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Uzbekistan, See : Flags, Maps

Uzbekistan (Central Asia)

Introduction ::Uzbekistan


Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Boshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

Geography ::Uzbekistan

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Central Asia, north of Afghanistan

Geographic coordinates:
41 00 N, 64 00 E

Map references:



total: 447,400 sq km country comparison to the world: 56 land: 425,400 sq km

water: 22,000 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:

total: 6,221 km

border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Uzbekistan - from Gilles


0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline

Maritime claims:

none (doubly landlocked)


mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east


mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Presentation of Uzbekistan culture

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m

highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources:

natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use:

arable land: 10.51%

permanent crops: 0.76%

other: 88.73% (2005)

Irrigated land:

42,810 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

72.2 cu km (2003)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 58.34 cu km/yr (5%/2%/93%)

per capita: 2,194 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:

shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world

People ::Uzbekistan


27,865,738 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44

Age structure:

0-14 years: 28.1% (male 3,970,386/female 3,787,371)

15-64 years: 67% (male 9,191,439/female 9,309,791)

65 years and over: 4.9% (male 576,191/female 770,829) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 25.2 years

male: 24.7 years

female: 25.8 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.938% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 125

Birth rate:

17.51 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 117

Death rate:

5.29 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 178

Net migration rate:

-2.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 183


urban population: 37% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 22.66 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 91 male: 26.81 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 18.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 72.24 years country comparison to the world: 124 male: 69.22 years

female: 75.44 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.92 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 141

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 134

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

16,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 84

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 500 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 88


noun: Uzbekistani

adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups:

Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)


Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%


Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.3%

male: 99.6%

female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 11 years

male: 12 years

female: 11 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

9.4% of GDP (1991) country comparison to the world: 7

Government ::Uzbekistan

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan

conventional short form: Uzbekistan

local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi

local short form: Ozbekiston

former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:

republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch


name: Tashkent (Toshkent)

geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 69 18 E

time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous
republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati,
Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan
Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi),
Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus),
Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo
Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent
Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)


1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 1 September (1991)


adopted 8 December 1992

Legal system:

based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet; elected president of independent Uzbekistan in 1991)

head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held on 23 December 2007 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president

election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Asliddin RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom T0SHMUHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%

Legislative branch:

bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (150 seats; 135 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, while 15 spots reserved for the new Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan)

elections: last held on 27 December 2009 and 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2014)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 53, NDP 32, National Rebirth Party 31, Adolat 19

note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:

Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Ismoil SAIFNAZAROV];
Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan [Boriy ALIXONOV, chairman];
Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Muhammadjon
AHMADJONOV]; National Rebirth Party (Milliy Tiklanish) [Ahtam
TURSUNOV]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist
Party) [Latif GULOMOV]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

there are no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups operating in Uzbekistan

International organization participation:

WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Ilxamdjan NEMATOV

chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Richard B. NORLAND

embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar

National anthem:

name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)

lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV

note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics

Economy ::Uzbekistan

Economy - overview:

Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country; 11% of the land is intensely cultivated, in irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of the population lives in densely populated rural communities. Export of hydrocarbons, including natural gas and petroleum, provided about 40% of foreign exchange earnings in 2009. Other major export earners include gold and cotton. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it has come under increasing international criticism for the use of child labor in its annual cotton harvest. Nevertheless, Uzbekistan enjoyed a bumper cotton crop in 2010 amidst record high prices. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry, as well as increased cooperation with South Korea in the realm of civil aviation, may boost growth prospects. However, decreased demand for natural gas in Europe and Russia in the wake of the global financial crisis could reduce energy-related revenues in the near term. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance," which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In 2006, Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC), which it subsequently left in 2008, both organizations dominated by Russia. In the past Uzbek authorities had accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek tax laws and have frozen their assets, but no new expropriations occurred in 2008-09. Instead, the Uzbek Government has actively courted several major U.S. and international corporations, offering attractive financing and tax advantages, and has landed a significant US investment in the automotive industry. Although growth slowed in 2009-10, Uzbekistan has seen few other effects from the global economic downturn, primarily due to its relative isolation from the global financial markets.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$86.07 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 75 $79.55 billion (2009 est.)

$73.59 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$37.72 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

8.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 10 8.1% (2009 est.)

9% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$3,100 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 166 $2,900 (2009 est.)

