- Art Gallery -



United Kingdom, See : Flags, Maps


London , Sir Walter Besant

South London, Sir Walter Besant

United Kingdom, Gallery

Ancient Man in Britain, by Donald Alexander Mackenzie

Outlines of English History, by John Charles Curtis

Archaic England , Harold Bayley

England, Frank Fox

Social Life in England Through the Centuries, by H. R. Wilton Hall

The Spell of Scotland, by Keith Clark

The Towns of Roman Britain , James Oliver Bevan

English Costume, Dion Clayton Calthrop

English Embroidered Bookbindings, Cyril James Humphries Davenport

Milton's England , Lucia Ames Mead

English Villages, P. H. Ditchfield

Our Journey to the Hebrides, Joseph Pennell and Elizabeth Robins Pennell

The Cathedrals of Great Britain, by P. H. Ditchfield

Cathedral Cities of England, Collins William Wiehe

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Wells, Percy Dearmer

The Seven Periods of English Architecture , Edmund Sharpe

The Cathedral Church of Peterborough, W.D. Sweeting

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of St. Paul, Arthur Dimock

Bell's Cathedrals: Chichester (1901) , Hubert C. Corlette

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Winchester, Philip Walsingham Sergeant

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Ely, W. D. Sweeting

The Cathedral Church of York, A. Clutton-Brock

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Norwich, C. H. B. Quennell

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Exeter, Percy Addleshaw

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Hereford, A Description Of Its Fabric And A Brief History Of The Episcopal See , A. Hugh Fisher

Bell's Cathedrals: Southwark Cathedral, George Worley

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Saint Albans, Thomas Perkins

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Carlisle, C. King Eley

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Durham, J. E. Bygate

Bell's Cathedrals: The Abbey Church of Tewkesbury , H. J. L. J. Massé

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Gloucester, H. J. L. J. Massé

Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Salisbury, Gleeson White

Canterbury, Canon Danks

Cornwall , G. E. Mittone

Devonshire, by Francis A. Knight and Louie M. (Knight) Dutton

Royal Edinburgh, Margaret Oliphant

Highways and Byways in Surrey, Eric Parker

Hastings and Neighbourhood, Walter Higgins

Yorkshire--Coast & Moorland Scenes, Gordon Home

British Highways And Byways From A Motor Car, Thomas D. Murphy

The Ports, Harbours, Watering-places and Picturesque Scenery of Great Britain Vol. 1, Vol. 2, William Finden

Hammersmith, Fulham and Putney, Geraldine Edith Mitton and John Cunningham Geikie

Hampstead and Marylebone, Geraldine Edith Mitton

The Kensington District, Geraldine Edith Mitton

Holborn and Bloomsbury, Sir Walter Besant and Geraldine Edith Mitton

The Cornwall Coast , Arthur L. Salmon

Chronicles of Strathearn

Yorkshire Battles, by Edward Lamplough

Norfolk Annals , A Chronological Record of Remarkable Events in the 19th Century, Vol. 1, Vol. 2. , Charles Mackie

Mayfair, Belgravia, and Bayswater, Geraldine Edith Mitton

The Geological Story of the Isle of Wight, J. Cecil Hughes

Secret Chambers and Hiding Places, Allan Fea

An Introduction to the Industrial and Social History of England, Edward Potts Cheyney

Shakespearean Playhouses , Joseph Quincy Adams

British Museum Images

Hero-Myths & Legends of the British Race, Maud Isabel Ebbutt

Cecil Rhodes, Princess Catherine Radziwill


An Historical Narrative of the Great and Terrible Fire of London, Sept. 2nd 1666, Gideon Harvey

English Caricaturists and Graphic Humourists of the Nineteenth Century, Graham Everitt

Great Britain and Her Queen, Anne E. Keeling

Mary Queen of Scots 1542-1587

The Life of King Edward VII, J. Castell Hopkins

The Handbook to English Heraldry, Charles Boutell

Great Britain and the American Civil War , Ephraim Douglass Adams

On the Spanish Main, John Masefield

The Rise of the Democracy, Joseph Clayton

An Historical Account of the Settlements of Scotch Highlanders in America, J. P. MacLean

The British and the Hellenes: struggles for mastery in the eastern mediterranean 1850-1960, Robert F. Holland, Diana Weston Markides


