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Yemen, See : Flags, Maps

Yemen (Middle East)

Introduction ::Yemen

Background:

North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to a delimitation of their border.

Geography ::Yemen


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Location:

Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 48 00 E

Map references:

Middle East

Area:

total: 527,968 sq km country comparison to the world: 49 land: 527,968 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)

Yemen  1

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries:

total: 1,746 km

border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km

Coastline:

1,906 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:

mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east

Terrain:

narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m

highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m

Yemen

Natural resources:

petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west

Land use:

arable land: 2.91%

permanent crops: 0.25%

other: 96.84% (2005)

Irrigated land:

5,500 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

4.1 cu km (1997)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 6.63 cu km/yr (4%/1%/95%)

per capita: 316 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

sandstorms and dust storms in summer

volcanism: Yemen experiences limited volcanic activity; Jebel at Tair (Jabal al-Tair, Jebel Teir, Jabal al-Tayr, Jazirat at-Tair) (elev. 244 m, 801 ft), which forms an island in the Red Sea, erupted in 2007 after awakening from dormancy; other historically active volcanoes include Harra of Arhab, Harras of Dhamar, Harra es-Sawad, and Jebel Zubair, although many of these have not erupted in over a century

Environment - current issues:

limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

People ::Yemen

Population:

23,495,361 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 48

Age structure:

0-14 years: 43.9% (male 5,108,423/female 4,925,523)

15-64 years: 53.5% (male 6,215,999/female 6,013,334)

65 years and over: 2.6% (male 285,752/female 309,207) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 17.9 years

male: 17.8 years

female: 18 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

2.713% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 23

Birth rate:

34.37 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 36

Death rate:

7.24 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 126

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population country comparison to the world: 99

Urbanization:

urban population: 31% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 4.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 56.77 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 38 male: 61.46 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 51.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 63.36 years country comparison to the world: 173 male: 61.35 years

female: 65.47 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

4.81 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 30

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 153

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

12,000 (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 96

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2009)

Nationality:

noun: Yemeni(s)

adjective: Yemeni

Ethnic groups:

predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans

Religions:

Muslim including Shaf'i (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shia), small numbers of
Jewish, Christian, and Hindu

Languages:

Arabic (official)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 50.2%

male: 70.5%

female: 30% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 9 years

male: 11 years

female: 7 years (2005)

Education expenditures:

5.2% of GDP (2008) country comparison to the world: 60

Government ::Yemen

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Yemen

conventional short form: Yemen

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah

local short form: Al Yaman

former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]

Government type:

republic

Capital:

name: Sanaa

geographic coordinates: 15 21 N, 44 12 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

21 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, 'Adan
(Aden), Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al
Mahwit, Amanat al 'Asimah, 'Amran, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb,
Lahij, Ma'rib, Raymah, Sa'dah, San'a' (Sanaa), Shabwah, Ta'izz

Independence:

22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note - previously North Yemen became independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate in 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)

National holiday:

Unification Day, 22 May (1990)

Constitution:

16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994 and February 2001

Legal system:

based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local tribal customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed office upon the merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994)

head of government: Prime Minister Ali Muhammad MUJAWWAR (since 31 March 2007)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held on 20 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2013); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of vote - Ali Abdallah SALIH 77.2%, Faysal BIN SHAMLAN 21.8%

Legislative branch:

bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and House of Representatives (301 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve eight-year terms)

elections: last held on 27 April 2003 (scheduled April 2009 election postponed for two years)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GPC 238, Islah 47, YSP 6, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party 2, independents 5

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:

General People's Congress or GPC [Abdul-Kader BAJAMMAL]; Islamic
Reform Grouping or Islah [Muhammed Abdallah AL-YADUMI]; Nasserite
Unionist Party [Abd al-Malik al-MAKHLAFI]; National Arab Socialist
Ba'th Party [Dr. Qasim SALAM]; Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Yasin
Said NUMAN]; note - there are at least seven more active political
parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Muslim Brotherhood; Women National Committee

other: conservative tribal groups; Huthis, southern secessionist groups; al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)

International organization participation:

AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU,
ITUC, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW,
UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI,
UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Abd al-Wahab Abdallah al-HAJRI

chancery: 2319 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760
FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Gerald M. FEIERSTEIN

embassy: Sa'awan Street, Sanaa

mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa

telephone: [967] (1) 755-2000 ext. 2153 or 2266
FAX: [967] (1) 303-182

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)

note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, and of Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band

National anthem:

name: "al-qumhuriyatu l-muttahida" (United Republic)

lyrics/music: Abdullah Abdulwahab NOA'MAN/Ayyoab Tarish ABSI

note: adopted 1990; the music first served as the anthem for South Yemen before unification with North Yemen in 1990

