- Art Gallery -



Germany, See : Flags, Maps

National Anthem of Germany

Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen,

Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Wappen Nordrhein-Westfalen,

Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein


Germany, Paintings, Drawings, Illustrations

Aachen : Images,

Augsburg : Images,

Bad Cannstatt : Images,

Bad Kissingen : Images

Bad Wildbad : Images

Bamberg : Images

Bayreuth : Images

Berchtesgaden : Images

Berlin : Images

Bielefeld : Images

Bochum : Images

Bonn : Images

Brandenburg an der Havel : Images

Braunschweig : Images

Bremen : Images

Cologne : Images

Darmstadt : Images

Dortmund : Images

Dresden : Images

Duisburg : Images

Düsseldorf : Images

Eberswalde : Images

Einbeck : Images

Eisenach : Images

Eisleben : Images

Emden : Images

Emmerich am Rhein : Images

Erfurt : Images

Essen : Images

Esslingen am Neckar : Images

Eutin : Images

Flensburg : Images

Forst (Lausitz)

Frankfurt am Main : Images

Frankfurt an der Oder : Images

Frankfurt an der Oder

Freiburg im Breisgau : Images

Freising : Images

Friedrichshafen : Images

Fulda : Images

Gelsenkirchen : Images

Gera : Images

Gerolstein : Images

Gießen : Images

Glücksburg : Images

Görlitz : Images

Goslar : Images

Gotha : Images

Göttingen : Images

Greifswald : Images

Gütersloh : Images

Hagen : Images

Halberstadt : Images

Halle : Images

Hamburg: Images

Heidelberg : Images

Hildesheim : Images

Jena : Images


Kaiserslautern : Images

Karlsruhe : Images

Kassel : Images

Kiel : Images

Koblenz : Images

Leipzig : Images

Lindau : Images

Linderhof Palace : Images

Mainz : Images

Mannheim : Images

München : Images

Neumünster : Images

Neuschwanstein Castle : Images

Neustrelitz : Images

Nideggen : Images


Nordhausen : Images

Nürnberg : Images

Oberammergau : Images


Offenbach am Main

Oldenburg : Images


Osnabrück : Images

Pforzheim : Images

Regensburg : Images

Rostock : Images


Schleswig : Images


Schwerin : Images

Stadt Wehlen : Images

Stuttgart : Images



Trier : Images

Tübingen : Images

Ulm : Images

Vacha : Images


Wasungen : Images

Wefensleben : Images

Weida : Images

Weimar : Images

Wiesbaden : Images

Wilhelmshaven : Images

Wismar : Images

Wittenberg : Images

Wolgast : Images

Worms : Images

Wuppertal : Images

Würzburg : Images

Wurzen : Images

Wyk auf Föhr : Images

Zerbst : Images

Zeulenroda : Images

Zinnowitz : Images

Zittau : Images

Zossen : Images 

Zschopau : Images

Zweibrücken : Images

Zwickau : Images

Zwingenberg : Images

Germany, Gallery

Picturesque Germany

Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire, James Wycliffe Headlam

Legends of the Rhine, Wilhelm Ruland

Deutsche Charaktere und Begebenheiten, Jakob Wassermann

German Stamps : 1951, 1952 , 1953 , 1959, 1960, 1961, 1964, 1965 , 1966 , 1967 , 1968 , 1970 , 1971 , 1972 , 1973 , 1974, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1992, 1993 , 1994, 1996, 1999, 2009,



Artist from Germany

Art Museum, Germany

Expressionism: a revolution in German art, Dietmar Elger

Caspar David Friedrich and the age of German Romanticism, Linda Siegel

Lovis Corinth, Horst Uhr

Objects as History in Twentieth-Century German Art: Beckmann to Beuys, Peter Chametzky

Art and the German bourgeoisie: Alfred Lichtwark and modern painting in Hamburg, Carolyn Helen Kay

Artists and society in Germany, 1850-1914, Robin Lenman

The making of Paul Klee's career, 1914-1920, Otto Karl Werckmeister

German Expressionism: The Graphic Impulse, Starr Figura, Peter Jelavich, Heather Hess

Marcel Duchamp and Max Ernst: the bride shared, David Hopkins

German post-expressionism: the art of the great disorder, 1918-1924, Dennis Crockett

New objectivity: painting, graphic art and photography in Weimar Germany , Sergiusz Michalski

Neue Sachlichkeit 1918-33: unity and diversity of an art movement, Steve Plumb

Max Ernst and alchemy: a magician in search of myth, M. E. Warlick

Art As Politics in the Third Reich, Jonathan Petropoulos


Goethe on art, John Gage

From Caspar David Friedrich to Gerhard Richter: German paintings from Dresden, Ulrich Bischoff, Elisabeth Hipp, Jeanne Anne Nugent

Modern art at the Pinakothek der Moderne Munich, Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy

Germany (Europe)

Introduction ::Germany


As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro. In January 2011, Germany assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2011-12 term.