Shakespeare's Family, Mrs. C. C. Stopes

Shakespeare, William : Hamlet , Othello , Venus and Adonis,

The Poetical Works of John Milton

English Literature, William J. Long

The Story of Lewis Carroll, Isa Bowman

A Short History of English Printing, 1476-1898, Henry R. Plomer

English Book-Illustration of To-day, Rose Esther Dorothea Sketchley

A Literary Pilgrimage Among the Haunts of Famous British Authors, Theodore Frelinghuysen Wolfe

Night and Day , Virginia Woolf

The Voyage Out , Virginia Woolf

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, Arthur Conan Doyle

Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

The Mysterious Affair at Styles, Agatha Christie

The Secret Adversary, Agatha Christie

Treasure Island, Robert Louis Stevenson

The Jungle Book, Rudyard Kipling

Alice in Wonderland , Lewis Carroll

A Christmas Carol, Charles Dickens

Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, J. M. Barrie

Tales from Shakespeare , Charles Lamb and Mary Lamb


The Influence and Development of English Gilds, Francis Aiden Hibbert

Down Under With the Prince, Everard Cotes

The History of the Fabian Society, Edward R. Pease

The Story of the Guides, G. J. Younghusband

Old Coloured Books, George Paston

Some Old Time Beauties, Thomson Willing

English Coins and Tokens , Barclay V. Head and Llewellynn Frederick William Jewitt



Artist from UK

The Works of William Hogarth: In a Series of Engravings, John Trusler

A history of British art, Andrew Graham-Dixon

The King's artists: the Royal Academy of Arts and the politics of British culture, 1760-1840, Holger Hoock

American Indians in British art, 1700-1840, Stephanie Pratt

J.M.W. Turner: 1775-1851 : the world of light and colour, Michael Bockemühl

Blake's Gifts: Poetry and the Politics of Exchange, Sarah Haggarty

Paul Mellon's legacy: a passion for British art : masterpieces from the Yale ..., John Baskett

Great British watercolors:from the Paul Mellon collection at the Yale Center for British Art, Matthew Hargraves, Yale Center for British Art, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts

The Victorian nude: sexuality, morality, and art, Alison Smith

Women in the Victorian art world, Clarissa Campbell Orr

Bodybuilding: reforming masculinities in British art 1750-1810, Martin Myrone

British and Irish paintings in public collections: an index of British and Irish Oil paintings, Christopher Wright, Catherine May Gordon, Mary Peskett Smith

Contemporary British women artists: in their own words, Rebecca Fortnum

War paint: art, war, state and identity in Britain, 1939-1945, Brian Foss

The public art museum in nineteenth century Britain: the development of the national gallery, Christopher Whitehead

Impressions of the Caribbean - The Paintings of Janice Sylvia Brock

Picturing imperial power: colonial subjects in eighteenth-century British painting, Beth Fowkes Tobin

Public sculpture of Birmingham: including Sutton Coldfield, George Thomas Noszlopy, Jeremy Beach, National Recording Project (Public Monuments and Sculpture Association)

Public sculpture of Greater Manchester, Terry Wyke, Harry Cocks

Public sculpture of Glasgow, Volume 2001, Raymond McKenzie, Gary Nisbet

Public sculpture of Liverpool, Terry Cavanagh, National Recording Project (Public Monuments and Sculpture Association)

Public sculpture of Staffordshire and the Black Country, George Thomas Noszlopy, Fiona Waterhouse

Public sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, George Thomas Noszlopy

Public sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Terry Cavanagh, Alison Yarrington

Public sculpture of North-East England, Paul Usherwood, Jeremy Beach, Catherine Morris, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, National Recording Project (Public Monuments and Sculpture Association)

Public sculpture of the city of London, Philip Ward-Jackson

@United Kingdom (Europe)

Introduction :: UNITED KINGDOM

The United Kingdom has historically played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science. At its zenith in the 19th century, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted in two world wars and the Irish Republic's withdrawal from the union. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council and a founding member of NATO and the Commonwealth, the UK pursues a global approach to foreign policy. The Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly were established in 1998. The latter was suspended from October 2002 until May 2007 due to wrangling over the peace process.
The UK has been an active member of the EU since its accession in 1973, although it chose to remain outside the Economic and Monetary Union. However, motivated in part by frustration at a remote bureaucracy in Brussels and massive migration into the country, UK citizens on 23 June 2016 narrowly voted to leave the EU. The so-called “Brexit” (British exit) will take at least two years to carry out but could help trigger referenda in other EU countries where skepticism of EU membership benefits is strong.

