- Art Gallery -

 

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Russia, See : Flags, Maps

Kaliningrad : Images

Moscow : Images

Saint Petersburg : Images

Russia, Editor: Esther Singleton

Russian Fairy Tales, W. R. S. Ralston

Russian Life To-day, Herbert Bury

The Story of Russia, R. Van Bergen

The History of the American Expedition Fighting the Bolsheviki, Joel R. Moore and Harry H. Mead and Lewis E. Jahns

Russian Lyrics , Martha Gilbert Dickinson Bianchi

Russian Stamps

Art

ENGLISH

See also

Рисунок. Наброски и зарисовки ВС Кузин

Russia (Central Asia)

Introduction ::Russia

Russia National anthem

Background:

Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened Communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Since then, Russia has shifted its post-Soviet democratic ambitions in favor of a centralized semi-authoritarian state whose legitimacy is buttressed, in part, by carefully managed national elections, former President PUTIN's genuine popularity, and the prudent management of Russia's windfall energy wealth. Russia has severely disabled a Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

Geography ::Russia

Location:

Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of
Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North
Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
60 00 N, 100 00 E

Map references:

Asia

Area:

total: 17,098,242 sq km country comparison to the world: 1 land: 16,377,742 sq km

water: 720,500 sq km

Area - comparative:

approximately 1.8 times the size of the US

Land boundaries:

total: 20,241.5 km

border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 290 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 17.5 km, Latvia 292 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 196 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Ukraine 1,576 km

Coastline:

37,653 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:

ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

Terrain:

broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m

Natural resources:

wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber

note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources

Land use:

arable land: 7.17%

permanent crops: 0.11%

other: 92.72% (2005)

Irrigated land:

46,000 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

4,498 cu km (1997)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 76.68 cu km/yr (19%/63%/18%)

per capita: 535 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia

volcanism: Russia experiences significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (elev. 4,835 m, 15,863 ft), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, have been deemed "Decade Volcanoes" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky

Environment - current issues:

air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

Geography - note:

largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak

People ::Russia

Population:

139,390,205 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 9

Age structure:

0-14 years: 14.8% (male 10,644,833/female 10,095,011)

15-64 years: 71.5% (male 48,004,040/female 52,142,313)

65 years and over: 13.7% (male 5,880,877/female 13,274,173) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 38.5 years

male: 35.3 years

female: 41.7 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.465% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 222

Birth rate:

11.11 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 175

Death rate:

16.04 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 6

Net migration rate:

0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 67

Urbanization:

urban population: 73% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: -0.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.44 male(s)/female

total population: 0.85 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 10.32 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 150 male: 11.83 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 66.16 years country comparison to the world: 160 male: 59.54 years

female: 73.17 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.41 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 199

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

1.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 52

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

940,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 13

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

40,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 13

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Nationality:

noun: Russian(s)

adjective: Russian

Ethnic groups:

Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002 census)

Religions:

Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)

note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule

Languages:

Russian (official), many minority languages

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.4%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.2% (2002 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

3.9% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 109

Government ::Russia

Country name:

conventional long form: Russian Federation

conventional short form: Russia

local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya

local short form: Rossiya

former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Government type:

federation

Capital:

name: Moscow

geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 35 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: Russia is divided into 9 time zones

Administrative divisions:

46 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')

oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod,
Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga,
Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk,
Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk,
Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin
(Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk
(Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk,
Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'

republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan
(Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya
(Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas),
Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista),
Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk),
Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola),
Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya]
(Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)

autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)

krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'sk (Chita)

federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg]

autonomous oblast: Yevrey [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence:

24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)

National holiday:

Russia Day, 12 June (1990)

Constitution:

adopted 12 December 1993

Legal system:

based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 7 May 2008)

head of government: Premier Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 8 May 2008); First Deputy Premiers Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV and Viktor Alekseyevich ZUBKOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Sergey Borisovich IVANOV (since 12 May 2008), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Aleksey Leonidovich KUDRIN (since 24 September 2007), Igor Ivanovich SECHIN (since 12 May 2008), Vyacheslav Viktorovich VOLODIN (since 21 October 2010), Aleksandr Dmitriyevich ZHUKOV (since 9 March 2004)

cabinet: the "Government" is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers; all are appointed by the president, and the premier is also confirmed by the Duma (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 2 March 2008 (next to be held in March 2012); note - the term length was extended to six years in late 2008, to go into effect following the 2012 presidential election; there is no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma

election results: Dmitriy MEDVEDEV elected president; percent of vote - Dmitriy MEDVEDEV 70.2%, Gennady ZYUGANOV 17.7%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKY 9.4%, Andrey BOGDANOV 1.3%

