click image for larger view, details and links to other scales.

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 1015 m (1 Pm or 1 trillion km or 6685 astronomical units (AU) or 0.11 light years).

1.0 Pm = 0.105702341 light years[148]
1.9 Pm ± 0.5 Pm = 12,000 AU = 0.2 light year radius of Cat's Eye Nebula's inner core[149]
4.7 Pm = 30,000 AU = half light year diameter of Bok globule Barnard 68[150]
7.5 Pm – 50,000 AU – Possible outer boundary of Oort cloud (other estimates are 75,000 to 125,000 or even 189,000 AU (1.18, 2, and 3 light years, respectively))
7.7 Pm – 52,000 AU – Aphelion distance of the Great Daylight Comet of 1910
9.5 Pm – 63,241.1 AU – One light year, the distance travelled by light in one year

10 petametres
Objects with size order of magnitude 1e16m: Ten light years (94.6 Pm) radius circle with yellow Vernal Point arrow; Bubble Nebula (NGC 7635), left; Dumbbell Nebula (NGC 6853), right; one light year shell lower right with the smaller Cat's Eye Nebula (NGC_6543) and Barnard 68 adjacent.
1e16m lengths: Ten light years (94.6 Pm) yellow shell; Sirius below right; BL Ceti below left; Proxima and Alpha Centauri upper right; light year shell with Comet 1910 A1's orbit inside top right

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 1016 m (10 Pm or 66,800 AU, 1.06 light years).

15 Pm – 1.59 light years – Possible outer radius of Oort cloud
20 Pm – 2.11 light years – maximum extent of influence of the Sun's gravitational field
30.9 Pm – 3.26 light years – 1 parsec
39.9 Pm – 4.22 light years – Distance to Proxima Centauri (nearest star to Sun)
81.3 Pm – 8.59 light years – Distance to Sirius

100 petametres
Lengths with order of magnitude 1e17m: yellow Vernal Point arrow traces hundred light year radius circle with smaller ten light year circle at right; globular cluster Messier 5 in background; 12 light year radius Orion Nebula middle right; 50 light year wide view of the Carina Nebula bottom left; Pleiades cluster and Bubble nebula with similar diameters each around 10 light years bottom right; grey arrows show distances from Sun to stars Aldebaran (65 light years) and Vega (25 light years).
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths between 1017 m (100 Pm or 11 light years) and 1018 m (106 light years).

110 Pm – 12 light years – Distance to Tau Ceti
230 Pm – 24 light years – Diameter of the Orion Nebula[151][152]
240 Pm – 25 light years – Distance to Vega
260 Pm – 27 light years – Distance to Chara, a star approximately as bright as our Sun. Its faintness gives us an idea how our Sun would appear when viewed from even so close a distance as this.
350 Pm – 37 light years – Distance to Arcturus
373.1 Pm – 39.44 light years – Distance to TRAPPIST-1, a star recently discovered to have 7 planets around it
400 Pm – 42 light years – Distance to Capella
620 Pm – 65 light years – Distance to Aldebaran
750 Pm – 79.36 light years – Distance to Regulus
900 Pm – 92.73 light years – Distance to Algol

1 exametre
Lengths with order of magnitude 1e18m: thousand light year radius circle with yellow arrow and 100 light year circle at right with globular cluster Messier 5 within and Carina Nebula in front; globular cluster Omega Centauri to left of both; part of the 1400 light year wide Tarantula Nebula fills the background.

This list includes distances between 1 and 10 exametres (1018 m). To help compare different distances this section lists lengths between 1018 m (1 Em or 105.7 light years) and 1019 m (1057 light years).

1.2 Em – 129 light years – Diameter of Messier 13 (a typical globular cluster)
1.6 Em – 172 ± 12.5 light years – Diameter of Omega Centauri (one of the largest known globular clusters, perhaps containing over a million stars)[153][154]
3.1 Em – 310 light years – Distance to Canopus according to Hipparcos[155]
5.7 Em – 600 light years – Diameter of the Tarantula Nebula
6.1 Em – 640 light years – Distance to Betelgeuse according to Hipparcos[156]
6.2 Em – 650 light years – Distance to the Helix Nebula, located in the constellation Aquarius[157]
7.3 Em – 730 light years – Distance to Rigel according to Hipparcos[155]

10 exametres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 10 Em (1019 m or 1,100 light years).