British National Anthem


Western Europe, islands - including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland - between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea; northwest of France
Geographic coordinates:
54 00 N, 2 00 W
Map references:
total: 243,610 sq km
land: 241,930 sq km
water: 1,680 sq km
note: includes Rockall and Shetland Islands
country comparison to the world: 80
Area - comparative:
twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total: 443 km
border countries (1): Ireland 443 km
12,429 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed upon boundaries
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast
mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast
mean elevation: 162 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: The Fens -4 m
highest point: Ben Nevis 1,343 m
Natural resources:
coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, potash, silica sand, slate, arable land
Land use:
agricultural land: 71%
arable land 25.1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 45.7%
forest: 11.9%
other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
950 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the core of the population lies in and around London, with significant clusters found in central Britain around Manchester and Liverpool, in the Scotish lowlands between Endinburgh and Glasgow, southern Wales in and around Cardiff, and far eastern Northern Ireland centered on Belfast
Natural hazards:
winter windstorms; floods
Environment - current issues:
continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; by 2005 the government reduced the amount of industrial and commercial waste disposed of in landfill sites to 85% of 1998 levels and recycled or composted at least 25% of household waste, increasing to 33% by 2015
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and linked by tunnel under the English Channel (the Channel Tunnel or Chunnel); because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters

People and Society :: UNITED KINGDOM

64,430,428 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)
adjective: British
Ethnic groups:
white 87.2%, black/African/Caribbean/black British 3%, Asian/Asian British: Indian 2.3%, Asian/Asian British: Pakistani 1.9%, mixed 2%, other 3.7% (2011 est.)
note: the following are recognized regional languages: Scots (about 30% of the population of Scotland), Scottish Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland), Welsh (about 20% of the population of Wales), Irish (about 10% of the population of Northern Ireland), Cornish (some 2,000 to 3,000 in Cornwall) (2012 est.)
Christian (includes Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 59.5%, Muslim 4.4%, Hindu 1.3%, other 2%, unspecified 7.2%, none 25.7% (2011 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 17.44% (male 5,761,311/female 5,476,649)
15-24 years: 12.15% (male 3,997,150/female 3,830,268)
25-54 years: 40.74% (male 13,367,242/female 12,883,674)
55-64 years: 11.77% (male 3,760,020/female 3,820,525)
65 years and over: 17.9% (male 5,170,542/female 6,363,047) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 55.1
youth dependency ratio: 27.6
elderly dependency ratio: 27.6
potential support ratio: 3.6 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 40.5 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 41.7 years (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Population growth rate:
0.53% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Birth rate:
12.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Death rate:
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Net migration rate:
2.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Population distribution:
the core of the population lies in and around London, with significant clusters found in central Britain around Manchester and Liverpool, in the Scotish lowlands between Endinburgh and Glasgow, southern Wales in and around Cardiff, and far eastern Northern Ireland centered on Belfast
urban population: 82.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.88% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
LONDON (capital) 10.313 million; Manchester 2.646 million; Birmingham 2.515 million; Glasgow 1.223 million; Southampton/Portsmouth 882,000; Liverpool 870,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
28.1 years
note: data represent England and Wales only (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 80.7 years
male: 78.5 years
female: 83 years (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Total fertility rate:
1.89 children born/woman (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
note: percent of women aged 16-49 (2008/09)
Health expenditures:
9.1% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 30
Physicians density:
2.81 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density:
2.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
urban: 99.1% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.2% of population
urban: 0.9% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.33% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
126,700 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 600 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
29.8% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 43
Education expenditures:
5.8% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 36
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 16.9%
male: 18.9%
female: 14.8% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52

