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Serbia, See : Flags, Maps

Hero Tales and Legends of the Serbians, Woislav M. Petrovitch

Serbia: A Sketch, Helen Leah Reed

Serbia (Europe)

Introduction ::Serbia


The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germany's occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip "TITO" Broz (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945. Although Communist, TITO's new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions led to Yugoslavia being ousted from the UN in 1992, but Serbia continued its - ultimately unsuccessful - campaign until signing the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC kept tight control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999, to the withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999, and to the stationing of a NATO-led force in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the region's ethnic communities. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. MILOSEVIC was arrested in 2001 and sent to be tried in The Hague for crimes against humanity; he died in March 2006 before the completion of his trial. In 2001, the country's suspension from the UN was lifted. In 2003, the FRY became Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics with a federal level parliament. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosovo in January 2006. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right to secede from the federation and - following a successful referendum - it declared itself an independent nation on 3 June 2006. Two days later, Serbia declared that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. A new Serbian constitution was approved in October 2006 and adopted the following month. In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, the UN-administered province of Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo.

Geography ::Serbia

View Larger Map


Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary

Geographic coordinates:
44 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references:



total: 77,474 sq km country comparison to the world: 116 land: 77,474 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:

total: 2,026 km

border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Kosovo 352 km, Macedonia 62 km, Montenegro 124 km, Romania 476 km

Postcard from Serbia


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)


in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)


extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m

highest point: Midzor 2,169 m


Natural resources:

oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land

Land use:

arable land: NA

permanent crops: NA

other: NA

Irrigated land:

Total renewable water resources:

208.5 cu km (note - includes Kosovo) (2003)

Natural hazards:

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:

air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

serbia tourism

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East

People ::Serbia


7,344,847 country comparison to the world: 97 note: does not include the population of Kosovo (July 2010 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 15.4% (male 586,806/female 549,900)

15-64 years: 67.8% (male 2,503,194/female 2,502,807)

65 years and over: 16.8% (male 508,606/female 728,026) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 41.1 years

male: 39.4 years

female: 42.9 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.469% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 223

Birth rate:

9.2 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 208

Death rate:

13.89 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 18

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 110


urban population: 52% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.065 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and above: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 6.65 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 172 male: 7.68 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.09 years country comparison to the world: 102 male: 71.26 years

female: 77.1 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.39 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 201

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 160

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

6,400 (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 117

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 100 (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 133

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne disease: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)


noun: Serb(s)

adjective: Serbian

Ethnic groups:

Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%,
Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census)


Serbian Orthodox 85%, Catholic 5.5%, Protestant 1.1%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or atheist 2.6% (2002 census)


Serbian 88.3% (official), Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany
(Gypsy) 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9% (2002 census)

note: Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Croatian all official in Vojvodina


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96.4%

male: 98.9%

female: 94.1% (2003 census)

note: includes Montenegro

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 14 years

male: 13 years

female: 14 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

4.5% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 91

Government ::Serbia

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Serbia

conventional short form: Serbia

local long form: Republika Srbija

local short form: Srbija

former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia

Government type:



name: Belgrade (Beograd)

geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

167 municipalities (opcstine, singular - opcstina)

Serbia Proper: Belgrade City (Beograd): Barajevo, Cukarica, Grocka,
Lazarevac, Mladenovac, Novi Beograd, Obrenovac, Palilula, Rakovica,
Savski Venac, Sopot, Stari Grad, Surcin, Vozdovac, Vracar, Zemun,
Zvezdara; Bor: Bor, Kladovo, Majdanpek, Negotin; Branicevo: Golubac,
Kucevo, Malo Crnice, Petrovac, Pozarevac, Veliko Gradiste, Zabari,
Zagubica; Grad Nis: Crveni Krst, Mediana, Niska Banja, Palilula,
Pantelej Jablanica: Bojnik, Crna Trava, Lebane, Leskovac, Medveda,
Vlasotince; Kolubara: Lajkovac, Ljig, Mionica, Osecina, Ub, Valjevo;
Macva: Bogatic, Koceljeva, Krupanj, Ljubovija, Loznica, Mali
Zvornik, Sabac, Vladimirci; Moravica: Cacak, Gornkji Milanovac,
Ivanjica, Lucani; Nisava: Aleksinac, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Merosina,
Nis, Razanj, Svrljig; Pcinja: Bosilegrad, Bujanovac, Presevo,
Surdulica, Trgoviste, Vladicin Han, Vranje; Pirot: Babusnica, Bela
Palanka, Dimitrovgrad, Pirot; Podunavlje: Smederevo, Smederevskia
Palanka, Velika Plana; Pomoravlje: Cuprija, Despotovac, Jagodina,
Paracin, Rekovac, Svilajnac; Rasina: Aleksandrovac, Brus, Cicevac,
Krusevac, Trstenik, Varvarin; Raska: Kraljevo, Novi Pazar, Raska,
Tutin, Vrnjacka Banja; Sumadija: Arandelovac, Batocina, Knic,
Kragujevac, Lapovo, Raca, Topola; Toplica: Blace, Kursumlija,
Prokuplje, Zitorada; Zajecar: Boljevac, Knjazevac, Sokobanja,
Zajecar; Zlatibor: Arilje, Bajina Basta, Cajetina, Kosjeric, Nova
Varos, Pozega, Priboj, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Uzice