13 Em – 1,300 light years – Distance to the Orion Nebula[158]
14 Em – 1,500 light years – Approximate thickness of the plane of the Milky Way galaxy at the Sun's location
14.2 Em – 1,520 light years – Diameter of the NGC 604
30.8568 Em – 3,261.6 light years – 1 kiloparsec
31 Em – 3,200 light years – Distance to Deneb according to Hipparcos
46 Em – 4,900 light years – Distance to OGLE-TR-56, the first extrasolar planet discovered using the transit method
47 Em – 5,000 light years – Distance to the Boomerang nebula, coldest place known (1 K)
53 Em – 5,600 light years – Distance to the globular cluster M4 and the extrasolar planet PSR B1620-26 b within it
61 Em – 6,500 light years – Distance to Perseus Spiral Arm (next spiral arm out in the Milky Way galaxy)
71 Em – 7,500 light years – Distance to Eta Carinae

100 exametres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 100 Em (1020 m or 11,000 light years).

150 Em – 16,000 light years – Diameter of the Small Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy orbiting the Milky Way
200 Em – 21,500 light years – Distance to OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb, the most distant and the most Earth-like planet known
240 Em – 25,000 light years – Distance to the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy
260 Em – 28,000 light years – Distance to the center of the Galaxy
830 Em – 88,000 light years – Distance to the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy

1 zettametre

The zettametre (SI symbol: Zm) is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1021 metres.[159]

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 1 Zm (1021 m or 110,000 light years).

1.7 Zm – 179,000 light years – Distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud, largest satellite galaxy of the Milky Way
<1.9 Zm – <200,000 light years – Revised estimated diameter of the disc of the Milky Way Galaxy. The size was previously thought to be half of this.
2.0 Zm – 210,000 light years – Distance to the Small Magellanic Cloud
2.8 Zm – 300,000 light years – Distance to the Intergalactic Wanderer, one of the most distant globular clusters of Milky Way
8.5 Zm – 900,000 light years – Distance to the Leo I Dwarf Galaxy, farthest known Milky Way satellite galaxy

10 zettametres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 10 Zm (1022 m or 1.1 million light years).

24 Zm – 2.5 million light years – Distance to the Andromeda Galaxy
30.8568 Zm – 3.2616 million light years – 1 megaparsec
40 Zm – 4.2 million light years – Distance to the IC 10, a distant member of the Local Group of galaxies
49.2 Zm – 5.2 million light years – Width of the Local Group of galaxies
57 Zm – 6 million light years – Diameter of the supergiant elliptical galaxy IC 1101
95 Zm – 10 million light years – Distance to the Sculptor Galaxy in the Sculptor Group of galaxies
95 Zm – 10 million light years – Distance to the Maffei 1, the nearest giant elliptical galaxy in the Maffei 1 Group

100 zettametres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 100 Zm (1023 m or 11 million light years).

140 Zm – 15 million light years – Distance to Centaurus A galaxy
250 Zm – 27 million light years – Distance to the Pinwheel Galaxy
280 Zm – 30 million light years – Distance to the Sombrero Galaxy
570 Zm – 60 million light years – Approximate distance to the Virgo cluster, nearest galaxy cluster
620 Zm – 65 million light years – Approximate distance to the Fornax cluster
800 Zm – 85 million light years – Approximate distance to the Eridanus cluster

1 yottametre

The yottametre, or yottameter in the US, (SI symbol: Ym) is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1024 metres[159]

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 1 Ym (1024 m or 105.702 million light years).

1.2 Ym – 127 million light years – Distance to the closest observed gamma ray burst GRB 980425
1.3 Ym – 137 million light years – Distance to the Centaurus Cluster of galaxies, the nearest large supercluster
1.9 Ym – 201 million light years – Diameter of the Local Supercluster
2.3 Ym – 225 to 250 million light years – Distance light travels in vacuum in one galactic year
2.8 Ym – 296 million light years – Distance to the Coma Cluster
3.2 Ym – 338 million light years – Distance to the Stephan's Quintet
4.7 Ym – 496 million light years – Length of the CfA2 Great Wall, one of the largest observed superstructures in the Universe
6.1 Ym – 645 million light years – Distance to the Shapley Supercluster
9.5 Ym – 996 million light years – Diameter of the Eridanus Supervoid

10 yottametres
The universe within 1 billion light years of Earth

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 10 Ym (1025 m or 1.1 billion light-years). At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant. Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depends on the cosmological models used.