Geography ::Germany


Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

Geographic coordinates:
51 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references:



total: 357,022 sq km country comparison to the world: 62 land: 348,672 sq km

water: 8,350 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:

total: 3,621 km

border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km


2,389 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind


lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m

highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

Natural resources:

coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land

Land use:

arable land: 33.13%

permanent crops: 0.6%

other: 66.27% (2005)

Irrigated land:

4,850 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

188 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 38.01 cu km/yr (12%/68%/20%)

per capita: 460 cu m/yr (2001)

Natural hazards:


Environment - current issues:

emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea

People ::Germany


82,282,988 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 15

Age structure:

0-14 years: 13.7% (male 5,768,366/female 5,470,516)

15-64 years: 66.1% (male 27,707,761/female 26,676,759)

65 years and over: 20.3% (male 7,004,805/female 9,701,551) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 44.3 years

male: 43 years

female: 45.6 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.061% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 205

Birth rate:

8.21 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 219

Death rate:

11 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 40

Net migration rate:

2.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 39


urban population: 74% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.055 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 3.95 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 205 male: 4.36 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 79.41 years country comparison to the world: 36 male: 76.41 years

female: 82.57 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.42 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 197

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 124

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

53,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 64

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 500 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 98


noun: German(s)

adjective: German

Ethnic groups:

German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek,
Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)


Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%




definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 16 years (2006)

Education expenditures:

4.4% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 92

People - note:

second most populous country in Europe after Russia

Government ::Germany

Country name:

conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany

conventional short form: Germany

local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland

local short form: Deutschland

former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich

Government type:

federal republic


name: Berlin

geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat)


18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)

National holiday:

Unity Day, 3 October (1990)


23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united Germany 3 October 1990

Legal system:

civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Christian WULFF (since 30 June 2010)

head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)

cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Assembly, including all members of the Federal Diet and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held on 30 June 2010 (next to be held by June 2015); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Diet for a four-year term; Bundestag vote for Chancellor last held after 27 September 2009 (next to follow the legislative election to be held no later than 2013)

election results: Christian WULFF elected president; received 625 votes of the Federal Assembly against 494 for GAUCK and 121 abstentions; Angela MERKEL reelected chancellor; vote by Federal Diet 323 to 285 with four abstentions

Legislative branch:

bicameral legislature consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments sit in the Council; each has three to six votes in proportion to population and is required to vote as a block) and the Federal Diet or Bundestag (622 seats; members elected by popular vote for a four-year term under a system of personalized proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain proportional representation and caucus recognition)

elections: Bundestag - last held on 27 September 2009 (next to be held no later than autumn 2013); note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election

election results: Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 33.8%, SPD 23%, FDP 14.6%, Left 11.9%, Greens 10.7%, other 6%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 239, SPD 146, FDP 93, Left 76, Greens 68

Judicial branch:

Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)

Political parties and leaders:

Alliance '90/Greens [Claudia ROTH and Cem OZDEMIR]; Christian
Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or
CSU [Horst SEEHOFER]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido
WESTERWELLE]; Left Party or Die Linke [Klaus ERNST and Gesine
LOETZSCH]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Sigmar GABRIEL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

business associations and employers' organizations; trade unions; religious, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups

International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council
(observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CDB, CE,
CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8,
Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), SICA
(observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD,

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Klaus SCHARIOTH

chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Philip D. MURPHY

embassy: Pariser Platz 2, 14191 Berlin; note - new embassy opened 4 July 2008

mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 09265, Clayallee 170, 14195 Berlin

telephone: [49] (030) 2385174
FAX: [49] (030) 8305-1215

consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field

National anthem:

name: "Lied der Deutschen" (Song of the Germans)

lyrics/music: August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBE/Franz Joseph HAYDN

note: adopted 1922, restored 1990; the anthem, also known as "Deutschlandlied" (Song of Germany), was abolished in 1945 because of the Nazi's use of the first verse, specifically the phrase, "Deutschland, Deutschland uber alles" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism; since restoration in 1990, only the third verse is sung

Economy ::Germany

Economy - overview:

The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labor force. Like its western European neighbors, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and declining net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy - where unemployment can exceed 20% in some municipalities - continues to be a costly long-term process, with annual transfers from west to east amounting in 2008 alone to roughly $12 billion. Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, contributed to strong growth in 2006 and 2007 and falling unemployment, which in 2008 reached a new post-reunification low of 7.8%. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II - and its healthy decrease in 2010. GDP contracted nearly 5% in 2009 but grew by 3.3% in 2010. Germany crept out of recession thanks largely to rebounding manufacturing orders and exports - primarily outside the Euro Zone - and relatively steady consumer demand. Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's budget deficit to 3.3% in 2009 and to 3.6% in 2010. The EU has given Germany until 2013 to get its consolidated budget deficit below 3% of GDP. A new constitutional amendment likewise limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$2.951 trillion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 6 $2.857 trillion (2009 est.)

$2.998 trillion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$3.306 trillion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

3.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 109 -4.7% (2009 est.)

1% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$35,900 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 31 $34,700 (2009 est.)