Vojvodina Autonomous Province: South Backa: Bac, Backa Palanka,
Backi Petrovac, Becej, Beocin, Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci,
Srobobran, Temerin, Titel, Vrbas, Zabalj; South Banat: Alibunar,
Bela Crkva, Kovacica, Kovin, Opovo, Pancevo, Plandiste, Vrsac; North
Backa: Backa Topola, Mali Idjos, Subotica; North Banat: Ada, Coka,
Kanjiza, Kikinda, Novi Knezevac, Senta; Central Banat: Nova Crnja,
Novi Becej, Secanj, Zitiste, Zrenjanin; Srem: Indija, Irig, Pecinci,
Ruma, Sid, Sremska Mitrovica, Stara Pazova; West Backa: Apatin,
Kula, Odzaci, Sombor


5 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)

National holiday:

National Day, 15 February


adopted 8 November 2006; effective 10 November 2006

Legal system:

based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; note - Serbia is working to reform its justice sector and harmonize its judicial systems with EU standards


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Boris TADIC (since 11 July 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Mirko CVETKOVIC (since 7 July 2008)

cabinet: Republican Ministries act as cabinet (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister elected by the National Assembly

election results: Boris TADIC elected president in the second round of voting; Boris TADIC received 51.2% of the vote and Tomislav NIKOLIC 48.8%

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly (250 seats; deputies elected according to party lists to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 May 2008 (next to be held in May 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - For a European Serbia coalition 38.4%, SRS 29.5%, DSS-NS 11.6%, SPS-led coalition 7.6%, LPD 5.2%, other 7.7%; seats by party - For a European Serbia coalition 102, SRS 57, DSS-NS 30, SNS 21, SPS-led coalition 20, LDP 13, other 7

Judicial branch:

courts of general jurisdiction (municipal courts, district courts, Appellate Courts, the Supreme Court of Cassation); courts of special jurisdiction (commercial courts, the High Commercial Court, the High Magistrates Court, the Administrative Court)

Political parties and leaders:

Coalition for Sandzak or KZS [Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Ragmi MUSTAFA]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Union of the Valley or BDL [Skender DESTANI]; Force of Serbia Movement or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]; G17 Plus [Mladjan DINKIC]; League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]; League of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASTOR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Movement for Democratic Progress or LPD [Jonuz MUSLIU]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Party of Democratic Action or PVD [Riza HALIMI]; Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Jovan KRKOBABIC]; People's Party or NS [Maja GOJKOVIC]; Roma Party or RP [Srdjan SAJN]; Sandzak Democratic Party or SDP [Resad HODZIC]; Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ (currently on trial at The Hague), with Dragan TODOROVIC as acting leader]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; Union of Roma of Serbia or URS [Rajko DJURIC]; United Serbia or JS [Dragan "Palma" MARKOVIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization); 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)

International organization participation:

OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN,
WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Vladimir PETROVIC

chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933

consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Mary WARLICK

embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade

mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070

telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230

Flag description:

three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; a white Cyrillic "C" in each quarter stands for the phrase "Only Unity Saves the Serbs"; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National anthem:

name: "Boze pravde" (God of Justice)

lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO

note: adopted 1904; the song was originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries

Economy ::Serbia

Economy - overview:

MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Belgrade has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, including telecommunications and small- and medium-size firms. It has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010. Serbia is also pursuing membership in the World Trade Organization. Reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term viability have largely stalled since the onset of the global financial crisis. Serbia is grappling with fallout from crisis, which has led to a sharp drop in exports to Western Europe and a decline in manufacturing output. Unemployment and limited export earnings remain ongoing political and economic problems. Serbia signed an augmented $4 billion Stand By Arrangement with the IMF in May 2009. IMF conditions on Serbia constrain the use of stimulus efforts to revive the economy, while Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy. Serbia's economy grew by 1.8% in 2010 after a 3% contraction in 2009 as a recovery in Western Europe began.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$80.65 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 78 $79.22 billion (2009 est.)

