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See also

Greeks

@Greece (Europe)

Introduction ::Greece

Background:

Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-communist and communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974 following the collapse of the dictatorship, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 2001. Greece has suffered a severe economic crisis since late 2009, due to nearly a decade of chronic overspending and structural rigidities. Beginning in 2010, Greece entered three bailout agreements - with the European Commission, the European Central Bank (ECB), the IMF, and the third in 2015 with the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) - worth in total about $300 billion. The Greek Government formally exited the third bailout in August 2018.

Geography ::Greece

Location:

Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
39 00 N, 22 00 E

Map references:

Europe

Area:

total: 131,957 sq km country comparison to the world: 96 land: 130,647 sq km

water: 1,310 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Alabama

Land boundaries:

total: 1,228 km

border countries: Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, Macedonia 246 km

Coastline:

13,676 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:

temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain:

mostly mountains with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m

Natural resources:

lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential

Land use:

arable land: 20.45%

permanent crops: 8.59%

other: 70.96% (2005)

Irrigated land:

14,530 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

72 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 8.7 cu km/yr (16%/3%/81%)

per capita: 782 cu m/yr (1997)

Natural hazards:

severe earthquakes

volcanism: Santorini (elev. 367 m, 1,204 ft) has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; although there have been very few eruptions in recent centuries, Methana and Nisyros in the Aegean are classified as historically active

Environment - current issues:

air pollution; water pollution

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

Geography - note:

strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands

People ::Greece

Population:

10,569,703 (July 2021 est.) country comparison to the world: 88

Age structure:

0-14 years: 14.53% (male 794,918/female 745,909)

15-24 years: 10.34% (male 577,134/female 519,819)

25-54 years: 39.6% (male 2,080,443/female 2,119,995)

55-64 years: 13.1% (male 656,404/female 732,936)

65 years and over: 22.43% (male 1,057,317/female 1,322,176) (2020 est.)

Introduction
Geography
People and Society
Government
Economy
Energy
Communications
Transportation
Military and Security
Terrorism
Transnational Issues

Introduction
Background

Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-communist and communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974 following the collapse of the dictatorship, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 2001. Greece has suffered a severe economic crisis since late 2009, due to nearly a decade of chronic overspending and structural rigidities. Beginning in 2010, Greece entered three bailout agreements - with the European Commission, the European Central Bank (ECB), the IMF, and the third in 2015 with the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) - worth in total about $300 billion. The Greek Government formally exited the third bailout in August 2018.
Tip

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.
Definitions and Notes
Geography
Location

Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey
Geographic coordinates

39 00 N, 22 00 E
Map references

Europe
Area

total: 131,957 sq km

land: 130,647 sq km

water: 1,310 sq km
country comparison to the world: 97
Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Alabama
Area comparison mapArea comparison map
Area comparison map
Land boundaries

total: 1,110 km

border countries (4): Albania 212 km, Bulgaria 472 km, Macedonia 234 km, Turkey 192 km
Coastline

13,676 km
Maritime claims

territorial sea: 6 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate

temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain

mountainous with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands
Elevation

mean elevation: 498 m

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917

note: Mount Olympus actually has 52 peaks but its highest point, Mytikas (meaning "nose"), rises to 2,917 meters; in Greek mythology, Olympus' Mytikas peak was the home of the Greek gods
Natural resources

lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential
Land use

agricultural land: 63.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 19.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 8.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 34.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 30.5% (2018 est.)

other: 6.1% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land

15,550 sq km (2012)
Population distribution

one-third of the population lives in and around metropolitan Athens; the remainder of the country has moderate population density mixed with sizeable urban clusters
Natural hazards

Environment - current issues

air pollution; air emissions from transport and electricity power stations; water pollution; degradation of coastal zones; loss of biodiversity in terrestrial and marine ecosystems; increasing municipal and industrial waste
Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Geography - note

strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands
People and Society
Population

10,569,703 (July 2021 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Nationality

noun: Greek(s)

adjective: Greek
Ethnic groups

Greek 91.6%, Albanian 4.4%, other 4% (2011)
Languages

Greek (official) 99%, other (includes English and French) 1%
Religions

Greek Orthodox (official) 81-90%, Muslim 2%, other 3%, none 4-15%, unspecified 1% (2015 est.)
Age structure

0-14 years: 14.53% (male 794,918/female 745,909)

15-24 years: 10.34% (male 577,134/female 519,819)

25-54 years: 39.6% (male 2,080,443/female 2,119,995)

55-64 years: 13.1% (male 656,404/female 732,936)