13 Ym – 1.38 billion light-years – Length of the Sloan Great Wall
18 Ym – redshift 0.16 – 1.9 billion light-years – Distance to the quasar 3C 273 (light travel distance)
33 Ym – 3.5 billion light-years – Maximum distance of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (light travel distance)
37.8 Ym – 4 billion light-years – Length of the Huge-LQG
75 Ym – redshift 0.95 – 8 billion light-years – Approximate distance to the supernova SN 2002dd in the Hubble Deep Field North (light travel distance)
85 Ym – redshift 1.6 – 9 billion light-years – Approximate distance to the gamma ray burst GRB 990123 (light travel distance)
94.6 Ym – 10 billion light-years – Approximate distance to quasar OQ172
94.6 Ym – 10 billion light-years – Length of the Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall, one of the largest and most massive known cosmic structure

100 yottametres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 100 Ym (1026 m or 11 billion light years). At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant. Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depend on the cosmological models used.

Distances longer than 100 Ym

124 Ym – redshift 7.54 – 13.1 billion light years – Light travel distance (LTD) to the quasar ULAS J1342+0928, the most distant known quasar as of 2017
130 Ym – redshift 1000 – 13.8 billion light years – Distance (LTD) to the source of the cosmic microwave background radiation; radius of the observable universe measured as a LTD
260 Ym – 27.4 billion light years – Diameter of the observable universe (double LTD)
440 Ym – 46 billion light years – Radius of the universe measured as a comoving distance
590 Ym – 62 billion light years – Cosmological event horizon: the largest comoving distance from which light will ever reach us (the observer) at any time in the future
886.48 Ym – 93.7 billion light years – The diameter of the observable universe (twice the particle horizon); however, there might be unobserved distances that are even greater.
>1,000 Ym – >105.7 billion light years – Size of universe beyond the cosmic light horizon, depending on its curvature; if the curvature is zero (i.e. the universe is spatially flat), the value can be infinite (see Shape of the universe) as previously mentioned

Notes

The diameter of human hair ranges from 17 to 181 μm Ley, Brian (1999). Elert, Glenn (ed.). "Diameter of a human hair". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
The exact category (asteroid, dwarf planet, or planet) to which particular Solar System objects belong, has been subject to some revision since the discovery of extrasolar planets and trans-Neptunian objects
10115 is 1 followed by 115 zeroes, or a googol multiplied by a quadrillion. 1010115 is 1 followed by a quadrillion googol zeroes. 101010122is 1 followed by 1010122 (a googolplex10 sextillion) zeroes.

But not cloud or high-level fog droplets; droplet size increases with altitude. For a contradictory study indicating larger drop sizes even in ground fog, see Eldridge, Ralph G. (October 1961). <0671:AFFDSD>2.0.CO;2 "A Few Fog Drop-Size Distributions". Journal of Meteorology. 18 (5): 671–6. Bibcode:1961JAtS...18..671E. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1961)018<0671:AFFDSD>2.0.CO;2.

See also

List of examples of lengths
Fermi problems
Order of magnitude
Spatial scale
Scale (analytical tool)