$2,700 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 21.2%

industry: 32.3%

services: 46.4% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

16 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 37

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 44%

industry: 20%

services: 36% (1995)

Unemployment rate:

1.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 6 1.1% (2009 est.)

note: officially measured by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed

Population below poverty line:

26% (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

36.8 (2003) country comparison to the world: 80 44.7 (1998)

Public debt:

9% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 124 9.6% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

15% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 220 14.1% (2009 est.)

note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 38% in 2008

Stock of narrow money:

$4.895 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 90 $3.829 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$7.197 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 112 $5.648 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$6.482 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 107 $5.484 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$NA (31 December 2009)

$NA (31 December 2007)

$715.3 million (31 December 2006)

Agriculture - products:

cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock


textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicals

Industrial production growth rate:

8% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 28

Electricity - production:

44.8 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 52

Electricity - consumption:

40.1 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 51

Electricity - exports:

11.52 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports:

11.44 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production:

70,910 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 56

Oil - consumption:

145,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 68

Oil - exports:

6,104 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 100

Oil - imports:

35,810 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 95

Oil - proved reserves:

594 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 45

Natural gas - production:

67.6 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 13

Natural gas - consumption:

52.6 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 14

Natural gas - exports:

15 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 14

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 118

Natural gas - proved reserves:

1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 19

Current account balance:

$5.588 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 31 $3.595 billion (2009 est.)


$13.13 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 77 $10.74 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles

Exports - partners:

Ukraine 29.91%, Russia 13.94%, Turkey 7.53%, Kazakhstan 7.26%,
Bangladesh 6.83%, China 5.69%, South Korea 4.19% (2009)


$9.44 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 90 $9.023 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals

Imports - partners:

Russia 23.72%, China 20.36%, South Korea 13.03%, Germany 6.09%,
Ukraine 5.39%, Kazakhstan 4.68% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$10.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 54 $9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$4.236 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 114 $4.053 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Exchange rates:

Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar - 1,588.1 (2010), 1,466.7 (2009), 1,317 (2008), 1,263.8 (2007), 1,219.8 (2006)

Communications ::Uzbekistan

Telephones - main lines in use:

1.857 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 60

Telephones - mobile cellular:

16.418 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 45

Telephone system:

general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities but still antiquated and inadequate in rural areas

domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are growing rapidly, with the subscriber base exceeding 16 million in 2009

international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan plans to establish a fiber-optic connection to Afghanistan (2009)

Broadcast media:

government controls media; 8 state-owned broadcasters - 4 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately-owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately-owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation and are prohibited from broadcasting live; about 15 privately-owned radio broadcasters; programming content includes news updates, music, call-in talk shows, and other entertainment in a half-Russian, half-Uzbek format mandated for private radio (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

47,718 (2010) country comparison to the world: 89

Internet users:

4.689 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 50

Transportation ::Uzbekistan


54 (2010) country comparison to the world: 87

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 33

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 13

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 4 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

under 914 m: 19 (2010)


gas 9,706 km; oil 868 km (2009)


total: 3,645 km country comparison to the world: 47 broad gauge: 3,645 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2008)


total: 86,496 km country comparison to the world: 56 paved: 75,511 km

unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)


1,100 km (2009) country comparison to the world: 63

Ports and terminals:

Termiz (Amu Darya)

Military ::Uzbekistan

Military branches:

Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-year conscript service obligation; moving toward a professional military, but conscription will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 7,776,645

females age 16-49: 7,783,901 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 6,456,675

females age 16-49: 6,658,475 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 306,743

female: 299,264 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

3.5% of GDP (2010) country comparison to the world: 33

Transnational Issues ::Uzbekistan

Disputes - international:

prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 39,202 (Tajikistan); 1,060 (Afghanistan)

IDPs: 3,400 (forced population transfers by government from villages near Tajikistan border) (2007)

Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for women and girls trafficked to Kazakhstan, Russia, Middle East, and Asia for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; men are trafficked to Kazakhstan and Russia for purposes of forced labor in the construction, cotton, and tobacco industries; men and women are also trafficked internally for the purposes of domestic servitude, forced labor in the agricultural and construction industries, and for commercial sexual exploitation

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Uzbekistan is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in 2007; the government did not amend its criminal code to increase penalties for convicted traffickers; in March 2008, Uzbekistan adopted ILO Conventions on minimum age of employment and on the elimination of the worst forms of child labor and is working with the ILO on implementation; the government also demonstrated its increasing commitment to combat trafficking in March 2008 by adopting a comprehensive anti-trafficking law; Uzbekistan has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2008)

Illicit drugs:

transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan


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