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Pakistan, See : Flags, Maps

Pakistan (South Asia)

Introduction ::Pakistan


The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking small steps to put relations back on track. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control domestic insurgents, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan.

Geography ::Pakistan


Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

Geographic coordinates:
30 00 N, 70 00 E

Map references:



total: 796,095 sq km country comparison to the world: 36 land: 770,875 sq km

water: 25,220 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:

total: 6,774 km

border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km


1,046 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north


flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

Natural resources:

land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use:

arable land: 24.44%

permanent crops: 0.84%

other: 74.72% (2005)

Irrigated land:

182,300 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

233.8 cu km (2003)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 169.39 cu km/yr (2%/2%/96%)

per capita: 1,072 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

Environment - current issues:

water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:

controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

People ::Pakistan


184,404,791 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 6

Age structure:

0-14 years: 36.7% (male 33,037,943/female 31,092,572)

15-64 years: 59.1% (male 53,658,173/female 49,500,786)

65 years and over: 4.2% (male 3,495,350/female 3,793,734) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 21.2 years

male: 21.2 years

female: 21.2 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.589% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 77

Birth rate:

25.3 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 62

Death rate:

7.06 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 130

Net migration rate:

-2.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 178


urban population: 36% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female

total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 65.32 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 26 male: 68.59 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 61.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 65.63 years country comparison to the world: 165 male: 63.84 years

female: 67.5 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

3.28 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 53

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 129

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

96,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 47

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

5,100 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 44

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

animal contact disease: rabies

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)


noun: Pakistani(s)

adjective: Pakistani

Ethnic groups:

Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%


Muslim 95% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), other (includes Christian and
Hindu) 5%


Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 49.9%

male: 63%

female: 36% (2005 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 7 years

male: 8 years

female: 6 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

2.9% of GDP (2008) country comparison to the world: 153

Government ::Pakistan

Country name:

conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

conventional short form: Pakistan

local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan

local short form: Pakistan

former: West Pakistan

Government type:

federal republic


name: Islamabad

geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E

time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan,
Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**,
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab,

note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan


14 August 1947 (from British India)

National holiday:

Republic Day, 23 March (1956)


12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored on 15 December 2007; amended 19 April 2010

Legal system:

based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations


18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Asif Ali ZARDARI (since 9 September 2008)

head of government: Prime Minister Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI (since 25 March 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the president elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and the provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 6 September 2008 (next to be held not later than 2013); note - any person who is a Muslim and not less than 45 years of age and is qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly can contest the presidential election; the prime minister selected by the National Assembly; election last held on 24 March 2008

election results: Asif Ali ZARDARI elected president; ZARDARI 481 votes, SIDDIQUE 153 votes, SYED 44 votes; Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI elected prime minister; GILANI 264 votes, Pervaiz ELAHI 42 votes; several abstentions

Legislative branch:

bicameral parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; members serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 3 March 2009 (next to be held in March 2012); National Assembly - last held on 18 February 2008 with by-elections on 26 June 2008 (next to be held in 2013)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 27, PML-Q 21, MMA 9, PML-N 7, ANP 6, MQM 6, JUI-F 4, BNP-A 2, JWP 1, NPP 1, PKMAP 1, PML-F 1, PPP 1, independents 13; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party as of October 2010 - PPPP 127, PML-N 90, PML 51, MQM 25, ANP 13, JUI-F 8, PML-F 5, BNP-A 1, NPP 1, PPP-S 1, independents 18, unfilled seats - 2

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Sharia Court

Political parties and leaders:

Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan
National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Balochistan
National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]; Balochistan
National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamaat-i
Islami or JI [Syed Munawar HASAN]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP;
Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur
Rehman or JUI-F [Fazl-ur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ
or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul
HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida
Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA
[Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged with PML); National Peoples Party or
NPP; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan
ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan
Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; Pakistan Muslim
League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim
League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Peoples Party
Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali
ZARDARI, co-chairman]; Pakistan Peoples Party-SHERPAO or PPP-S
[Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran
KHAN]; Tehrik-i Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]

note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently

Political pressure groups and leaders:

other: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants

International organization participation:

ADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO,

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Husain HAQQANI

chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1544

consulate(s) general: Boston (Honorary Consulate General), Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York

consulate(s): Chicago, Houston

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron MUNTER

embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad

mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200

telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000
FAX: [92] (51) 2276427

consulate(s) general: Karachi

consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar

Flag description:

green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

National anthem:

name: "Qaumi Tarana" (National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA

note: adopted 1954; the anthem is also known as "Pak sarzamin shad bad" (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)

Economy ::Pakistan

Economy - overview:

Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment. Between 2001-07, however, poverty levels decreased by 10%, as Islamabad steadily raised development spending. Between 2004-07, GDP growth in the 5-8% range was spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors - despite severe electricity shortfalls - but growth slowed in 2008-09 and unemployment rose. Inflation remains the top concern among the public, climbing from 7.7% in 2007 to more than 13% in 2010. In addition, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated since 2007 as a result of political and economic instability. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis, but during 2009-10 its current account strengthened and foreign exchange reserves stabilized - largely because of lower oil prices and record remittances from workers abroad. Record floods in July-August 2010 lowered agricultural output and contributed to a jump in inflation, and reconstruction costs will strain the limited resources of the government. Textiles account for most of Pakistan's export earnings, but Pakistan's failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education, healthcare, and electricity production, and reducing dependence on foreign donors.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$451.2 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 28 $439.4 billion (2009 est.)