References

Cliff Burgess; Fernando Quevedo (November 2007). "The Great Cosmic Roller-Coaster Ride" . Scientific American. p. 55. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
Carl R. Nave. "Cowan and Reines Neutrino Experiment". Hyperphysics. Retrieved 4 December 2008. (6.3 × 10−44 cm2, which gives an effective radius of about 1.42 × 10−22 m)
Carl R. Nave. "Neutron Absorption Cross-sections". Hyperphysics. Retrieved 4 December 2008. (area for 20 GeV about 10 × 10−42 m2 gives effective radius of about 2 × 10−21 m; for 250 GeV about 150 × 10−42 m2 gives effective radius of about 7 × 10−21 m)
Abbott, B. P.; et al. (2016). "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Physical Review Letters. 116 (6): 061102.arXiv:1602.03837. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116f1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. PMID 26918975. "On 14 September 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10−21."
Pohl, R.; et al. (July 2010). "The size of the proton". Nature. 466 (7303): 213–6. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..213P. doi:10.1038/nature09250. PMID 20613837.
Strassler, Matt. "The strength of the known forces". profmattstrassler.com.
Kolena. "The four forces: The strong interaction". Astrophysics Dept website. Duke University.
Nave, Carl R. "Scattering cross section". Retrieved 10 February 2009. (diameter of the scattering cross section of an 11 MeV proton with a target proton)
"CODATA Value: classical electron radius". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST.
H. E. Smith. "The Scale of the Universe". UCSD. Retrieved 10 February 2009. "~10−13cm"
Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Sulfur / Radii". Retrieved 6 December 2008.
Flahaut E, Bacsa R, Peigney A, Laurent C (June 2003). "Gram-scale CCVD synthesis of double-walled carbon nanotubes" (PDF). Chemical Communications. 12 (12): 1442–3. doi:10.1039/b301514a. PMID 12841282.
https://www.theverge.com/circuitbreaker/2016/10/6/13187820/one-nanometer-transistor-berkeley-lab-moores-law
Stewart, Robert. "Dr". Radiobiology Software. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
Langevin, Dominique (2008). "Chapter 10: DNA-Surfactant/Lipid Complexes at Liquid Interfaces". In Dias, Rita S; Lindman, Bjorn (eds.). DNA Interactions with Polymers and Surfactants. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 265. doi:10.1002/9780470286364.ch10. ISBN 978-0-470-25818-7. "DNA has 20 elementary charges per helical turn over the corresponding length of 3.4nm"
F., Adnan. "Samsung announces industry-first mass production of System-on-Chip with 10nm FinFET technology". SamMobile.
"Hard drive basics – Capacities, RPM speeds, interfaces, and mechanics". helpwithpcs.com. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
Cohn, J. University of California, Berkeley Lyman alpha systems and cosmology. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
Seth, S.D.; Seth, Vimlesh (2009). Textbook of Pharmacology (3rd ed.). Elsevier. p. X111. ISBN 978-81-312-1158-8.
Nave, Carl R (2016). "Color". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University.
"Size of bacteria". What are bacteria?. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
Ko, Frank K.; Kawabata, Sueo; Inoue, Mari; Niwa, Masako; Fossey, Stephen; Song, John W. "Engineering properties of spider silk" (PDF). web.mit.edu.
Doohan, Jim. "Blood cells". biosbcc.net. Archived from the original on 23 July 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
According to The Physics Factbook, the diameter of human hair ranges from 17 to 181 μmLey, Brian (1999). "Width of a Human Hair". The Physics Factbook.
Liu Z, Huang AJ, Pflugfelder SC (July 1999). "Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system". The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 83 (7): 774–8. doi:10.1136/bjo.83.7.774. PMC 1723104. PMID 10381661.
Order Siphonaptera – Fleas – BugGuide.Net Accessed 29 April 2014
"Official Rules". MLB. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr. and William H. Scheuner. "Pinus lambertiana". Retrieved 19 January 2017.
"What is a rapier – Renaissance swords Rapiers". 2-Clicks Swords.
"Robert Wadlow: Tallest man ever". Guinness World Records.
"Animal Records". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on 23 August 2004.
"Niagara Falls Geology Facts & Figures". Niagara Parks Commission. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
"Three Gorges Dam". encyclopedia.com. Cengage Learning.
http://www.ibiblio.org/chinesehistory/contents/07spe/specrep01.html#Quick%20Facts
Thomas PC, Parker JW, McFadden LA, Russell CT, Stern SA, Sykes MV, Young EF (September 2005). "Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape". Nature. 437 (7056): 224–6. Bibcode:2005Natur.437..224T. doi:10.1038/nature03938. PMID 16148926.
"Spacecraft escaping the Solar System". Heavens Above. Archived from the original on 7 October 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
"Twin Keck telescopes probe dual dust disks". (e) Science News. 24 September 2009.
Shiga, David. "Sun's 'twin' an ideal hunting ground for alien life". New Scientist. Retrieved 3 October 2007.
Christian, Eric; Samar, Safi-Harb. "How large is the Milky Way?". Retrieved 14 November 2008.
Duncan, Martin (2008). "16" (PDF). Physics 216 – Introduction to Astrophysics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2008.