65 years and over: 22.43% (male 1,057,317/female 1,322,176) (2020 est.)
population pyramidpopulation pyramid
population pyramid
Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 56.1

youth dependency ratio: 21.3

elderly dependency ratio: 34.8

potential support ratio: 2.9 (2020 est.)
Median age

total: 45.3 years

male: 43.7 years

female: 46.8 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Population growth rate

-0.34% (2021 est.)
country comparison to the world: 218
Birth rate

7.72 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
country comparison to the world: 222
Death rate

12.05 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Net migration rate

0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Population distribution

one-third of the population lives in and around metropolitan Athens; the remainder of the country has moderate population density mixed with sizeable urban clusters
Urbanization

urban population: 79.7% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 0.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030
Major urban areas - population

3.153 million ATHENS (capital), 812,000 Thessaloniki (2020)
Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth

29.9 years (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality rate

3 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Infant mortality rate

total: 3.61 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.28 years

male: 78.73 years

female: 84 years (2021 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Total fertility rate

1.39 children born/woman (2021 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Current Health Expenditure

7.7% (2018)
Physicians density

5.48 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density

4.2 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.2% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

14,000 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
HIV/AIDS - deaths

<100 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate

24.9% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 54
Education expenditures

NA
Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.7%

male: 98.5%

female: 96.9% (2015)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 20 years

male: 20 years

female: 20 years (2018)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 39.9%

male: 36.4%

female: 43.9% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Government
Country name

conventional long form: Hellenic Republic

conventional short form: Greece

local long form: Elliniki Dimokratia

local short form: Ellas or Ellada

former: Hellenic State, Kingdom of Greece

etymology: the English name derives from the Roman (Latin) designation "Graecia," meaning "Land of the Greeks"; the Greeks call their country "Hellas" or "Ellada"
Government type

parliamentary republic
Capital

name: Athens

geographic coordinates: 37 59 N, 23 44 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: Athens is the oldest European capital city; according to tradition, the city is named after Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom; in actuality, the appellation probably derives from a lost name in a pre-Hellenic language
Administrative divisions

13 regions (perifereies, singular - perifereia) and 1 autonomous monastic state* (aftonomi monastiki politeia); Agion Oros* (Mount Athos), Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki (East Macedonia and Thrace), Attiki (Attica), Dytiki Ellada (West Greece), Dytiki Makedonia (West Macedonia), Ionia Nisia (Ionian Islands), Ipeiros (Epirus), Kentriki Makedonia (Central Macedonia), Kriti (Crete), Notio Aigaio (South Aegean), Peloponnisos (Peloponnese), Sterea Ellada (Central Greece), Thessalia (Thessaly), Voreio Aigaio (North Aegean)
Independence

3 February 1830 (from the Ottoman Empire); note - 25 March 1821, outbreak of the national revolt against the Ottomans; 3 February 1830, signing of the London Protocol recognizing Greek independence by Great Britain, France, and Russia
National holiday

Independence Day, 25 March (1821)
Constitution

history: many previous; latest entered into force 11 June 1975

amendments: proposed by at least 50 members of Parliament and agreed by three-fifths majority vote in two separate ballots at least 30 days apart; passage requires absolute majority vote by the next elected Parliament; entry into force finalized through a "special parliamentary resolution"; articles on human rights and freedoms and the form of government cannot be amended; amended 1986, 2001, 2008
Legal system

civil legal system based on Roman law
International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Greece

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage

17 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch

chief of state: President Ekaterini SAKELLAROPOULOU (since 13 March 2020)

head of government: Prime Minister Kyriakos MITSOTAKIS (since 8 July 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president elected by Hellenic Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 January 2020 (next to be held by February 2025); president appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party or coalition in the Hellenic Parliament

election results: Katerina SAKELLAROPOULOU (independent) elected president by Parliament - 261 of 300 votes; note - SAKELLAROPOULOU is Greece's first woman president
Legislative branch

description: unicameral Hellenic Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; 280 members in multi-seat constituencies and 12 members in a single nationwide constituency directly elected by open party-list proportional representation vote; 8 members in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote; members serve up to 4 years); note - only parties surpassing a 3% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; parties need 10 seats to become formal parliamentary groups but can retain that status if the party participated in the last election and received the minimum 3% threshold

elections: last held on 7 July 2019 (next to be held by July 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party - ND 39.9%, SYRIZA 31.5%, KINAL 8.1%, KKE 5.3%, Greek Solution 3.7%, MeRA25 3.4%, other 8.1%; seats by party - ND 158, SYRIZA 86, KINAL 22, KKE 15, Greek Solution 10, MeRA25 9; composition - men 244, women 56, percent of women 18.7%
Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Civil and Criminal Court or Areios Pagos (consists of 56 judges, including the court presidents); Council of State (supreme administrative court) (consists of the president, 7 vice presidents, 42 privy councilors, 48 associate councilors and 50 reporting judges, organized into six 5- and 7-member chambers; Court of Audit (government audit and enforcement) consists of the president, 5 vice presidents, 20 councilors, and 90 associate and reporting judges