Government :: UNITED KINGDOM

Country name:
conventional long form: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; note - the island of Great Britain includes England, Scotland, and Wales
conventional short form: United Kingdom
abbreviation: UK
etymology: self-descriptive country name; the designation "Great Britain," in the sense of "Larger Britain," dates back to medieval times and was used to distinguish the island from "Little Britain," or Brittany in modern France; the name Ireland derives from the Gaelic "Eriu," the matron goddess of Ireland (goddess of the land)
Government type:
parliamentary constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
name: London
geographic coordinates: 51 30 N, 0 05 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: applies to the United Kingdom proper, not to its Crown dependencies or overseas territories
Administrative divisions:
England: 27 two-tier counties, 32 London boroughs and 1 City of London or Greater London, 36 metropolitan districts, 56 unitary authorities (including 4 single-tier counties*)
two-tier counties: Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cumbria, Derbyshire, Devon, Dorset, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, North Yorkshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, Suffolk, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Sussex, Worcestershire
London boroughs and City of London or Greater London: Barking and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Camden, Croydon, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Haringey, Harrow, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston upon Thames, Lambeth, Lewisham, City of London, Merton, Newham, Redbridge, Richmond upon Thames, Southwark, Sutton, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, Wandsworth, Westminster
metropolitan districts: Barnsley, Birmingham, Bolton, Bradford, Bury, Calderdale, Coventry, Doncaster, Dudley, Gateshead, Kirklees, Knowlsey, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Tyneside, Oldham, Rochdale, Rotherham, Salford, Sandwell, Sefton, Sheffield, Solihull, South Tyneside, St. Helens, Stockport, Sunderland, Tameside, Trafford, Wakefield, Walsall, Wigan, Wirral, Wolverhampton
unitary authorities: Bath and North East Somerset, Blackburn with Darwen, Bedford, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Bracknell Forest, Brighton and Hove, City of Bristol, Central Bedfordshire, Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester, Cornwall, Darlington, Derby, Durham County*, East Riding of Yorkshire, Halton, Hartlepool, Herefordshire*, Isle of Wight*, Isles of Scilly, City of Kingston upon Hull, Leicester, Luton, Medway, Middlesbrough, Milton Keynes, North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, Northumberland*, Nottingham, Peterborough, Plymouth, Poole, Portsmouth, Reading, Redcar and Cleveland, Rutland, Shropshire, Slough, South Gloucestershire, Southampton, Southend-on-Sea, Stockton-on-Tees, Stoke-on-Trent, Swindon, Telford and Wrekin, Thurrock, Torbay, Warrington, West Berkshire, Wiltshire, Windsor and Maidenhead, Wokingham, York
Northern Ireland: 5 borough councils, 4 district councils, 2 city councils
borough councils: Antrim and Newtownabbey; Ards and North Down; Armagh, Banbridge, and Craigavon; Causeway Coast and Glens; Mid and East Antrim
district councils: Derry and Strabane; Fermanagh and Omagh; Mid Ulster; Newry, Murne, and Down
city councils: Belfast; Lisburn and Castlereagh
Scotland: 32 council areas
council areas: Aberdeen City, Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, Clackmannanshire, Dumfries and Galloway, Dundee City, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Lothian, East Renfrewshire, City of Edinburgh, Eilean Siar (Western Isles), Falkirk, Fife, Glasgow City, Highland, Inverclyde, Midlothian, Moray, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, Orkney Islands, Perth and Kinross, Renfrewshire, Shetland Islands, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, Stirling, The Scottish Borders, West Dunbartonshire, West Lothian
Wales: 22 unitary authorities
unitary authorities: Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend, Caerphilly, Cardiff, Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion, Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Gwynedd, Isle of Anglesey, Merthyr Tydfil, Monmouthshire, Neath Port Talbot, Newport, Pembrokeshire, Powys, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Swansea, The Vale of Glamorgan, Torfaen, Wrexham
Dependent areas:
Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
12 April 1927 (Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act establishes current name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland); notable earlier dates: 927 (minor English kingdoms united); 3 March 1284 (enactment of the Statute of Rhuddlan uniting England and Wales); 1536 (Act of Union formally incorporates England and Wales); 1 May 1707 (Acts of Union formally unite England and Scotland as Great Britain); 1 January 1801 (Acts of Union formally unite Great Britain and Ireland as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland); 6 December 1921 (Anglo-Irish Treaty formalizes partition of Ireland; six counties remain part of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland)
National holiday:
the UK does not celebrate one particular national holiday
history: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
amendments: proposed as a “bill” for an “Act of Parliament” by the government, by the House of Commons, or by the House of Lords; passage requires agreement by both houses and by the monarch (Royal Assent); note - recent additions include the Human Rights Act of 1998, the Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010, the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011, the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, and the House of Lords (Expulsion and Suspension) Act 2015 (2016)
Legal system:
common law system; has nonbinding judicial review of Acts of Parliament under the Human Rights Act of 1998
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the United Kingdom
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 November 1948)
head of government: Prime Minister Theresa MAY (since 13 July 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister; Theresea MAY (Conservative) assumed office 13 July 2016
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Lords (membership not fixed (as of December 2016 there were 809 lords eligible for taking part in the work of the House of Lords consisting of 692 life peers, 91 hereditary peers, and 26 clergy; members appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister and non-party political members recommended by the House of Lords Appointments Commission) and the House of Commons (650 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by first-past-the-post vote to serve 5-year terms unless the House is dissolved earlier)
elections: House of Lords - no elections (note - in 1999, as provided by the House of Lords Act, elections were held in the House of Lords to determine the 92 hereditary peers who would remain there; elections are held only as vacancies in the hereditary peerage arise); House of Commons - last held on 8 June 2017 (next to be held in June 2022)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative 42.4%, Labor 40.0%, Lib Dems 7.4%, SNP 3.0%, Greens 3.8%, DUP 0.9%, Sinn Fein 0.7%, other 5.6%; seats by party - Conservative 317, Labor 262, SNP 35, Lib Dems 12, DUP 10, Sinn Fein 7
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 12 justices including the court president and deputy president); note - the Supreme Court was established by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and implemented in October 2009, replacing the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords as the highest court in the United Kingdom
judge selection and term of office: judge candidates selected by an independent committee of several judicial commissions, followed by their recommendations to the prime minister, and appointed by Her Majesty The Queen; justices appointed for life
subordinate courts: England and Wales - Court of Appeal (civil and criminal divisions); High Court; Crown Court; County Courts; Magistrates' Courts; Scotland - Court of Sessions; Sheriff Courts; High Court of Justiciary; tribunals; Northern Ireland - Court of Appeal in Northern Ireland; High Court; county courts; magistrates' courts; specialized tribunals
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance Party (Northern Ireland) [Naomi LONG]
Conservative and Unionist Party [Theresa MAY]
Democratic Unionist Party or DUP (Northern Ireland) [Arlene FOSTER]
Green Party of England and Wales or Greens [Caroline LUCAS and Jonathan BARTLEY]
Labor (Labour) Party [Jeremy CORBYN]
Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems) [Tim FARRON]
Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Leanne WOOD]
Scottish National Party or SNP [Nicola STURGEON]
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) [Gerry ADAMS]
Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [Colum EASTWOOD]
Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [Mike NESBITT]
UK Independence Party or UKIP [interim leader Steve CROWTHER]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Confederation of British Industry
National Farmers' Union
Trades Union Congress
International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, C, CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sir Nigel Kim DARROCH (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 588-7870
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
consulate(s): Orlando (FL), San Juan (PR)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lewis LUKENS
embassy: 24 Grosvenor Square, London, W1K 6AH; note - a new embassy is scheduled to open by the end of 2017 in the Nine Elms area of Wandsworth
mailing address: PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040
telephone: [44] (0) 20 7499-9000
FAX: [44] (0) 20 7629-9124
consulate(s) general: Belfast, Edinburgh
Flag description:
blue field with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland), which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); properly known as the Union Flag, but commonly called the Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their constituent states or provinces, and British overseas territories
National symbol(s):
lion (Britain in general); lion, Tudor rose, oak (England); lion, unicorn, thistle (Scotland); dragon, daffodil, leek (Wales); shamrock, flax (Northern Ireland); national colors: red, white, blue (Britain in general); red, white (England); blue, white (Scotland); red, white, green (Wales)
National anthem:
name: "God Save the Queen"
lyrics/music: unknown
note: in use since 1745; by tradition, the song serves as both the national and royal anthem of the UK; it is known as either "God Save the Queen" or "God Save the King," depending on the gender of the reigning monarch; it also serves as the royal anthem of many Commonwealth nations