"Milky Way fatter than first thought". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press. 20 February 2008. Archived from the original on 28 April 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2008.
M. López-Corredoira, C. Allende Prieto, F. Garzón, H. Wang, C. Liu and L. Deng (2018). "Disk stars in the Milky Way detected beyond 25 kpc from its center". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 612: L8.arXiv:1804.03064. Bibcode:2018A&A...612L...8L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201832880.
David Freeman (25 May 2018). "The Milky Way galaxy may be much bigger than we thought" (Press release). CNBC.
Mary L. Martialay (11 March 2015). "The Corrugated Galaxy—Milky Way May Be Much Larger Than Previously Estimated" (Press release). Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Archived from the original on 13 March 2015.
Hall, Shannon (4 May 2015). "Size of the Milky Way Upgraded, Solving Galaxy Puzzle". Space.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
"The Horologium Supercluster". Atlas of the Universe.
Gott, J. Richard; Jurić, Mario; Schlegel, David; Hoyle, Fiona; Vogeley, Michael; Tegmark, Max; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jon (2005). "A Map of the Universe". The Astrophysical Journal. 624 (2): 463.arXiv:astro-ph/0310571. Bibcode:2005ApJ...624..463G. doi:10.1086/428890.
Scott, Douglas; Zibin, J.P. (2006). "How Many Universes Do There Need To Be?". International Journal of Modern Physics D. 15 (12): 2229–2233.arXiv:astro-ph/0605709v2. Bibcode:2006IJMPD..15.2229S. doi:10.1142/S0218271806009662.
Tegmark, M. (2003). "Parallel universes. Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations" . Scientific American. 288 (5): 40–51. Bibcode:2003SciAm.288e..40T. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0503-40. PMID 12701329.
Tegmark M (May 2003). "Parallel universes. Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations" . Scientific American. 288 (5): 40–51.arXiv:astro-ph/0302131. Bibcode:2003SciAm.288e..40T. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0503-40. PMID 12701329.
Page, Don N.; Allende Prieto, C.; Garzon, F.; Wang, H.; Liu, C.; Deng, L. (2007). "Susskind's challenge to the Hartle Hawking no-boundary proposal and possible resolutions". Journal of Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics. 2007 (1): 004.arXiv:hep-th/0610199. Bibcode:2007JCAP...01..004P. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2007/01/004.
"proton rms charge radius". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty.
ISO 1683:2015
"Buckminsterfullerene: Molecule of the Month". www.chm.bris.ac.uk. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
Annis, Patty J. October 1991. Kansas State University. Fine Particle POLLUTION. Figure 1. (tobacco smoke: 10 to 1000 nm; virus particles: 3 to 50 nm; bacteria: 30 to 30000 nm; cooking oil smoke: 30 to 30000 nm; wood smoke: 7 to 3000 nm)
Stryer, Lubert (1988). Biochemistry. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-1843-7.
"Through the Microscope". www.microbiologytext.com.
"Moore's Law Marches on at Intel". Physorg.com. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
"Hard drive basics – Capacities, RPM speeds, interfaces and mechanics". www.helpwithpcs.com.
Graham T. Smith (2002). Industrial metrology. Springer. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-85233-507-6.
Eninger, Robert M.; Hogan, Christopher J.; Biswas, Pratim; Adhikari, Atin; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A. (2009). "Electrospray versus Nebulization for Aerosolization and Filter Testing with Bacteriophage Particles". Aerosol Science and Technology. 43 (4): 298–304. Bibcode:2009AerST..43..298E. doi:10.1080/02786820802626355.
Seth (18 November 2009). Textbook Of Pharmacology. Elsevier India. ISBN 9788131211588 – via Google Books.
https://www.pptaglobal.org/media-and-information/ppta-statements/1055-2019-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-and-plasma-protein-therapies
Spencer RC (March 2003). "Bacillus anthracis". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 56 (3): 182–7. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.3.182. PMC 1769905. PMID 12610093.
Walker K, Skelton H, Smith K (November 2002). "Cutaneous lesions showing giant yeast forms of Blastomyces dermatitidis". Journal of Cutaneous Pathology. 29 (10): 616–8. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0560.2002.291009.x. PMID 12453301.
Smith, D.J. (2009). "Human sperm accumulation near surfaces: a simulation study" (PDF). Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 621: 295. Bibcode:2009JFM...621..289S. doi:10.1017/S0022112008004953. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
"NAC Audio Cassette Glossary – Cassetro". nactape.com. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
"Genes are real things :: DNA from the Beginning". www.dnaftb.org.
Gordon Ramel. "Spider Silk". Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. "garden spider silk has a diameter of about 0.003 mm ... Dragline silk (about 0.00032 inch (0.008 mm) in Nephila)"
Wise, R.R.; Hoober, J.K. (2007). The Structure and Function of Plastids. Springer. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4020-6570-5.