Legislative branch:

bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of an upper house, the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (166 seats; as of July 2000, members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 83 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; members to serve four-year terms) and a lower house, the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of 2007, all members elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 7% of the vote; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: State Duma - last held on 2 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2011)

election results: State Duma - United Russia 64.3%, CPRF 11.5%, LDPR 8.1%, Just Russia 7.7%, other 8.4%; total seats by party - United Russia 315, CPRF 57, LDPR 40, Just Russia 38

Judicial branch:

Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Supreme Arbitration Court; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president

Political parties and leaders:

A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]; Communist Party of the Russian
Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Liberal
Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir Volfovich
ZHIRINOVSKIY]; Patriots of Russia [Gennadiy SEMIGIN]; Right Cause
[Leonid Yakovlevich GOZMAN, Boris Yuriyevich TITOV, and Georgiy
Georgiyevich BOVT] (formed from merger of Civic Force, Democratic
Party of Russia, and Union of Right Forces); United Russia [Vladimir
Vladimirovich PUTIN]; Yabloko Party [Sergey Sergeyevich MITROKHIN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Association of Citizens with Initiative of Russia (TIGR);
Confederation of Labor of Russia (KTR); Federation of Independent
Labor Unions of Russia; Freedom of Choice Interregional Organization
of Automobilists; Glasnost Defense Foundation; Golos Association in
Defense of Voters' Rights; Greenpeace Russia; Human Rights Watch
(Russian chapter); Institute for Collective Action; Memorial (human
rights group); Movement Against Illegal Migration; Pamjat
(preservation of historical monuments and recording of history);
Russian Orthodox Church; Russian Federation of Car Owners;
Russian-Chechen Friendship Society; SOVA Analytical-Information
Center; Union of the Committees of Soldiers' Mothers; World Wildlife
Fund (Russian chapter)

International organization participation:

APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC,
CBSS, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, FAO,
FATF, G-20, G-8, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO,
ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD (accession state), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE,
Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey Ivanovich KISLYAK

chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708
FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco, Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador John R. BEYRLE

embassy: Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow

mailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721

telephone: [7] (495) 728-5000
FAX: [7] (495) 728-5090

consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red

note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolors of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors

National anthem:

name: "Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)

lyrics/music: Sergei Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Alexandr Vasilievich ALEXANDROV

note: in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943

Economy ::Russia

Economy - overview:

Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolated, centrally-planned economy to a more market-based and globally-integrated economy. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak and the private sector remains subject to heavy state interference. Russian industry is primarily split between globally-competitive commodity producers - in 2009 Russia was the world's largest exporter of natural gas, the second largest exporter of oil, and the third largest exporter of steel and primary aluminum - and other less competitive heavy industries that remain dependent on the Russian domestic market. This reliance on commodity exports makes Russia vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the highly volatile swings in global commodity prices. The government since 2007 has embarked on an ambitious program to reduce this dependency and build up the country's high technology sectors, but with few results so far. The economy had averaged 7% growth since the 1998 Russian financial crisis, resulting in a doubling of real disposable incomes and the emergence of a middle class. The Russian economy, however, was one of the hardest hit by the 2008-09 global economic crisis as oil prices plummeted and the foreign credits that Russian banks and firms relied on dried up. The Central Bank of Russia spent one-third of its $600 billion international reserves, the world's third largest, in late 2008 to slow the devaluation of the ruble. The government also devoted $200 billion in a rescue plan to increase liquidity in the banking sector and aid Russian firms unable to roll over large foreign debts coming due. The economic decline bottomed out in mid-2009 and the economy began to grow in the first quarter of 2010. However, a severe drought and fires in central Russia reduced agricultural output, prompting a ban on grain exports for part of the year, and slowed growth in other sectors such as manufacturing and retail trade. Russia's long-term challenges include a shrinking workforce, a high level of corruption, difficulty in accessing capital for smaller, non-energy companies, and poor infrastructure in need of large investments.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$2.229 trillion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 7 $2.147 trillion (2009 est.)