$36,400 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 0.8%

industry: 27.9%

services: 71.3% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

43.35 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 14

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 2.4%

industry: 29.7%

services: 67.8% (2005)

Unemployment rate:

7.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 75 7.5% (2009 est.)

note: this is the International Labor Organization's estimated rate for international comparisons; Germany's Federal Employment Office estimated a seasonally adjusted rate of 10.8%

Population below poverty line:

11% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 24% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

27 (2006) country comparison to the world: 125 30 (1994)

Investment (gross fixed):

18% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 109

Public debt:

74.8% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 22 73.2% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 20 0.3% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

1.75% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 120 3% (31 December 2008)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

4.96% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 138 5.97% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$1.627 trillion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 6 $1.681 trillion (31 December 2009 est)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:

$4.288 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 6 $4.202 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$5.2 trillion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 5 $5.019 trillion (31 December 2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$1.298 trillion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 9 $1.108 trillion (31 December 2008)

$2.106 trillion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry


among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:

9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 19

Electricity - production:

593.4 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 8

Electricity - consumption:

547.3 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 7

Electricity - exports:

61.7 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

41.67 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

156,800 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 44

Oil - consumption:

2.437 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 8

Oil - exports:

536,600 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 28

Oil - imports:

2.862 million bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 7

Oil - proved reserves:

276 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 54

Natural gas - production:

15.29 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 34

Natural gas - consumption:

96.26 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 5

Natural gas - exports:

12.64 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 16

Natural gas - imports:

94.57 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 2

Natural gas - proved reserves:

175.6 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 47

Current account balance:

$162.3 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 3 $168.1 billion (2009 est.)


$1.337 trillion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 3 $1.145 trillion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles

Exports - partners:

France 10.2%, US 6.7%, Netherlands 6.7%, UK 6.6%, Italy 6.3%,
Austria 6%, China 4.5%, Switzerland 4.4% (2009)


$1.12 trillion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 4 $956.7 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals

Imports - partners:

Netherlands 8.5%, China 8.2%, France 8.2%, US 5.9%, Italy 5.9%, UK 4.9%, Belgium 4.3%, Austria 4.3%, Switzerland 4.2% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$180.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$4.713 trillion (30 June 2010) country comparison to the world: 4 $5.158 trillion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$1.057 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 4 $1.054 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$1.484 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 4 $1.46 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7715 (2010), 0.7179 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006)

Communications ::Germany

Telephones - main lines in use:

48.7 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 3

Telephones - mobile cellular:

105 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 8

Telephone system:

general assessment: Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part

domestic: Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries

international: country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2001)

Broadcast media:

a mixture of publicly-operated and privately-owned TV and radio stations; national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately-owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations broadcasting including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

21.729 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 4

Internet users:

65.125 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 5

Transportation ::Germany


549 (2010) country comparison to the world: 13

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 330

over 3,047 m: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 53

1,524 to 2,437 m: 59

914 to 1,523 m: 70

under 914 m: 135 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 219

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 33

under 914 m: 184 (2010)


25 (2010)


gas 24,364 km; oil 3,379 km; refined products 3,843 km (2009)


total: 41,896 km country comparison to the world: 6 standard gauge: 41,641 km 1.435-m gauge (20,053 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 75 km 1.000-m gauge (75 km electrified); 180 km 0.750-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2008)


total: 644,480 km country comparison to the world: 11 paved: 644,480 km (includes 12,645 km of expressways)

note: includes local roads (2008)


7,467 km country comparison to the world: 19 note: Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea (2008)

Merchant marine:

total: 421 country comparison to the world: 25 by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 7, cargo 44, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, container 293, liquefied gas 7, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 27, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 1

foreign-owned: 10 (China 2, Finland 5, Greece 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 1)

registered in other countries: 3,287 (Antigua and Barbuda 1050, Australia 2, Bahamas 39, Belize 1, Bermuda 15, Brazil 6, Bulgaria 25, Burma 1, Cayman Islands 6, China 1, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 189, Denmark 10, Dominica 2, Estonia 1, France 1, Georgia 4, Gibraltar 125, Hong Kong 10, Isle of Man 56, Italy 1, Jamaica 10, Liberia 1049, Luxembourg 9, Malta 127, Marshall Islands 247, Morocco 2, Netherlands 92, former Netherlands Antilles 32, NZ 2, Panama 27, Portugal 13, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapore 30, Slovakia 4, Spain 5, Sri Lanka 5, Sweden 3, Turkey 1, UK 77, US 3, Venezuela 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Bremen, Bremerhaven, Duisburg, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Lubeck,
Neuss-Dusseldorf, Rostock, Wilhemshaven

Military ::Germany

Military branches:

Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche
Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint
Support Services (Streitkraeftbasis), Central Medical Service
(Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age (conscripts serve a 9-month tour of compulsory military service) (2004)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 19,195,804

females age 16-49: 18,159,851 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 15,564,748

females age 16-49: 14,723,200 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 421,227

female: 398,809 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.5% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 102

Transnational Issues ::Germany

Disputes - international:


Illicit drugs:

source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center

German Mark note series 3

German Mark note series 4

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