$421.2 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$174.8 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

2.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 135 4.3% (2009 est.)

3.6% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$2,400 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 181 $2,400 (2009 est.)

$2,400 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 21.8%

industry: 23.6%

services: 54.6% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

55.77 million country comparison to the world: 10 note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2010 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 43%

industry: 20.3%

services: 36.6% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:

15% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 150 14% (2009 est.)

note: substantial underemployment exists

Population below poverty line:

24% (FY05/06 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.9%

highest 10%: 26.5% (2005)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

30.6 (FY07/08) country comparison to the world: 109 41 (FY98/99)

Investment (gross fixed):

15% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 130

Public debt:

49.9% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52 49.3% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

13.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 216 13.6% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

12.5% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 20 15% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

Stock of narrow money:

$59.75 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 43 $47.23 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$85.22 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 57 $65.13 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$71.45 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 56 $63.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$33.24 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 58 $23.49 billion (31 December 2008)

$70.26 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs


textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp

Industrial production growth rate:

4.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 67

Electricity - production:

90.8 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 33

Electricity - consumption:

72.2 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 37

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

59,140 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 59

Oil - consumption:

373,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 34

Oil - exports:

30,090 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 86

Oil - imports:

319,500 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 33

Oil - proved reserves:

436.2 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 49

Natural gas - production:

37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 23

Natural gas - consumption:

37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 21

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 146

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 106

Natural gas - proved reserves:

840.2 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 29

Current account balance:

-$2.641 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 164 -$3.583 billion (2009 est.)


$20.29 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 68 $18.33 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs

Exports - partners:

US 15.87%, UAE 12.35%, Afghanistan 8.48%, UK 4.7%, China 4.44% (2009)


$32.71 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 56 $28.53 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea

Imports - partners:

China 15.35%, Saudi Arabia 10.54%, UAE 9.8%, US 4.81%, Kuwait 4.73%,
Malaysia 4.43%, India 4.02% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$16.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 $13.77 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$57.21 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52 $53.62 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$30.09 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 61 $28.09 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$1.047 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 73 $1.017 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar - 85.27 (2010), 81.7129 (2009), 70.64 (2008), 60.6295 (2007), 60.35 (2006)

Communications ::Pakistan

Telephones - main lines in use:

4.058 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 38

Telephones - mobile cellular:

103 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 9

Telephone system:

general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile-cellular networks; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks;

domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, exceeding 100 million in 2009, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; approximately 90 percent of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage and more than half of all Pakistanis have access to a cell phone; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; fixed line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting fixed-line service to rural areas

international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2009)

Broadcast media:

media is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 6 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted and some foreign satellite channels are carried by cable TV operators; the state-owned radio network operates more than 40 stations; privately-owned radio stations mostly limit programming to music and talk shows (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

330,466 (2010) country comparison to the world: 57

Internet users:

20.431 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 20

Transportation ::Pakistan


148 (2010) country comparison to the world: 38

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 101

over 3,047 m: 15

2,438 to 3,047 m: 20

1,524 to 2,437 m: 39

914 to 1,523 m: 18

under 914 m: 9 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 47

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 25 (2010)


20 (2010)


gas 10,402 km; oil 2,011 km; refined products 787 km (2009)


total: 7,791 km country comparison to the world: 28 broad gauge: 7,479 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 312 km 1.000-m gauge (2007)


total: 259,197 km country comparison to the world: 20 paved: 172,827 km (includes 711 km of expressways)

unpaved: 86,370 km (2007)

Merchant marine:

total: 10 country comparison to the world: 114 by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 4, petroleum tanker 5

registered in other countries: 14 (Comoros 3, Georgia 1, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 5, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim

Military ::Pakistan

Military branches:

Army (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines and Maritime
Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

17-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 45,829,360

females age 16-49: 41,716,682 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 35,774,936

females age 16-49: 34,572,451 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 2,144,574

female: 2,000,479 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

3% of GDP (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 46

Transnational Issues ::Pakistan

Disputes - international:

various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afghanistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their porous border; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor and control the border with Afghanistan and to stem terrorist or other illegal activities

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 1,043,984 (Afghanistan)

IDPs: undetermined (government strikes on Islamic militants in South Waziristan); 34,000 (October 2005 earthquake; most of those displaced returned to their home villages in the spring of 2006) (2007)

Illicit drugs:

significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests


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