- Art Gallery -

 

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Philippines, See : Flags, Maps

A History of the Philippines, David P. Barrows

Philippine Mats, Hugo H. Miller and John F. Minier and U. S. Andes and Theodore Muller and Alice Brezina

The American Occupation of the Philippines 1898-1912, James H. Blount

The Inhabitants of the Philippines, Frederic H. Sawyer

The Philippines Past and Present (Volume : 1 , 2),

Philippines (East & Southeast Asia)

Introduction ::Philippines

Background:

The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. A 20-year rule by Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts that prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992. His administration was marked by increased stability and by progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. Her presidency was marred by several corruption allegations but the Philippine economy was one of the few to avoid contraction following the 2008 global financial crisis, expanding each year of her administration. Benigno AQUINO III was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2010. The Philippine Government faces threats from several groups on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list. Manila has waged a decades-long struggle against ethnic Moro insurgencies in the southern Philippines, which has led to a peace accord with the Moro National Liberation Front and on-again/off-again peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The decades-long Maoist-inspired New Peoples' Army insurgency also operates through much of the country.

Geography ::Philippines

Location:

Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the
South China Sea, east of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates:
13 00 N, 122 00 E

Map references:

Southeast Asia

Area:

total: 300,000 sq km country comparison to the world: 72 land: 298,170 sq km

water: 1,830 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries:

0 km

Coastline:

36,289 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

Climate:

tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain:

mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m

Natural resources:

timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper

Land use:

arable land: 19%

permanent crops: 16.67%

other: 64.33% (2005)

Irrigated land:

15,500 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

479 cu km (1999)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 28.52 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)

per capita: 343 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis

volcanism: the Philippines experience significant volcanic activity; Taal (elev. 311 m, 1,020 ft), which has shown recent unrest and may erupt in the near future, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Mayon (elev. 2,462 m, 8,077 ft), the country's most active volcano, erupted in 2009 forcing over 33,000 to be evacuated; other historically active volcanoes include Biliran, Babuyan Claro, Bulusan, Camiguin, Camiguin de Babuyanes, Didicas, Iraya, Jolo, Kanlaon, Makaturing, Musuan, Parker, Pinatubo and Ragang

Environment - current issues:

uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:

the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait

People ::Philippines

Population:

99,900,177 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 12

Age structure:

0-14 years: 35.2% (male 17,606,352/female 16,911,376)

15-64 years: 60.6% (male 29,679,327/female 29,737,919)

65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,744,248/female 2,297,381) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 22.7 years

male: 22.2 years

female: 23.2 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.931% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 63

Birth rate:

25.68 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 58

Death rate:

5.06 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 183

Net migration rate:

-1.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 166

Urbanization:

urban population: 65% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 19.94 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 101 male: 22.49 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 71.38 years country comparison to the world: 131 male: 68.45 years

female: 74.45 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

3.23 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 54

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 143

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

8,300 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 110

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 200 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 120

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis

water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)

Nationality:

noun: Filipino(s)

adjective: Philippine

Ethnic groups:

Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)

Religions:

Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)

Languages:

Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.6%

male: 92.5%

female: 92.7% (2000 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 12 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

2.6% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 162

Government ::Philippines

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines

conventional short form: Philippines

local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas

local short form: Pilipinas

Government type:

republic

Capital:

name: Manila

geographic coordinates: 14 35 N, 121 00 E

time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

80 provinces and 120 chartered cities

provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay,
Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas,
Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines
Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu,
Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat
Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur,
Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La
Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental,
Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain
Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato,
Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga,
Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani,
Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat,
Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi,
Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay

chartered cities: Alaminos, Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bago,
Baguio, Bais, Balanga, Batac, Batangas, Bayawan, Bislig, Butuan,
Cabadbaran, Cabanatuan, Cadiz, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Calapan,
Calbayog, Candon, Canlaon, Cauayan, Cavite, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan,
Danao, Dapitan, Davao, Digos, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Escalante, Gapan,
General Santos, Gingoog, Himamaylan, Iligan, Iloilo, Isabela, Iriga,
Kabankalan, Kalookan, Kidapawan, Koronadal, La Carlota, Laoag,
Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Legazpi, Ligao, Lipa, Lucena, Maasin, Makati,
Malabon, Malaybalay, Malolos, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marawi,
Marikina, Masbate, Mati, Meycauayan, Muntinlupa, Munoz, Naga,
Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Oroquieta, Ozamis, Pagadian, Palayan,
Panabo, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Passi, Puerto Princesa, Quezon,
Roxas, Sagay, Samal, San Carlos (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos
(in Pangasinan), San Fernando (in La Union), San Fernando (in
Pampanga), San Jose, San Jose del Monte, San Juan, San Pablo, Santa
Rosa, Santiago, Silay, Sipalay, Sorsogon, Surigao, Tabaco, Tacloban,
Tacurong, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Tagum, Talisay (in Cebu),
Talisay (in Negros Occidental), Tanauan, Tangub, Tanjay, Tarlac,
Toledo, Tuguegarao, Trece Martires, Urdaneta, Valencia, Valenzuela,
Victorias, Vigan, Zamboanga (2009)