Zak, J. Allen (April 1994). Drop Size Distributions and Related Properties of Fog for Five Locations Measured From Aircraft (PDF) (Report). Hampton, VA: NASA – Langley Research Center. 4585.
IST – Innovative Sintering Technologies Ltd. "Fibreshape applications". Retrieved 4 December 2008. "Histogram of cotton thickness"
Morton Lippmann (2000). Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects. John Wiley and Sons. p. 453. ISBN 978-0-471-29298-2. Retrieved 4 December 2008. "20 μm .. 5 μm"
Gyllenbok, Jan (2018). Encyclopedia of Historical Metrology, Weights, and Measures. Birkhäuser. ISBN 9783319575988.
"La Loi Du 18 Germinal An 3 – Décision de tracer le mètre, unité fondamentale, sur une règle de platine. Nomenclature des "mesures républicaines". Reprise de la triangulation" (in French). histoire.du.metre.free.fr. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
Comité International des Poids et Mesures (1935). "Procès-Verbaux des Séances" (in French). 17 (2 ed.). Paris, France: Gauthier-Villars, imprimeur-libraire du Bureau des Longitudes, de l'École Polytechnique: 76.
Roberts, Richard W. (1 June 1975). Metric System of Weights and Measures – Guidelines for Use. USA: Director of the National Bureau of Standards. Federal Register FR Doc.75-15798 (1975-06-18). "Accordingly, the following units and terms listed in the table of metric units in section 2 of the act of 28 July 1866, that legalized the metric system of weights and measures in the United States, are no longer accepted for use in the United States: myriameter, stere, millier or tonneau, quintal, myriagram, kilo (for kilogram)."
Judson, Lewis V. (1 October 1976) [1963]. "Appendix 7" (PDF). In Barbrow, Louis E. (ed.). Weights and Measures Standards of the United States, a brief history. Derived from a prior work by Louis A. Fisher (1905). USA: US Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards. p. 33. LCCN 76-600055. NBS Special Publication 447; NIST SP 447; 003-003-01654-3. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
Kim Popiolek. "Dr. Charles Lindemann's Lab: Sperm Facts". Oakland University.
Santoso, Alex (17 June 2006). "World's Biggest Sperm Belongs to a Tiny Fly". Neatorama.
House Dust Mites HYG-2157-97. Retrieved 2008-12-04
"CNN – Scientists discover biggest bacteria ever – April 15, 1999". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
"World's Smallest Frog Found—Fly-Size Beast Is Tiniest Vertebrate". 13 January 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
NATO Infantry Weapons Standardization, Per G. Arvidsson, ChairmanWeapons & Sensors Working GroupLand Capability Group 1 – Dismounted Soldier NATO Army Armaments Group Archived 1 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 29 April 2014
"World's smallest vertebrate has a big secret". New Scientist. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
Lindstrom, Hannah. "The Smallest Salamander". Mongabay.com. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
"Comparing quail eggs". BackYard Chickens. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
"USGA: Guide to the Rules on Clubs and Balls". USGA. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr. & William H. Scheuner. "Pinus lambertiana". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
"HTwins.net – The Scale of the Universe". htwins.net. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
Laws of the Game (PDF), FIFA, 1 June 2017
IAAF International Association of Athletics Federations – IAAF.org - Statistics - Top Lists, archived from the original on 16 January 2008, retrieved 9 April 2010
IAAF International Association of Athletics Federations – IAAF.org - Past Results, archived from the original on 4 June 2011, retrieved 9 April 2010
Dagg, A. I. (1971), Mammalian Species 5 (Giraffa camelopardalis ed.), pp. 1–8
Plait, P. (6 October 2008). "Incoming!!!". Bad Astronomy. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 8 October 2008.
"Rule 1.04 The Playing Field" (PDF). Official Baseball Rules. Major League Baseball. 25 January 2010. pp. 1–5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2011. See especially Diagram No. 1, page 3.
"Law 7 (The pitch)". Laws of Cricket. Marylebone Cricket Club. October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
"Animal Records". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on 28 March 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
"Longest Animal". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
Highways Agency. "Driver Location Signs – Frequently Asked Questions". Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
"Kingda Ka (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2009.
"Tour Eiffel". Archived from the original on 16 December 1996. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
Campbell, Marilyn (17 February 2018). "How Tall is the CN Tower?". TripSavvy. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
"Burj Dubai all set for 09/09/09 soft opening". Emirates Business 24-7. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
"Tallest tree in the world: coast redwood". Monumental Trees, an inventory of big and old trees worldwide.
Fujiwara A, Kawaguchi J, Yeomans DK, Abe M, Mukai T, Okada T, Saito J, Yano H, Yoshikawa M, Scheeres DJ, Barnouin-Jha O, Cheng AF, Demura H, Gaskell RW, Hirata N, Ikeda H, Kominato T, Miyamoto H, Nakamura AM, Nakamura R, Sasaki S, Uesugi K (June 2006). "The rubble-pile asteroid Itokawa as observed by Hayabusa". Science. 312 (5778): 1330–4. Bibcode:2006Sci...312.1330F. doi:10.1126/science.1125841. PMID 16741107.