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by presidential decree on the advice of the Supreme Judicial Council (SJC), which includes the president of the Supreme Court, other judges, and the prosecutor of the Supreme Court; judges appointed for life following a 2-year probationary period; Council of State president appointed by the Greek Cabinet to serve a 4-year term; other judge appointments and tenure NA; Court of Audit president appointed by decree of the president of the republic on the advice of the SJC; court president serves a 4-year term or until age 67; tenure of vice presidents, councilors, and judges NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal and Courts of First Instance (district courts)
Political parties and leaders

Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow or ANTARSYA [collective leadership]
Coalition of the Radical Left or SYRIZA [Alexios (Alexis) TSIPRAS]
Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Dimitrios KOUTSOUMBAS]
Democratic Left or DIMAR [Athanasios (Thanasis) THEOCHAROPOULOS]
European Realistic Disobedience Front or MeRA25 [Yanis VAROUFAKIS]
Greek Solution [Kyriakos VELOPOULOS]
Independent Greeks or ANEL [Panagiotis (Panos) KAMMENOS]
Movement for Change or KINAL [Foteini (Fofi) GENIMMATA]
New Democracy or ND [Kyriakos MITSOTAKIS]
People's Association-Golden Dawn [Nikolaos MICHALOLIAKOS]
Popular Unity or LAE [Panagiotis LAFAZANIS]
The River (To Potami) [Stavros THEODORAKIS]
Union of Centrists or EK [Vasileios (Vasilis) LEVENTIS]
International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Theocharis LALAKOS (since 27 June 2016)

chancery: 2217 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-1300

FAX: [1] (202) 939-1324

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Tampa (FL), San Francisco

consulate(s): Atlanta, Houston
Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Geoffrey R. PYATT (since 24 October 2016)

telephone: [30] (210) 721-2951

embassy: 91 Vasillisis Sophias Avenue, 10160 Athens

mailing address: PSC 108, APO AE 09842-0108

FAX: [30] (210) 645-6282

consulate(s) general: Thessaloniki
Flag description

nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; a blue square bearing a white cross appears in the upper hoist-side corner; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country; there is no agreed upon meaning for the nine stripes or for the colors
National symbol(s)

Greek cross (white cross on blue field, arms equal length); national colors: blue, white
National anthem

name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)

lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS
Economy
Economic overview

Real GDP growth rate

1.87% (2019 est.)

1.91% (2018 est.)

1.44% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.2% (2019 est.)

0.6% (2018 est.)

1.1% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB (2020)

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2019)
Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$319.334 billion (2019 est.)

$313.469 billion (2018 est.)

$307.521 billion (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
GDP (official exchange rate)

$209.79 billion (2019 est.)
Real GDP per capita

$29,799 (2019 est.)

$29,206 (2018 est.)

$28,594 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Gross national saving

10.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

9.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

9.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 16.9% (2017 est.)

services: 79.1% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 69.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20.1% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 12.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 33.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -34.7% (2017 est.)
Ease of Doing Business Index scores

68.4 (2020)
Agricultural products

maize, olives, wheat, milk, peaches/nectarines, oranges, tomatoes, grapes, milk, potatoes
Industries

tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
Industrial production growth rate

3.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
Labor force

4 million (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 12.6%

industry: 15%

services: 72.4% (30 October 2015 est.)
Unemployment rate

17.3% (2019 est.)

19.34% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Population below poverty line

36% (2014 est.)
Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

34.4 (2017 est.)

35.7 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 114
Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 26.7% (2015 est.)
Budget

revenues: 97.99 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 96.35 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues

48.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Public debt

181.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

183.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Fiscal year

calendar year
Current account balance

-$3.114 billion (2019 est.)

-$6.245 billion (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Exports

$92.925 billion (2019 est.)

$88.511 billion (2018 est.)

$81.196 billion (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Exports - partners

Italy 10.6%, Germany 7.1%, Turkey 6.8%, Cyprus 6.5%, Bulgaria 4.9%, Lebanon 4.3% (2017)
Exports - commodities

food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles
Imports

$94.597 billion (2019 est.)

$91.798 billion (2018 est.)

$85.092 billion (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Imports - partners

Germany 10.4%, Italy 8.2%, Russia 6.8%, Iraq 6.3%, South Korea 6.1%, China 5.4%, Netherlands 5.3%, France 4.3% (2017)
Imports - commodities

machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$7.807 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$6.026 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Debt - external

$506.6 billion (31 March 2016 est.)

