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Slovakia, See : Flags, Maps

Slovakia (Europe)

Introduction ::Slovakia


The dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I allowed the Slovaks to join the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro area on 1 January 2009.

Geography ::Slovakia


Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates:
48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map references:



total: 49,035 sq km country comparison to the world: 130 land: 48,105 sq km

water: 930 sq km

Area - comparative:

about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:

total: 1,474 km

border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 197 km, Hungary 676 km, Poland 420 km, Ukraine 90 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)


temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters


rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m

highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

Natural resources:

brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Land use:

arable land: 29.23%

permanent crops: 2.67%

other: 68.1% (2005)

Irrigated land:

1,830 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

50.1 cu km (2003)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 1.04

per capita: 193 cu m/yr (2003)

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:

air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys

People ::Slovakia


5,470,306 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 111

Age structure:

0-14 years: 15.8% (male 442,168/female 422,055)

15-64 years: 71.7% (male 1,952,527/female 1,965,646)

65 years and over: 12.5% (male 254,510/female 426,140) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 37.3 years

male: 35.7 years

female: 38.9 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.129% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 185

Birth rate:

10.55 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 184

Death rate:

9.56 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 62

Net migration rate:

0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66


urban population: 56% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.051 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 6.71 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 170 male: 7.83 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.62 years country comparison to the world: 79 male: 71.7 years

female: 79.74 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.36 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 205

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 159

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

fewer than 200 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 158

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 100 (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 132


noun: Slovak(s)

adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups:

Slovak 85.8%, Hungarian 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)


Roman Catholic 68.9%, Protestant 10.8%, Greek Catholic 4.1%, other or unspecified 3.2%, none 13% (2001 census)


Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.6%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.6% (2004)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 16 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

3.6% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 129

Government ::Slovakia

Country name:

conventional long form: Slovak Republic

conventional short form: Slovakia

local long form: Slovenska Republika

local short form: Slovensko

Government type:

parliamentary democracy


name: Bratislava

geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky


1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday:

Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)


ratified 1 September 1992, effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998; amended February 2001

note: the change in September 1998 allowed direct election of the president; the amendment of February 2001 allowed Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership

Legal system:

civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Iveta RADICOVA (since 8 July 2010); Deputy Prime Ministers Jan FIGEL, Ivan MIKLOS, Jozef MIHAL, Rudolf CHMEL (since 9 July 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 March and 4 April 2009 (next to be held no later than April 2014); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC reelected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 55.5%, Iveta RADICOVA 44.5%

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 12 June 2010 (next to be held in June 2014)

election results: percent of vote by party - Smer 34.8%, SDKU-DS 15%, SaS 12.1%, KDH 8.5%, Most-Hid 8.1%, SNS 5.1%, other 16.2%; seats by party - Smer 62, SDKU-DS 28, SaS 22, KDH 15, Most-Hid 14, SNS 9

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges and appointed by president)

Political parties and leaders:

parties in the Parliament:: Bridge or Most-Hid [Bela BUGAR];
Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Jan FIGEL]; Direction-Social
Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Freedom and Solidarity or SaS
[Richard SULIK]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic
Party or SDKU-DS [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS

selected parties outside the Parliament:: Alliance for a Europe of
Nations or AZEN [Milan URBANI]; Association of Slovak Workers or ZRS
[Jan LUPTAK]; Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Peter ZAJAC]; Green
Party or SZ [Peter PILINSKY]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL
[Marek BLAHA]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Jozsef
BERENYI]; People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or
LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; People's Party - Our Slovakia or LSNS
[Marian KOTLEBA]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Jozef HRDLICKA];
Union - Party for Slovakia or Unia [Milan CELIK]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade
Unions or KOZ; Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS;
Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic;
National Union of Employers or RUZ; Slovak Chamber of Commerce and
Industry or SOPK; Slovenska Pospolitost; The Business Alliance of
Slovakia or PAS

International organization participation:

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CEI,
(observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer),

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Peter BURIAN

chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Theodore SEDGWICK

embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava

mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava

telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the Pan-Slav colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white Cross of Lorraine surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National anthem:

name: "Nad Tatrou sa blyska" (Storm Over the Tatras)

lyrics/music: Janko MATUSKA/traditional

note: adopted 1993, in use since 1844; the anthem"s music is based on the Slovak folk song "Kopala studienku"

Economy ::Slovakia

Economy - overview:

Slovakia has made significant economic reforms since its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993. Reforms to the taxation, healthcare, pension, and social welfare systems helped Slovakia to consolidate its budget and get on track to join the EU in 2004 and to adopt the euro in January 2009. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost entirely in foreign hands, and the government has helped facilitate a foreign investment boom with business friendly policies such as labor market liberalization and a 19% flat tax. Foreign investment in the automotive and electronic sectors has been strong. Slovakia's economic growth exceeded expectations in 2001-08 despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment, at an unacceptable 18% in 2003-04, dropped to 7.7% in 2008 but remains the economy's Achilles heel. FICO's cabinet was careful to keep a lid on spending in order to meet euro adoption criteria and has focused on regulating energy and food prices instead. To maintain a stable operating environment for investors, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development advised the Slovak government to refrain from intervening in important sectors of the economy. However, Bratislava's approach to mitigating the economic slowdown has included substantial government intervention and the option to nationalize strategic companies. Slovakia was admitted to the euro zone in January 2009. RADICOVA's government, in power since July 2010, has allowed the budget deficit to rise slightly, to 8.2% of GDP in 2010. GDP fell nearly 5% in 2009 before gaining back 4% in 2010, and unemployment rose above 12% in 2010, as the global recession impacted many segments of the economy.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$121.3 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 62 $116.7 billion (2009 est.)