"long wave". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 12 March 2011. "wavelength above one kilometre (and a frequency below 300 kHz)"
"Golden Gate Bridge official website". Retrieved 10 June 2012.
"nautical mile". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
Akashi Kaikyo Bridge @ Everything2.com, Everything2, 9 September 2002, retrieved 19 April 2009
Jeffrey Friedl (9 December 2008), Supporting the Longest Suspension Bridge in the World, archived from the original on 3 March 2009, retrieved 19 April 2009
New height of world's railway born in Tibet, Xinhua News Agency, 24 August 2005, archived from the original on 3 June 2009, retrieved 19 April 2009
"GeoNames".
"Russians in landmark Baikal dive". BBC News. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2011. "current record of 1,637m was set in Lake Baikal in the 1990s"
"Kosciuszko National Park lookouts and scenery". Office of Environment & Heritage: NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.
"Carstensz Pyramid details". Carstensz Pyramid Site. Archived from the original on 16 December 2014.
Appell, Wolfgang (16 September 2009) [2002]. "Königreich Frankreich" [Kingdom of France]. Amtliche Maßeinheiten in Europa 1842 [Official units of measure in Europe 1842] (in German). Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. (Website based on Alte Meß- und Währungssysteme aus dem deutschen Sprachgebiet, ISBN 3-7686-1036-5)
Brewster, David (1830). The Edinburgh Encyclopædia. 12. Edinburgh, UK: William Blackwood, John Waugh, John Murray, Baldwin & Cradock, J. M. Richardson. p. 494. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
Brewster, David (1832). The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. 12 (1st American ed.). Joseph and Edward Parker. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
Dingler, Johann Gottfried (1823). Polytechnisches Journal (in German). 11. Stuttgart, Germany: J.W. Gotta'schen Buchhandlung. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
Haugen, Einar, Norwegian English Dictionary, 1965, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget and Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, s.v. mil
"What is a farsakh or farsang?". sizes.com.
"IAAF Competition Rules 2008" (PDF). IAAF. p. 195. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
Gregory Kennedy. "Stratolab, an Evolutionary Stratospheric Balloon Project".
Wise, Jeff (1 October 2009). "Turkey Building the World's Deepest Immersed Tube Tunnel". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
"Facts and History about the Panama Canal". Archived from the original on 14 March 2016.
Highest and lowest points on Mars Archived 31 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine NASA
Plescia, Jeff (1 October 1997). "Height of Martian vs. Earth mountains". Questions and Answers about Mars terrain and geology. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
"High Speed 1 Project Hoem". www.betchel.com. Betchel Corporation. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
"Bordeaux-Paris | the event". www.bordeauxparis.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
"FAQ-Alaska Highway Facts". The MILEPOST. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2007. "1,390 miles ... Alaska Route 2 and often treated as a natural extension of the Alaska Highway"
Downward, R.J.; Bromell, J.E. (March 1990). "The development of a policy for the management of dingo populations in South Australia". Proceedings of the Fourteenth Vertebrate Pest Conference 1990. University of Nebraska - Lincoln. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
"China's Great Wall far longer than thought: survey". AFP. 20 April 2009. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
CIS railway timetable, route No. 002, Moscow-Vladivostok. Archived 2009-12-03.
CIS railway timetable, route No. 350, Kiev-Vladivostok. Archived 2009-12-03.
McGourty, Christine (14 December 2005). "Hubble finds mass of white dwarf". BBC News. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
NASA Staff (10 May 2011). "Solar System Exploration – Earth's Moon: Facts & Figures". NASA. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
"Sun Fact Sheet". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov.
Neuroscience: The Science of the Brain"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011. p.44
Moravveji, Ehsan; Guinan, Edward F; Shultz, Matt; Williamson, Michael H; Moya, Andres (4 January 2012). "Asteroseismology of the Nearby SN-II Progenitor: Rigel Part I. The MOST High Precision Photometry and Radial Velocity Monitoring". Astrophysical Journal. 747 (2): 2.arXiv:1201.0843. Bibcode:2012ApJ...747..108M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/747/2/108.
Richichi, A.; Roccatagliata, V.; Shultz, Matt; Williamson, Michael H.; Moya, Andres (2005). "Aldebaran's angular diameter: How well do we know it?". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 433 (1): 305–312.arXiv:astro-ph/0502181. Bibcode:2005A&A...433..305R. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041765. They derived an angular diameter of 20.58±0.03 milliarcsec, which given a distance of 65 light years yields a diameter of 61 million km.