Independence:

12 June 1898 (independence proclaimed from Spain); 4 July 1946 (from the US)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from US

Constitution:

2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Legal system:

based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010); Vice President Jejomar BINAY (since 30 June 2010); note - president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election held on 10 May 2010; Benigno AQUINO declared winner and took office on 30 June 2010; next election to be held in May 2016

election results: Benigno AQUINO elected president; percent of vote - Benigno AQUINO 42.1%, Joseph ESTRADA 26.3%, seven others 31.6%; Jejomar BINAY elected vice president; percent of vote Jejomar BINAY 41.6%, Manuel ROXAS 39.6%, six others 18.8%

Legislative branch:

bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Nga Kinatawan; the House has 287 seats including 230 members in one tier representing districts and 57 sectoral party-list members in a second tier representing special minorities elected on the basis of one seat for every 2% of the total vote but are limited to three seats; a party represented in one tier may not hold seats in the other tier; all House members are elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms

note: the constitution limits the House of Representatives to 250 members; the number of members allowed was increased, however, through legislation when in April 2009 the Philippine Supreme Court ruled that additional party members could sit in the House of Representatives if they received the required number of votes

elections: Senate - elections last held on 10 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2013); House of Representatives - elections last held on 10 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2013)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas-Kampi CMD 4, LP 4, NP 4, NPC 2, PMP 2, LDP 1, PRP 1, independents 5; note - there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was elected mayor of Manila; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Lakas-Kampi CMD 38.4%, LP 20.3%, NPC 15.4%, NP 11.5%, independents 7.1%, others 7.3%; seats by party - Lakas-Kampi CMD 104, LP 45, NPC 31, NP 26, others 17, independents 7, party-list 56

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)

Political parties and leaders:

Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or
LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas ng EDSA-Christian Muslim Democrats or
Lakas-CMD [Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO]; Liberal Party or LP [Manuel
ROXAS]; Nacionalista Party or NP [Manuel VILLAR]; Nationalist
People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino
PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; Puwersa
ng Masang Pilipino (Force of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph
ESTRADA]; United Opposition or UNO [Jejomar BINAY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

ABONO [Robert ESTRELLA]; AKBAYAN [Anna Theresia BARAQUIEL]; An Waray
[Florencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Rafael
MARIANO]; ARC [Narciso SANTIAGO III]; Association of Philippine
Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Ernesto PABLO and Edgar VALDEZ]; A
TEACHER [Mariano PIAMONTE]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO and Teodoro
CASINO, Jr.]; Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]; BUHAY [Rene
VELARDE, Carissa COSCOLLUELLA, and William TIENG]; BUTIL [Leonila
CHAVEZ]; CIBAC [Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Jose
PING-AY]; GABRIELA [Liza MAZA and Luzviminda ILAGAN]; KABATAAN
[Raymon PALATINO]; Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA]; YACAP [Carol LOPEZ]

International organization participation:

ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, EAS, FAO,
G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC,
MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN,
UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS,
UNMIT, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Willy C. GAA

chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 467-9417

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands), San Francisco, Tamuning (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Harry K. THOMAS Jr.

embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000, Manila

mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000

telephone: [63] (2) 301-2000
FAX: [63] (2) 301-2399

Flag description:

two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red; a white equilateral triangle is based on the hoist side; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star; blue stands for peace and justice, red symbolizes courage, the white equal-sided triangle represents equality; the rays recall the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain, while the stars represent the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897

note: in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top

National anthem:

name: "Lupang Hinirang" (Chosen Land)

lyrics/music: Jose PALMA (revised by Felipe PADILLA de Leon)/Julian FELIPE

note: music adopted 1898, original Spanish lyrics adopted 1899, Filipino (Tagalog) lyrics adopted 1956; although the original lyrics were written in Spanish, later English and Filipino versions were created; today, only the Filipino version is used

Economy ::Philippines

Economy - overview:

Philippine GDP grew nearly 7% in 2010. The economy weathered the 2008-09 global recession better than its regional peers due to minimal exposure to securities issued by troubled global financial institutions; lower dependence on exports; relatively resilient domestic consumption, supported by large remittances from four-to five-million overseas Filipino workers; and a growing business process outsourcing industry. Economic growth in the Philippines has averaged 4.5% per year since 2001, when former President MACAPAGAL-ARROYO took office. Despite this growth, poverty worsened during the term of MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, because of a high population growth rate and inequitable distribution of income. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO averted a fiscal crisis by pushing for new revenue measures and, until recently, tightening expenditures to address the government's yawning budget deficit and to reduce high debt and debt service ratios. But the government abandoned its 2008 balanced-budget goal in order to help the economy weather the global financial and economic storm. The economy under AQUINO faces budget shortfalls in the near term, but has had little difficulty issuing debt both locally and internationally to finance the deficits. AQUINO's first budget emphasizes education and other social spending programs, relying on the private sector to finance important infrastructure projects. Weak tax collection in recent years limits the government's ability to address major challenges.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$351.2 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 34 $329.2 billion (2009 est.)