$122.4 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$86.26 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 82 -4.7% (2009 est.)

6.2% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$22,200 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 57 $21,400 (2009 est.)

$22,400 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 2.7%

industry: 35.6%

services: 61.8% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

2.673 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 107

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 3.5%

industry: 27%

services: 69.4% (December 2009)

Unemployment rate:

12.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 133 11.4% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

21% (2002)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.1%

highest 10%: 20.9% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

26 (2005) country comparison to the world: 130 26.3 (1996)

Investment (gross fixed):

22.2% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 65

Public debt:

41% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66 35.7% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27 1.6% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

1% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 124 3% (31 December 2008)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks from the euro area; as of 1 January 2009 Slovakia became a member of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

NA% (31 December 2009 est.)

NA% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$34.37 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 52 $34.1 billion (31 December 2009 est)

note: this figure represents the US dollar value of Slovak koruny in circulation prior to Slovakia joining the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:

$52.63 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66 $52.68 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$65.09 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 58 $64.25 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$4.672 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 80 $5.079 billion (31 December 2008)

$6.971 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products


metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

Industrial production growth rate:

7.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 35

Electricity - production:

25.9 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 65

Electricity - consumption:

28.75 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 61

Electricity - exports:

8.891 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

9.412 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

4,114 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 96

Oil - consumption:

79,930 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 85

Oil - exports:

75,110 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 71

Oil - imports:

144,000 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 55

Oil - proved reserves:

9 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 91

Natural gas - production:

103 million cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 78

Natural gas - consumption:

6.493 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 54

Natural gas - exports:

15 million cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 44

Natural gas - imports:

6.974 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 28

Natural gas - proved reserves:

14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 78

Current account balance:

-$1.93 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 156 -$2.819 billion (2009 est.)


$64.18 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 $55.32 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

machinery and electrical equipment 35.9%, vehicles 21%, base metals 11.3%, chemicals and minerals 8.1%, plastics 4.9% (2009 est.)

Exports - partners:

Germany 20.1%, Czech Republic 12.9%, France 7.8%, Poland 7.2%,
Hungary 6.3%, Italy 6.1%, Austria 5.8%, UK 4.8% (2009)


$62.43 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 41 $53.67 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment 31%, mineral products 13%, vehicles 12%, base metals 9%, chemicals 8%, plastics 6% (2009 est.)

Imports - partners:

Germany 16.8%, Czech Republic 12.3%, Russia 9%, South Korea 6.8%,
China 5.8%, Hungary 5.3%, Poland 4% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$1.16 billion (31 January 2010 est.)

Debt - external:

$59.33 billion (30 June 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 50 $52.53 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$52.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 53 $50.26 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$2.643 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 63 $2.743 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Slovak koruny (SKK) per US dollar - 0.774 (2010), 0.718 (2009), 21.05 (2008), 24.919 (2007), 29.611 (2006)

Communications ::Slovakia

Telephones - main lines in use:

1.022 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 77

Telephones - mobile cellular:

5.498 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 92

Telephone system:

general assessment: Slovakia has a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth in cellular services

domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 3 companies provide nationwide cellular services

international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services

Broadcast media:

state-owned public broadcaster, Slovak Television (STV), operates 3 national TV stations; roughly 35 privately-owned television broadcast stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; channels from the Czech Republic and Hungary are widely viewed; state-owned public radio operates multiple national and regional networks; more than 20 privately-owned radio stations (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

1.133 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 41

Internet users:

4.063 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 58

Transportation ::Slovakia


36 (2010) country comparison to the world: 107

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 20

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 10 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 7 (2010)


1 (2010)


gas 6,769 km; oil 416 km (2009)


total: 3,622 km country comparison to the world: 48 broad gauge: 99 km 1.520-m gauge

standard gauge: 3,473 km 1.435-m gauge (1,577 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 50 km (1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge) (2008)


total: 43,761 km country comparison to the world: 85 paved: 38,085 km (includes 384 km of expressways)

unpaved: 5,676 km (2008)


172 km (on Danube River) (2009) country comparison to the world: 100

Merchant marine:

total: 23 country comparison to the world: 97 by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 19, refrigerated cargo 3

foreign-owned: 21 (Germany 4, Greece 1, Ireland 1, Italy 2, Montenegro 1, Poland 2, Slovenia 1, Turkey 2, Ukraine 7) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Bratislava, Komarno

Military ::Slovakia

Military branches:

Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,413,079

females age 16-49: 1,377,754 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,162,282

females age 16-49: 1,147,526 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 33,915

female: 32,448 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.87% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 81

Transnational Issues ::Slovakia

Disputes - international:

bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued in 2006 between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules

Illicit drugs:

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy


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