Economy - overview:
The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is the third largest economy in Europe after Germany and France. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 2% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil resources, but its oil and natural gas reserves are declining; the UK has been a net importer of energy since 2005. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, are key drivers of British GDP growth. Manufacturing, meanwhile, has declined in importance but still accounts for about 10% of economic output.
In 2008, the global financial crisis hit the economy particularly hard, due to the importance of its financial sector. Falling home prices, high consumer debt, and the global economic slowdown compounded Britain's economic problems, pushing the economy into recession in the latter half of 2008 and prompting the then BROWN (Labour) government to implement a number of measures to stimulate the economy and stabilize the financial markets. Facing burgeoning public deficits and debt levels, in 2010 the then CAMERON-led coalition government (between Conservatives and Liberal Democrats) initiated an austerity program, which has continued under the new Conservative majority government. However, the deficit still remains one of the highest in the G7, standing at 4.1% of GDP as of mid-2016, and Britain has pledged to lower its corporation tax from 20% to 17% by 2020. Britain had a debt burden of 92.2% GDP at the end of 2016.
While the UK is one of the fastest growing economies in the G7, economists are concerned about the potential negative impact of the UK’s vote to leave the EU. The UK has an extensive trade relationship with other EU members through its single market membership and economic observers have warned the exit will jeopardize its position as the central location for European financial services.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$2.788 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.737 trillion (2015 est.)
$2.677 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 10
GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.65 trillion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.8% (2016 est.)
2.2% (2015 est.)
3.1% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$42,500 (2016 est.)
$42,000 (2015 est.)
$41,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 38
Gross national saving:
11.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 65.8%
government consumption: 19.5%
investment in fixed capital: 17.4%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 28.8%
imports of goods and services: -31.6% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 0.6%
industry: 19.2%
services: 80.2%
(2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish
machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goods
Industrial production growth rate:
0.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Labor force:
33.17 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 15.2%
services: 83.5% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.8% (2016 est.)
5.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Population below poverty line:
15% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2012)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32.4 (2012)
33.4 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 110
revenues: $996.3 billion
expenditures: $1.097 trillion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
37.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Public debt:
92.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
89% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 20
Fiscal year:
6 April - 5 April
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.5% (2016 est.)
0% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Central bank discount rate:
0.25% (31 December 2016)
0.5% (31 December 2015)
country comparison to the world: 139
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
4.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.51% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Stock of narrow money:
$95.88 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$106.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Stock of broad money:
$2.669 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.491 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Stock of domestic credit:
$2.704 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.195 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$3.019 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$2.903 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
$3.107 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Current account balance:
-$114.5 billion (2016 est.)
-$122.7 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
$412.1 billion (2016 est.)
$436.2 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco
Exports - partners:
US 14.6%, Germany 10.1%, Switzerland 7%, China 6%, France 5.9%, Netherlands 5.8%, Ireland 5.5% (2015)
$581.6 billion (2016 est.)
$627.7 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Imports - commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Germany 14.8%, China 9.8%, US 9.2%, Netherlands 7.5%, France 5.8%, Belgium 5% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$129.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$107.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Debt - external:
$8.126 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$8.642 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$2.069 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.04 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.975 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.959 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Exchange rates:
British pounds (GBP) per US dollar -
0.7391 (2016 est.)
0.6542 (2015 est.)
0.607 (2014 est.)
0.6391 (2013 est.)
0.6324 (2012 est.)


Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
335 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Electricity - consumption:
309 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Electricity - exports:
2.72 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Electricity - imports:
20.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
96 million kW (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
71.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
11.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
5.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
12.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Crude oil - production:
893,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Crude oil - exports:
699,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Crude oil - imports:
1.047 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Crude oil - proved reserves:
2.8 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Refined petroleum products - production:
1.308 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.545 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Refined petroleum products - exports:
490,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Refined petroleum products - imports:
660,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Natural gas - production:
38.58 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Natural gas - consumption:
70.45 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Natural gas - exports:
10.55 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Natural gas - imports:
42.83 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Natural gas - proved reserves:
205.4 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
country comparison to the world: 44
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
568.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Communications :: UNITED KINGDOM

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 33.613 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 52 (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 80.284 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Telephone system:
general assessment: technologically advanced domestic and international system
domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems
international: country code - 44; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers (2015)
Broadcast media:
public service broadcaster, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world; BBC operates multiple TV networks with regional and local TV service; a mixed system of public and commercial TV broadcasters along with satellite and cable systems provide access to hundreds of TV stations throughout the world; BBC operates multiple national, regional, and local radio networks with multiple transmission sites; a large number of commercial radio stations, as well as satellite radio services are available (2008)
Internet country code:
Internet users:
total: 58.961 million
percent of population: 92% (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10