$2.331 trillion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$1.477 trillion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

3.8% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 88 -7.9% (2009)

5.2% (2008)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$15,900 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 71 $15,300 (2009 est.)

$16,600 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 4.2%

industry: 33.8%

services: 62% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

75.55 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 7

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 10%

industry: 31.9%

services: 58.1% (2008)

Unemployment rate:

7.6% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 83 8.4% (2009)

Population below poverty line:

13.1% (2009)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 1.9%

highest 10%: 30.4% (September 2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

42.2 (2009) country comparison to the world: 53 39.9 (2001)

Investment (gross fixed):

18.9% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 99

Public debt:

9.5% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 123 8.3% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

6.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 172 11.7% (2009)

Central bank discount rate:

8.75% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 28 13% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

15.31% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 72 12.23% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$269.1 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 16 $203.7 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$650.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 20 $645.5 billion (31 December 2009)

Stock of domestic credit:

$549.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 24 $420.4 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$861.4 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 7 $1.322 trillion (31 December 2008)

$1.503 trillion (31 December 2007 est.)

Agriculture - products:

grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk

Industries:

complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries including radar, missile production, and advanced electronic components, shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:

8.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 25

Electricity - production:

925.9 billion kWh (2009) country comparison to the world: 5

Electricity - consumption:

857.6 billion kWh (2009) country comparison to the world: 5

Electricity - exports:

17.7 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports:

3.066 billion kWh (2009)

Oil - production:

10.12 million bbl/day (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Oil - consumption:

2.74 million bbl/day (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 6

Oil - exports:

5.43 million bbl/day (2009) country comparison to the world: 2

Oil - imports:

42,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 94

Oil - proved reserves:

74.2 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 8

Natural gas - production:

583.6 billion cu m (2009) country comparison to the world: 2

Natural gas - consumption:

439.6 billion cu m (2009) country comparison to the world: 3

Natural gas - exports:

179.1 billion cu m (2009) country comparison to the world: 1

Natural gas - imports:

35.1 billion cu m (2009) country comparison to the world: 8

Natural gas - proved reserves:

47.57 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Current account balance:

$68.85 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 4 $48.97 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

$376.7 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 13 $303.4 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures

Exports - partners:

Netherlands 10.62%, Italy 6.46%, Germany 6.24%, China 5.69%, Turkey 4.3%, Ukraine 4.01% (2009)

Imports:

$237.3 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 19 $191.8 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel

Imports - partners:

Germany 14.39%, China 13.98%, Ukraine 5.48%, Italy 4.84%, US 4.46% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$483.1 billion (30 November 2010) country comparison to the world: 2 $439.4 billion (31 December 2009)

Debt - external:

$480.2 billion (30 November 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 21 $467.2 billion (31 December 2009)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$306.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 17 $256.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$260.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 $224.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar - 30 (2010), 31.742 (2009), 24.853 (2008), 25.581 (2007), 27.191 (2006)

Communications ::Russia

Telephones - main lines in use:

44.802 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 4

Telephones - mobile cellular:

230.5 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 4

Telephone system:

general assessment: the telephone system is experiencing significant changes; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to some 230 million in 2009; a large demand for fixed line service remains unsatisfied

domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density

international: country code - 7; Russia is connected internationally by undersea fiber optic cables; digital switches in several cities provide more than 50,000 lines for international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2008)

Broadcast media:

6 national TV stations with the federal government owning 1 and holding a controlling interest in a second; state-owned Gazprom maintains a controlling interest in a third national channel; government-affiliated Bank Rossiya owns controlling interest in a fourth and fifth, while the sixth national channel is owned by the Moscow city administration; roughly 3,300 national, regional, and local TV stations operating with over two-thirds completely or partially controlled by the federal or local governments; satellite TV services are available; 2 state-run national radio networks with a third majority-owned by Gazprom; roughly 2,400 public and commercial radio stations (2007)

Internet country code:

.ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain ".su" that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out

Internet hosts:

10.382 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 12

Internet users:

40.853 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 10

Transportation ::Russia

Airports:

1,213 (2010) country comparison to the world: 5

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 593

over 3,047 m: 51

2,438 to 3,047 m: 201

1,524 to 2,437 m: 126

914 to 1,523 m: 98

under 914 m: 117 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 620

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 13

1,524 to 2,437 m: 68

914 to 1,523 m: 84

under 914 m: 452 (2010)

