Physics Gifts

- Art Gallery -

In acoustics, noise measurement can be for the purpose of measuring environmental noise[1]. Applications include monitoring of construction sites, aircraft noise, road traffic noise, entertainment venues and neighborhood noise.

The word "noise" means any "unwanted sound".[2] Environmental noise monitoring is the measurement of noise in an outdoor environment caused by transport (e.g. motor vehicles, aircraft, and trains), industry (e.g. machines) and recreational activities (e.g. music). The laws and limits governing environmental noise monitoring differ from country to country.

At the very least, noise may be annoying or displeasing or may disrupt the activity or balance of human or animal life, increasing levels of aggression, hypertension and stress. In the extreme, excessive levels or periods of noise can have long-term negative health effects such as hearing loss[3], tinnitus[4], sleep disturbances, a rise in blood pressure, an increase in stress and vasoconstriction, and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfering with reproduction and navigation, and contributing to permanent hearing loss[5].

Various cures are available to combat Environmental Noise; Roadway noise can be reduced by the use of noise barriers, limitation of vehicle speeds, alteration of roadway surface texture, limitation of heavy vehicles, use of traffic controls that smooth vehicle flow to reduce braking and acceleration, and tire design. Aircraft noise can be reduced by using quieter jet engines, altering flight paths and considering the time of day to benefit residents near airports. Industrial noise is addressed by redesign of industrial equipment, shock mounted assemblies and physical barriers in the workplace.

Audio Systems and Broadcasting

Noise measurement can also be part of a test procedure using white noise, or some other specialised form of test signal. In audio systems and broadcasting, specific methods are used to obtain subjectively valid results in order that different devices and signal paths may be compared regardless of the inconsistent spectral distribution and temporal properties of the noise that they generate. In particular, the ITU-R 468 noise weighting was devised specifically for this purpose and is widely used for professional audio and broadcast measurements.
Standards

There are a number of standards for noise measurement, each with a different goal or focus, including:

Standard:ITU-R BS 468 widely used in Broadcasting and professional Audio.
Standard:IEC A-weighting is widely used in Environmental Noise measurement.
Standard:CCIR recommendation 468-4 is now maintained as ITU-R BS 468
Standard:CCITT 0.41 refers to 'Psophometric weighting' used on telephone circuits.
Standard:CCITT P53 is now continued as CCITT0.41
Standard:BS 6402:1983 specifies Personal sound exposure meters.
Standard:BS 3539:1968 specifies Sound level meters for motor vehicle noise.
Standard:BSEN 60651 supersedes BS 5969:1981 Sound level meters

See also

Sound power level LWA
Audio system measurements
Rumble measurement
Noise (environmental)
Noise pollution
Noise music
Noise dosimeter
Equal-loudness contour
A-weighting
Weighting filter

External link

Noise-Planet: app to make an open source noise map of environmental noise
Koopen: Indoor Noise Measurement Dataset

References

Audio, NTi. "Unattended Noise Monitoring" (PDF). www.nti-audio.com.
Goines, Lisa; Hagler, Louis (March 2007). "Noise Pollution: A Modern Plague". Southern Medical Journal. 100 (3): 287–294. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.504.8717. doi:10.1097/smj.0b013e3180318be5. ISSN 0038-4348. PMID 17396733. S2CID 23675085.
"Safety and Health Topics | Occupational Noise Exposure | Occupational Safety and Health Administration". www.osha.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-10.
"Causes". www.ata.org. 2015-03-02. Retrieved 2020-10-10.

Salvi, Richard; Boettcher, Flint A. (2008), Conn, P. Michael (ed.), "Animal Models of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss", Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research, Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, pp. 289–301, doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-285-4_32, ISBN 978-1-59745-285-4, retrieved 2020-10-10

vte

Noise (physics and telecommunications)
General

Acoustic quieting Distortion Noise cancellation Noise control Noise measurement Noise power Noise reduction Noise temperature Phase distortion

Noise in...

Audio Buildings Electronics Environment Government regulation Human health Images Radio Rooms Ships Sound masking Transportation Video

Class of noise

Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) Atmospheric noise Background noise Brownian noise Burst noise Cosmic noise Flicker noise Gaussian noise Grey noise Jitter Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise) Pink noise Quantization error (or q. noise) Shot noise White noise Coherent noise
Value noise Gradient noise Worley noise

Engineering
terms

Channel noise level Circuit noise level Effective input noise temperature Equivalent noise resistance Equivalent pulse code modulation noise Impulse noise (audio) Noise figure Noise floor Noise shaping Noise spectral density Noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) Phase noise Pseudorandom noise Statistical noise

Ratios

Carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N) Carrier-to-receiver noise density (C/kT) dBrnC Eb/N0 (energy per bit to noise density) Es/N0 (energy per symbol to noise density) Modulation error ratio (MER) Signal, noise and distortion (SINAD) Signal-to-interference ratio (S/I) Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N, SNR) Signal-to-noise ratio (imaging) Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio (SQNR) Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)

Related topics

List of noise topics Acoustics Colors of noise Interference (communication) Noise generator Spectrum analyzer Thermal radiation

Denoise
methods
General

Low-pass filter Median filter Total variation denoising Wavelet denoising

2D (Image)

Gaussian blur Anisotropic diffusion Bilateral filter Non-local means Block-matching and 3D filtering (BM3D) Shrinkage Fields Denoising autoencoder (DAE) Deep Image Prior

Physics Encyclopedia

World

Index

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License