$81.67 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$38.92 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

1.8% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 158 -3% (2009 est.)

5.5% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$11,000 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 103 $10,700 (2009 est.)

$11,000 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 13%

industry: 22.6%

services: 64.5% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

3.25 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 99

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 23.9%

industry: 20.5%

services: 55.6% (October 2009)

Unemployment rate:

17.2% (2010 est.); 16.6% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 159

Population below poverty line:

7.9% (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

26 (2008) country comparison to the world: 129 30 (2003)

Investment (gross fixed):

25.9% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 40

Public debt:

37.8% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 80 31.3% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

4.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 141 8.4% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

9.92% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 14 17.75% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

11.78% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 26 18.11% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$3.554 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 105 $3.821 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$18.69 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 84 $17.82 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$18.88 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 80 $19.25 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$11.52 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 64 $12.17 billion (31 December 2008)

$23.93 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

wheat, maize, sugar beets, sunflower, raspberries; beef, pork, milk


base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate:

1.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 144

Electricity - production:

36 billion kWh (2009) country comparison to the world: 60

Electricity - consumption:

33.4 billion kWh (2009) country comparison to the world: 57

Electricity - exports:

1.5 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports:

121 million kWh (2009)

Oil - production:

12,170 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 81

Oil - consumption:

90,000 bbl/day NA bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 79

Oil - exports:

5,045 bbl/day (2008) country comparison to the world: 104

Oil - imports:

72,570 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 75

Oil - proved reserves:

77.5 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 74

Natural gas - production:

230 million cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 73

Natural gas - consumption:

2.61 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 76

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 128

Natural gas - imports:

2.4 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 45

Natural gas - proved reserves:

48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66

Current account balance:

-$1.046 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 138 -$1.356 billion (2009 est.)


$9.372 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 89 $8.368 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

iron and steel, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, non-ferrous metals

Exports - partners:

Bosnia and Herzegovina 13.12%, Italy 10.96%, Germany 9.9%, Serbia and Montenegro 7%, Austria 5.4%, Slovenia 5.38%, Macedonia 5.26%, Russia 4.39%, Hungary 4.36% (2009)


$15.78 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 78 $15.03 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - partners:

Germany 11.79%, Italy 9.36%, Hungary 6.71%, Slovenia 6.52%, Austria 4.79% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$16.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44 $15.22 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$32.31 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 64 $32.01 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$23.52 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 65 $11.95 billion (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Exchange rates:

Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar - 79.979 (2010), 62.9 (2008), 54.5 (2007), 59.98 (2006)

Communications ::Serbia

Telephones - main lines in use:

3.106 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 48

Telephones - mobile cellular:

9.912 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 64

Telephone system:

general assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war has resulted in a modern telecommunications system more than 95% digitalized in 2009

domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 3G mobile network launched in 2007

international: country code - 381 (2009)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

528,253 (2010) country comparison to the world: 49

Internet users:

4.107 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 57

Transportation ::Serbia


29 (2010) country comparison to the world: 116

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 11

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 18

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 8 (2010)


2 (2010)


gas 1,921 km; oil 323 km (2009)


total: 3,379 km country comparison to the world: 52 standard gauge: 3,379 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 1,254 km) (2006)


total: 36,884 km country comparison to the world: 92 paved: 31,938 km

unpaved: 4,946 km (2007)


587 km (primarily on Danube and Sava rivers) (2009) country comparison to the world: 81

Military ::Serbia

Military branches:

Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces Command (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces Command (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

17 years of age for male compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; conscription to be abolished effective 2011; 6-month service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 60 for men and 50 for women (2010)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,405,391

females age 16-49: 1,368,207 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 43,925

female: 41,342 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues ::Serbia

Disputes - international:

Serbia with several other states protest the U.S. and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaring itself as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 71,111 (Croatia); 27,414 (Bosnia and Herzegovina); 206,000 (Kosovo), note - mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999 (2007)

Illicit drugs:

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering


Hellenica World