Heliports:

50 (2010)

Pipelines:

condensate 122 km; gas 159,552 km; liquid petroleum gas 127 km; oil 74,285 km; refined products 13,658 km (2009)

Railways:

total: 87,157 km country comparison to the world: 2 broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island)

note: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries (2006)

Roadways:

total: 982,000 km country comparison to the world: 8 paved: 776,000 km (includes 30,000 km of expressways)

unpaved: 206,000 km

note: includes public, local, and departmental roads (2009)

Waterways:

102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth) country comparison to the world: 2 note: 72,000 km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea (2009)

Merchant marine:

total: 1,097 country comparison to the world: 11 by type: bulk carrier 22, cargo 634, carrier 2, chemical tanker 38, combination ore/oil 39, container 13, passenger 15, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 236, refrigerated cargo 77, roll on/roll off 11, specialized tanker 4

foreign-owned: 145 (Belgium 4, Cyprus 11, Italy 9, South Korea 1, Switzerland 4, Turkey 104, Ukraine 12)

registered in other countries: 443 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belize 32, Bulgaria 2, Cambodia 60, Comoros 21, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 47, Dominica 6, Georgia 7, Hong Kong 1, Liberia 108, Malaysia 2, Malta 47, Marshall Islands 6, Moldova 5, Mongolia 4, Panama 39, Saint Kitts and Nevis 11, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 15, Sierra Leone 6, Vanuatu 1, unknown 19) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Kaliningrad, Kavkaz, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Primorsk, Saint
Petersburg, Vostochnyy

Military ::Russia

Military branches:

Ground Forces (Sukhoputnyye Voyskia, SV), Navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, VMF), Air Forces (Voyenno-Vozdushniye Sily, VVS); Airborne Troops (VDV), Strategic Rocket Forces (Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniya, RVSN), and Space Troops (Kosmicheskiye Voyska, KV) are independent "combat arms," not subordinate to any of the three branches; Russian Ground Forces include the following combat arms: motorized-rifle troops, tank troops, missile and artillery troops, air defense of the ground troops (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; service obligation - 1 year (conscripts can only be sent to combat zones after 6 months training); reserve obligation to age 50

note: over 60% of draft-age Russian males receive some type of deferment - generally health related - each draft cycle (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 34,850,217

females age 16-49: 35,693,977 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 20,746,777

females age 16-49: 27,174,148 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 712,838

female: 678,623 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

3.9% of GDP (2005) country comparison to the world: 26

Transnational Issues ::Russia

Disputes - international:

China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia and Georgia agree on delimiting all but small, strategic segments of the land boundary and the maritime boundary; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge in the Akhmeti region and the Kodori Gorge in Abkhazia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia signed equidistance boundaries in the Caspian seabed but the littoral states have no consensus on dividing the water column; Russia and Norway reached an agreement on how to align Barents Sea and Arctic Ocean boundaries over EEZ and continental shelf in an agreement signed on 15 September 2010; this agreement is pending ratification by the respective national assemblies; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following the Second World War but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; in May 2005, Russia recalled its signatures to the 1996 border agreements with Estonia (1996) and Latvia (1997), when the two Baltic states announced issuance of unilateral declarations referencing Soviet occupation and ensuing territorial losses; Russia demands better treatment of ethnic Russians in Estonia and Latvia; Estonian citizen groups continue to press for realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

IDPs: 18,000-160,000 (displacement from Chechnya and North Ossetia) (2007)

Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for various purposes; it remains a significant source of women trafficked to over 50 countries for commercial sexual exploitation; Russia is also a transit and destination country for men and women trafficked from Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and North Korea to Central and Western Europe and the Middle East for purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; internal trafficking remains a problem in Russia with women trafficked from rural areas to urban centers for commercial sexual exploitation, and men trafficked internally and from Central Asia for forced labor in the construction and agricultural industries; debt bondage is common among trafficking victims, and child sex tourism remains a concern

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Russia is on the Tier 2 Watch List for a fifth consecutive year for its failure to show evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking over the previous year, particularly in providing assistance to victims of trafficking; comprehensive trafficking victim assistance legislation, which would address key deficiencies, has been pending before the Duma since 2003 and was neither passed nor enacted in 2007 (2008)

Illicit drugs:

limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates

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