$468.2 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)
Energy
Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
Electricity - production

52.05 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Electricity - consumption

56.89 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Electricity - exports

1.037 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Electricity - imports

9.833 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Electricity - installed generating capacity

19.17 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Electricity - from fossil fuels

57% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Electricity - from other renewable sources

29% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Crude oil - production

4,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Crude oil - exports

3,229 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Crude oil - imports

484,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Crude oil - proved reserves

10 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Refined petroleum products - production

655,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Refined petroleum products - consumption

304,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Refined petroleum products - exports

371,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Refined petroleum products - imports

192,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Natural gas - production

8 million cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Natural gas - consumption

4.927 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Natural gas - imports

4.984 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Natural gas - proved reserves

991.1 million cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

69.37 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Communications
Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 5,080,386

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47.75 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 12,070,571

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113.45 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Telecommunication systems

general assessment: good mobile telephone and international services; 3 mobile network operators; broadband penetration developing steadily despite rough economic conditions; plans to repurpose 3G network for LTE and 5G by 2022 (2020)

domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands; 48 per 100 for fixed-line and 114 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2019)

international: country code - 30; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3, Adria-1, Italy-Greece 1, OTEGLOBE, MedNautilus Submarine System, Aphrodite 2, AAE-1 and Silphium optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, Asia and Australia; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat - Indian Ocean region) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadcast media

broadcast media dominated by the private sector; roughly 150 private TV channels, about 10 of which broadcast nationwide; 1 government-owned terrestrial TV channel with national coverage; 3 privately owned satellite channels; multi-channel satellite and cable TV services available; upwards of 1,500 radio stations, all of them privately owned; government-owned broadcaster has 2 national radio stations
Internet country code

.gr
Internet users

total: 7,783,381

percent of population: 72.95% (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,961,864

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Transportation
National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 11 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 97

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,125,933 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 21.91 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

SX (2016)
Airports

total: 77 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 69
Airports - with paved runways

total: 68 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 6 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 15 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 19 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 18 (2017)

under 914 m: 10 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 9 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Heliports

9 (2013)
Pipelines

1329 km gas, 94 km oil (2013)
Railways

total: 2,548 km (2014)

standard gauge: 1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (764 km electrified) (2014)

narrow gauge: 961 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

22 0.750-m gauge
country comparison to the world: 67
Roadways

total: 117,000 km (2018)
country comparison to the world: 42
Waterways

6 km (the 6-km-long Corinth Canal crosses the Isthmus of Corinth; it shortens a sea voyage by 325 km) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 106
Merchant marine

total: 1,294

by type: bulk carrier 165, container ship 6, general cargo 95, oil tanker 379, other 649 (2020)
country comparison to the world: 22
Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Aspropyrgos, Pachi, Piraeus, Thessaloniki

oil terminal(s): Agioi Theodoroi

container port(s) (TEUs): Piraeus (4,145,079) (2017)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Revithoussa
Military and Security
Military and security forces

Hellenic Armed Forces: Hellenic Army (Ellinikos Stratos, ES; includes National Guard reserves), Hellenic Navy (Elliniko Polemiko Navtiko, EPN), Hellenic Air Force (Elliniki Polemiki Aeroporia, EPA; includes air defense) (2019)
Military expenditures

2.58% of GDP (2020 est.)

2.31% of GDP (2019)

2.48% of GDP (2018)

2.34% of GDP (2017)

2.38% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 35
Military and security service personnel strengths

the Hellenic Armed Forces have approximately 141,000 active duty personnel (90,000 Army; 16,000 Navy; 25,000 Air Force; 10,000 joint service, support, staff); approximately 35,000 National Guard (2019 est.)
Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Hellenic Armed Forces consists mostly of a mix of imported weapons from Europe and the US, as well as a limited number of domestically produced systems, particularly naval vessels; Germany is the leading supplier of weapons systems to Greece since 2010, followed by France and the US; Greece's defense industry is capable of producing naval vessels and associated subsystems (2019)
Military deployments

est. 1,000 Cyprus; 110 Kosovo (NATO); 140 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2020)
Military service age and obligation

19-45 years of age for compulsory military service; during wartime the law allows for recruitment beginning January of the year of inductee's 18th birthday, thus including 17 year olds; 18 years of age for volunteers; conscript service obligation is 1 year for the Army and 9 months for the Air Force and Navy; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2014)
Terrorism
Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); Revolutionary Struggle (2019)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T
Transnational Issues
Disputes - international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 26,696 (Syria), 17,685 (Afghanistan), 9,614 (Afghanistan) (2019)

stateless persons: 4,734 (2019)
Illicit drugs

a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece; money laundering related to drug trafficking and organized crime

Ancient Greece
Medieval Greece / Byzantine Empire
Science, Technology, Arts, , Warfare , Literature, Biographies, Icons, History
Modern Greece

Greece

World

Index

Hellenica World