$325.6 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$189.1 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

6.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 29 1.1% (2009 est.)

3.7% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$3,500 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 162 $3,400 (2009 est.)

$3,400 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 13.7%

industry: 31.7%

services: 54.6% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

38.91 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 15

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 34%

industry: 15%

services: 51% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate:

7.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 79 7.5% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

32.9% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.4%

highest 10%: 31.2% (2006)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

45.8 (2006) country comparison to the world: 37 46.6 (2003)

Investment (gross fixed):

14.7% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 133

Public debt:

55.2% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 43 57.3% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

4.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 124 3.2% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

3.5% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 76 6% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

8.57% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 106 8.75% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$30.09 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 55 $24.06 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$91.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 55 $78.16 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$95.54 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52 $83.12 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$80.13 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 41 $85.63 billion (31 December 2008)

$172.5 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish

Industries:

electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing

Industrial production growth rate:

11.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 11

Electricity - production:

56.57 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 45

Electricity - consumption:

48.96 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 46

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

25,290 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 73

Oil - consumption:

313,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 41

Oil - exports:

36,720 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 83

Oil - imports:

342,200 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 30

Oil - proved reserves:

138.5 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 65

Natural gas - production:

2.94 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 55

Natural gas - consumption:

2.94 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 74

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 142

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 145

Natural gas - proved reserves:

98.54 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52

Current account balance:

$8.575 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 24 $8.552 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

$45.89 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 57 $37.51 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits

Exports - partners:

US 17.6%, Japan 16.2%, Netherlands 9.8%, Hong Kong 8.6%, China 7.7%,
Germany 6.5%, Singapore 6.2% (2009)

Imports:

$57.24 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44 $46.39 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic

Imports - partners:

Japan 12.5%, US 12%, China 8.8%, Singapore 8.7%, South Korea 7.9% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$49.74 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 22 $44.24 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$61.85 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 48 $62.97 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$24.94 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 64 $22.44 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$6.591 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 55 $6.191 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar - 45.459 (2010), 47.68 (2009), 44.439 (2008), 46.148 (2007), 51.246 (2006)

Communications ::Philippines

Telephones - main lines in use:

4.1 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 37

Telephones - mobile cellular:

74.489 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 15

Telephone system:

general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate

domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations; mobile-cellular communications now dominate the industry; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 80 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2009)

Broadcast media:

multiple national private TV and radio networks and a government-operated national TV and radio network; about 300 television stations and more than 1,000 radio stations; multi-channel satellite and cable TV systems are available (2008)

Internet country code:

.ph

Internet hosts:

394,990 (2010) country comparison to the world: 53

Internet users:

8.278 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 34

Transportation ::Philippines

Airports:

254 (2010) country comparison to the world: 25

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 85

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 29

914 to 1,523 m: 34

under 914 m: 10 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 169

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 66

under 914 m: 99 (2010)

Heliports:

2 (2010)

Pipelines:

oil 107 km; refined products 112 km (2009)

Railways:

total: 897 km country comparison to the world: 95 narrow gauge: 897 km 1.067-m gauge (492 km are in operation) (2008)

Roadways:

total: 201,910 km country comparison to the world: 24 paved: 21,677 km

unpaved: 180,233 km (2008)

Waterways:

3,219 km; (limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m) (2011) country comparison to the world: 31

Merchant marine:

total: 428 country comparison to the world: 24 by type: bulk carrier 75, cargo 135, carrier 16, chemical tanker 26, container 13, liquefied gas 5, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum tanker 45, refrigerated cargo 17, roll on/roll off 12, vehicle carrier 9

foreign-owned: 156 (Bermuda 43, China 4, Greece 4, Japan 82, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 18, Singapore 1, South Korea 1, Taiwan 1, UAE 1)

registered in other countries: 7 (Cyprus 1, Panama 6) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila

Transportation - note:

the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift

Military ::Philippines

Military branches:

Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine
Corps and Coast Guard), Air Force (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18-25 years of age (officers 21-29) for compulsory and voluntary military service; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 25,079,262

females age 16-49: 24,556,912 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 19,650,825

females age 16-49: 21,029,243 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 1,039,679

female: 1,001,448 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

0.9% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 143

Transnational Issues ::Philippines

Disputes - international:

Philippines claims sovereignty over Scarborough Reef (also claimed by China together with Taiwan) and over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

IDPs: 300,000 (fighting between government troops and MILF and Abu
Sayyaf groups) (2007)

Illicit drugs:

domestic methamphetamine production has been a growing problem in recent years despite government crackdowns; major consumer of amphetamines; longstanding marijuana producer mainly in rural areas where Manila's control is limited

World

Hellenica World

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