Chesneau, O.; Meilland, A.; Chapellier, E.; Millour, F.; Van Genderen, A. M.; Nazé, Y.; Smith, N.; Spang, A.; Smoker, J. V.; Dessart, L.; Kanaan, S.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Feast, M. W.; Groh, J. H.; Lobel, A.; Nardetto, N.; Otero, S.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Tekola, A. G.; Whitelock, P. A.; Arcos, C.; Curé, M.; Vanzi, L. (2014). "The yellow hypergiant HR 5171 A: Resolving a massive interacting binary in the common envelope phase". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 563: A71.arXiv:1401.2628v2. Bibcode:2014A&A...563A..71C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322421.
Wittkowski, M; Abellan, F. J; Arroyo-Torres, B; Chiavassa, A; Guirado, J. C; Marcaide, J. M; Alberdi, A; De Wit, W. J; Hofmann, K.-H; Meilland, A; Millour, F; Mohamed, S; Sanchez-Bermudez, J (28 September 2017). "Multi-epoch VLTI-PIONIER imaging of the supergiant V766 Cen: Image of the close companion in front of the primary". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 1709: L1.arXiv:1709.09430. Bibcode:2017A&A...606L...1W. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201731569.
Bauer, W. H.; Gull, T. R.; Bennett, P. D. (2008). "Spatial Extension in the Ultraviolet Spectrum of Vv Cephei". The Astronomical Journal. 136 (3): 1312. Bibcode:2008AJ....136.1312H. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/136/3/1312.
Wittkowski, M.; Hauschildt, P.H.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J.M. (5 April 2012). "Fundamental properties and atmospheric structure of the red supergiant VY CMa based on VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometry". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 540: L12.arXiv:1203.5194. Bibcode:2012A&A...540L..12W. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219126.
"Comet Hyakutake: Orbital elements and 10-day ephemeris". European Space Agency. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
Parthasarathy, M. (2000). "Birth and early evolution of planetary nebulae". Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India. 28: 217–224. Bibcode:2000BASI...28..217P.
"Google Conversion".
radius = distance times sin(angular diameter/2) = 0.2 light year. Distance = 3.3 ± 0.9 kly; angular diameter = 20 arcseconds(Reed et al. 1999)
Michael Szpir (May–June 2001). "Bart Bok's Black Blobs". American Scientist. Archived from the original on 29 June 2003. Retrieved 19 November 2008. "Bok globules such as Barnard 68 are only about half a light-year across and weigh in at about two solar masses"
Sandstrom, Karin M; Peek, J. E. G.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Plambeck, Richard L. (1999). "A Parallactic Distance of 389+24
−21 parsecs to the Orion Nebula Cluster from Very Long Baseline Array Observations". The Astrophysical Journal. 667 (2): 1161–1169.arXiv:0706.2361. Bibcode:2007ApJ...667.1161S. doi:10.1086/520922.
diameter=sin(65 arcminutes)*1270 light years=24; where "65.00 x 60.0 (arcmin)" sourced from Revised NGC Data for NGC 1976
distance × sin( diameter_angle ), using distance of 5kpc (15.8 ± 1.1 kly) and angle 36.3', = 172 ± 12.5 ly.
van de Ven, G.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; Verolme, E. K.; de Zeeuw, P. T. (2006). "The dynamical distance and intrinsic structure of the globular cluster ω Centauri". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 445 (2): 513–543.arXiv:astro-ph/0509228. Bibcode:2006A&A...445..513V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053061. "best-fit dynamical distance D=4.8±0.3 kpc ... consistent with the canonical value 5.0±0.2 kpc obtained by photometric methods"
van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664.arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. Vizier catalog entry
Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Guinan, Edward F. (April 2008). "A New VLA-Hipparcos Distance to Betelgeuse and its Implications". The Astronomical Journal. 135 (4): 1430–40. Bibcode:2008AJ....135.1430H. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/4/1430.
Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; et al. (2007). "Trigonometric Parallaxes of Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae". The Astronomical Journal. 133 (2): 631–638.arXiv:astro-ph/0611543. Bibcode:2007AJ....133..631H. doi:10.1086/510348.
Reid, M. J.; et al. (2009). "Trigonometric Parallaxes of Massive Star Forming Regions: VI. Galactic Structure, Fundamental Parameters and Non-Circular Motions". Astrophysical Journal. 700 (1): 137–148.arXiv:0902.3913. Bibcode:2009ApJ...700..137R. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/700/1/137.

"SI Brochure: The International System of Units (SI)". International Committee for Weights and Measures. Organisation Intergouvernementale de la Convention du Mètre. Retrieved 11 October 2014.

External links

How Big Are Things? – displays orders of magnitude in successively larger rooms.
Powers of Ten – Travel across the Universe.
Cosmos – Journey from microcosmos to macrocosmos (Digital Nature Agency).
Scale of the universe – interactive guide to length magnitudes
Video (4:29) on YouTube – Orders of Magnitude (March 2020).

Physics Encyclopedia

World

Index

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License