Economy ::Yemen

Economy - overview:

Yemen is a low income country that is highly dependent on declining oil resources for revenue. Petroleum accounts for roughly 25% of GDP and 70% of government revenue. Yemen has tried to counter the effects of its declining oil resources by diversifying its economy through an economic reform program initiated in 2006 that is designed to bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. In October 2009, Yemen exported its first liquefied natural gas as part of this diversification effort. In January 2010, the international community established the Friends of Yemen group that aims to support Yemen's efforts towards economic and political reform, and in August 2010 the IMF approved a three-year $370 million program to further this effort. Despite these ambitious endeavors, Yemen continues to face difficult long term challenges, including declining water resources and a high population growth rate.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$61.88 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 85 $58.82 billion (2009 est.)

$56.67 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$30.02 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

5.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52 3.8% (2009 est.)

3.2% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$2,600 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 173 $2,600 (2009 est.)

$2,600 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 8.2%

industry: 38.8%

services: 53% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

6.832 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 63

Labor force - by occupation:

note: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force

Unemployment rate:

35% (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 184

Population below poverty line:

45.2% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 30.8% (2005)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

37.7 (2005) country comparison to the world: 76 33.4 (1998)

Investment (gross fixed):

19.4% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 96

Public debt:

39.1% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 76 36.7% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

12.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 209 5.4% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
NA%

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

18% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 27 18% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$3.551 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 106 $3.74 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$9.739 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 100 $9.552 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$5.297 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 109 $5.098 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Agriculture - products:

grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish

Industries:

crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement; commercial ship repair; natural gas production

Industrial production growth rate:

9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 20

Electricity - production:

5.665 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 107

Electricity - consumption:

4.133 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 117

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

288,400 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 37

Oil - consumption:

155,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 66

Oil - exports:

274,400 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 43

Oil - imports:

65,860 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 77

Oil - proved reserves:

3.16 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 30

Natural gas - production:

454,700 cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 93

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 160

Natural gas - exports:

454,700 cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 45

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 113

Natural gas - proved reserves:

478.5 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 32

Current account balance:

-$2.181 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 157 -$2.328 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

$7.462 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 96 $5.812 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish, liquefied natural gas

Exports - partners:

China 36%, Thailand 17.63%, India 13.54%, South Africa 6.16%, Japan 5.49%, UAE 4.99% (2009)

Imports:

$8.35 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 97 $7.518 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals

Imports - partners:

China 13.98%, UAE 12.3%, India 8.63%, Saudi Arabia 5.8%, US 4.52%,
Brazil 4.51%, Turkey 4.51%, Kuwait 4.33%, France 4.24% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$5.744 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 64 $6.993 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$7.147 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 95 $6.552 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA

Exchange rates:

Yemeni rials (YER) per US dollar - 220.05 (2010), 202.85 (2009), 199.76 (2008), 199.14 (2007), 197.18 (2006)

Communications ::Yemen

Telephones - main lines in use:

997,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 79

Telephones - mobile cellular:

8.313 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 72

Telephone system:

general assessment: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network

domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, GSM and CDMA mobile-cellular telephone systems; fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains low by regional standards

international: country code - 967; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti

Broadcast media:

state-run TV with 2 stations; state-run radio with 2 national radio stations and 5 local stations; stations from Oman and Saudi Arabia can be accessed (2007)

Internet country code:

.ye

Internet hosts:

255 (2010) country comparison to the world: 188

Internet users:

2.349 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 71

Transportation ::Yemen

Airports:

55 (2010) country comparison to the world: 85

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 17

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 38

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 10 (2010)

Pipelines:

gas 423 km; liquid petroleum gas 22 km; oil 1,367 km (2009)

Roadways:

total: 71,300 km country comparison to the world: 67 paved: 6,200 km

unpaved: 65,100 km (2005)

Merchant marine:

total: 6 country comparison to the world: 128 by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1

registered in other countries: 14 (Moldova 1, Panama 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Sierra Leone 2, unknown 6) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla

Transportation - note:

the International Maritime Bureau reports offshore waters in the Gulf of Aden are high risk for piracy; numerous vessels, including commercial shipping and pleasure craft, have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crew, passengers, and cargo are held for ransom

Military ::Yemen

Military branches:

Army, Navy (includes Marines), Yemen Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Jamahiriya al Yemeniya; includes Air Defense Force), Republican Guard (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

voluntary military service program authorized in 2001; 2-year service obligation (2006)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 5,458,642

females age 16-49: 5,205,387 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 3,902,186

females age 16-49: 3,952,370 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 279,283

female: 269,824 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

6.6% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 7

Military - note:

a Coast Guard was established in 2002

Transnational Issues ::Yemen

Disputes - international:

Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 91,587 (Somalia) (2007)

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