Transportation :: UNITED KINGDOM

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 28
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1,242
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 131,449,680
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,466,504,676 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
G (2016)
460 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 18
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 271
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 89
914 to 1,523 m: 80
under 914 m: 66 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 189
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 160 (2013)
9 (2013)
condensate 502 km; condensate/gas 9 km; gas 28,603 km; liquid petroleum gas 59 km; oil 5,256 km; oil/gas/water 175 km; refined products 4,919 km; water 255 km (2013)
total: 16,837 km
broad gauge: 303 km 1.600-m gauge (in Northern Ireland)
standard gauge: 16,534 km 1.435-m gauge (5,357 km electrified) (2015)
country comparison to the world: 16
total: 394,428 km
paved: 394,428 km (includes 3,519 km of expressways) (2009)
country comparison to the world: 18
3,200 km (620 km used for commerce) (2009)
country comparison to the world: 31
Merchant marine:
total: 504
by type: bulk carrier 33, cargo 76, carrier 4, chemical tanker 58, container 178, liquefied gas 6, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 66, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 31, vehicle carrier 25
foreign-owned: 271 (Australia 1, Bermuda 6, China 7, Denmark 43, France 39, Germany 59, Hong Kong 12, Ireland 1, Italy 3, Japan 5, Netherlands 1, Norway 32, Sweden 28, Taiwan 11, Tanzania 1, UAE 8, US 14)
registered in other countries: 308 (Algeria 15, Antigua and Barbuda 1, Argentina 2, Australia 5, Bahamas 18, Barbados 6, Belgium 2, Belize 4, Bermuda 14, Bolivia 1, Brunei 2, Cabo Verde 1, Cambodia 1, Cayman Islands 2, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 2, Cyprus 7, Georgia 5, Gibraltar 6, Greece 6, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 33, Indonesia 2, Italy 2, Liberia 22, Liberia 32, Luxembourg 5, Malta 21, Marshall Islands 12, Marshall Islands 3, Moldova 3, Nigeria 2, NZ 1, Panama 37, Panama 5, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6, Sierra Leone 1, Singapore 6, Thailand 6, Tonga 1, US 4, unknown 1) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 22
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Dover, Felixstowe, Immingham, Liverpool, London, Southampton, Teesport (England); Forth Ports (Scotland); Milford Haven (Wales)
oil terminal(s): Fawley Marine terminal, Liverpool Bay terminal (England); Braefoot Bay terminal, Finnart oil terminal, Hound Point terminal (Scotland)
container port(s) (TEUs): Felixstowe (3,248,592), London (1,932,000), Southampton (1,324,581)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Isle of Grain, Milford Haven, Teesside

Military and Security :: UNITED KINGDOM

Military expenditures:
1.94% of GDP (2015)
1.97% of GDP (2014)
2.09% of GDP (2013)
2.21% of GDP (2012)
2.31% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 28
Military branches:
Army, Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Royal Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
16-33 years of age (officers 17-28) for voluntary military service (with parental consent under 18); no conscription; women serve in military services including ground combat roles; must be citizen of the UK, Commonwealth, or Republic of Ireland; reservists serve a minimum of 3 years, to age 45 or 55; 17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service by Nepalese citizens in the Brigade of Gurkhas; 16-34 years of age for voluntary military service by Papua New Guinean citizens (2016)

Transnational Issues :: UNITED KINGDOM

Disputes - international:
in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the UK and Spain; the Government of Gibraltar insisted on equal participation in talks between the two countries; Spain disapproved of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory); in 2001, the former inhabitants of the archipelago, evicted 1967 - 1973, were granted UK citizenship and the right of return, followed by Orders in Council in 2004 that banned rehabitation, a High Court ruling reversed the ban, a Court of Appeal refusal to hear the case, and a Law Lords' decision in 2008 denied the right of return; in addition, the UK created the world's largest marine protection area around the Chagos islands prohibiting the extraction of any natural resources therein; UK rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentina, which still claims the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 14,363 (Iran); 13,720 (Eritrea); 9,752 (Afghanistan); 8,790 (Zimbabwe); 8,269 (Syria); 7,326 (Sudan); 6,814 (Pakistan); 5,954 (Somalia); 5,809 (Sri Lanka) (2016)
stateless persons: 64 (2016)
Illicit drugs:
producer of limited amounts of synthetic drugs and synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and synthetic drugs; money-laundering center