- Art Gallery -

 

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Portugal

Nautilus 2010 - Exhibition Portugal

Portuguese Architecture, Walter Crum Watson

A India Portugueza, Hypacio de Brion

A architectura religiosa na Edade Média, Augusto Fuschini

Prince Henry the Navigator, the Hero of Portugal and of Modern Discovery, 1394-1460 A.D., by C. Raymond Beazley

Galleria dos Vice-reis e Governadores da India Portugueza, José Maria Delorme Colaço

Inscripções portuguezas, Luciano Cordeiro

Vasco da Gama, by Various

A Revolução Portugueza: O 31 de Janeiro (Porto 1891), Jorge de Abreu

A Revolução Portugueza: O 5 de Outubro (Lisboa 1910), Jorge de Abreu

ART

Artist from Portugal

Portugal (Europe)

Introduction ::Portugal

Background:

Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of its wealthiest colony of Brazil in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986. In January 2011, Portugal assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2011-12 term.

Geography ::Portugal


View Larger Map

Location:

Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of
Spain

Geographic coordinates:
39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references:

Europe

Area:

total: 92,090 sq km country comparison to the world: 110 land: 91,470 sq km

water: 620 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Portugal map postcard

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:

total: 1,214 km

border countries: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline:

1,793 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Portugal

Climate:

maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain:

mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources:

fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use:

arable land: 17.29%

permanent crops: 7.84%

other: 74.87% (2005)

Irrigated land:

6,500 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

73.6 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 11.09 cu km/yr (10%/12%/78%)

per capita: 1,056 cu m/yr (1998)

Portugal: Costa Azul

Natural hazards:

Azores subject to severe earthquakes

volcanism: Portugal experiences limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m, 3,422 ft) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Environment - current issues:

soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification

Geography - note:

Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

People ::Portugal

Population:

10,735,765 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 76

Age structure:

0-14 years: 16.3% (male 912,147/female 834,941)

15-64 years: 66.1% (male 3,525,717/female 3,554,513)

65 years and over: 17.6% (male 772,413/female 1,108,193) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 39.7 years

male: 37.6 years

female: 41.9 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.244% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 179

Birth rate:

10.12 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 193

Death rate:

10.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 45

Net migration rate:

3.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27

Urbanization:

urban population: 59% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.067 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 4.72 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 190 male: 5.17 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 78.38 years country comparison to the world: 48 male: 75.12 years

female: 81.86 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.5 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 188

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.5% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 76

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

34,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 69

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 500 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 94

Nationality:

noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)

adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups:

homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal

Religions:

Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9% (2001 census)

Languages:

Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.3%

male: 95.5%

female: 91.3% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2007)

Education expenditures:

4.4% of GDP (2008) country comparison to the world: 96

Government ::Portugal

Country name:

conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

conventional short form: Portugal

local long form: Republica Portuguesa

local short form: Portugal

Government type:

republic; parliamentary democracy

Capital:

name: Lisbon

geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Independence:

1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday:

Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died

Constitution:

adopted 2 April 1976; subsequently revised

note: the revisions placed the military under strict civilian control, trimmed the powers of the president, and laid the groundwork for a stable, pluralistic liberal democracy; they allowed for the privatization of nationalized firms and government-owned communications media

Legal system:

based on civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa (since 12 March 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA elected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 50.6%, Manuel ALEGRE 20.7%, Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES 14.3%, Jeronimo DE SOUSA 8.5%, Franciso LOUCA 5.3%

Legislative branch:

unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 27 September 2009 (next to be held in fall 2013)

election results: percent of vote by party - PS 42%, PSD 35%, CDS/PP 9%, BE 7%, CDU 7%; seats by party - PS 97, PSD 81, CDS/PP 21, BE 16, CDU 15

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal de Justica); judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura

Political parties and leaders:

Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS];
Socialist Party or PS [Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa];
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pedro Manuel PASSOS COELHO]; The
Left Bloc or BE [Franciso Anacleto LOUCA]; Unitarian Democratic
Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist
Party or PCP and Ecologist Party ("The Greens") or PEV)

Political pressure groups and leaders:

the media; labor unions

International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia
Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO,
FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO,
ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention,
SECI (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIT, UNWTO, UPU, WCO,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Joao DE VALLERA

chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726

consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), San Francisco

consulate(s): New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Allan J. KATZ

embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon

mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726

telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109

consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description:

two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation

National anthem:

name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)

lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL

note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event

Economy ::Portugal

Economy - overview:

Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community in 1986. Over the past two decades, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU member economies. Economic growth had been above the EU average for much of the 1990s, but fell back in 2001-08, shrank 2.6% in 2009, before growing 1% in 2010. GDP per capita stands at roughly two-thirds of the EU-27 average. A poor educational system and a rigid labor market have been obstacles to greater productivity and growth. Portugal also has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a target for foreign direct investment. Portugal's competitiveness problems, low growth prospects, and high levels of public debt have made it vulnerable to bond market turbulence. Lisbon is implementing austerity measures to reduce the budget deficit from 9.4% of GDP in 2009 to 4.6% of GDP in 2011, but some investors have expressed concern about Portugal's ability to achieve these targets and cover its sovereign debt. Without the option for stimulus measures, the government is focusing instead on boosting exports and implementing labor market reforms to try to raise GDP growth and tackle Portugal's competitiveness problems, which may help mitigate investor concerns over time.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$247 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 50 $244.5 billion (2009 est.)

$251 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$223.7 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 182 -2.6% (2009 est.)

0% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$23,000 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 56 $22,800 (2009 est.)

$23,500 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 2.6%

industry: 23%

services: 74.5% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

5.57 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 67

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 10%

industry: 30%

services: 60% (2007 est.)

Unemployment rate:

10.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 117 9.5% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

18% (2006)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.1%

highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

38.5 (2007) country comparison to the world: 72 35.6 (1995)

Investment (gross fixed):

19% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 98

Public debt:

83.2% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 15 76.8% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 24 -0.8% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

1.75% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 125 3% (31 December 2008)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

6.12% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 114 8.35% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$98.23 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 31 $100.9 billion (31 December 2009 est)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:

$282 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 30 $302.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$556.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 23 $490.8 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$98.65 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 44 $68.71 billion (31 December 2008)

$132.3 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish

Industries:

textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, diary products, wine and other foods, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:

0.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 150

Electricity - production:

44.47 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 53

Electricity - consumption:

48.78 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 47

Electricity - exports:

1.313 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

10.74 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

4,721 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 95

Oil - consumption:

272,200 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 49

Oil - exports:

53,660 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 77

Oil - imports:

323,000 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 32

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 135

Natural gas - production:

NA (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:

4.846 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 59

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 141

Natural gas - imports:

4.895 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 32

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 110

Current account balance:

-$19.03 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 180 -$23.95 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

$46.27 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 56 $44.49 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

agricultural products, food products, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, skins and leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, minerals and mineral products, base metals, machinery and tools, vehicles and other transport material, and optical and precision instruments

Exports - partners:

Spain 26.25%, Germany 12.99%, France 12.04%, Angola 7.21%, UK 5.54% (2009)

Imports:

$68.22 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 40 $68.9 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

agricultural products, food products, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, skins and leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, minerals and mineral products, base metals, machinery and tools, vehicles and other transport material, and optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semi-conductors and related devices, household goods, passenger cars new and used, and wine products

Imports - partners:

Spain 31.58%, Germany 12.41%, France 8.58%, Italy 5.55%, Netherlands 5.31% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$16.03 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$497.8 billion (30 June 2010) country comparison to the world: 20 $507 billion (30 June 2009)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$105.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 31 $102.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$63.64 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 28 $63.64 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.774 (2010), 0.7179 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006)

Communications ::Portugal

Telephones - main lines in use:

4.049 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 39

Telephones - mobile cellular:

15.178 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 48

Telephone system:

general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities

domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations

international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2008)

Broadcast media:

the publicly-owned TV broadcaster operates 2 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly-owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately-owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations (2008)

Internet country code:

.pt

Internet hosts:

3.267 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 28

Internet users:

5.168 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 45

Transportation ::Portugal

Airports:

65 (2010) country comparison to the world: 77

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 43

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 10 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 22

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 21 (2010)

Pipelines:

gas 1,098 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2009)

Railways:

total: 2,786 km country comparison to the world: 59 broad gauge: 2,603 km 1.668-m gauge (1,351 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 183 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:

total: 82,900 km country comparison to the world: 57 paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)

unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)

Waterways:

210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2008) country comparison to the world: 96

Merchant marine:

total: 111 country comparison to the world: 47 by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 33, carrier 1, chemical tanker 17, container 8, liquefied gas 9, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9

foreign-owned: 80 (Belgium 8, Denmark 4, Germany 13, Greece 5, Italy 10, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Spain 15, Sweden 6, Switzerland 3, US 4)

registered in other countries: 14 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, Panama 9) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines

Military ::Portugal

Military branches:

Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha
Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca
Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,572,007

females age 16-49: 2,474,719 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,104,945

females age 16-49: 2,034,912 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 62,628

female: 55,737 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

2.3% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 65

Transnational Issues ::Portugal

Disputes - international:

Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Illicit drugs:

seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

World

Hellenica World

Index