- Art Gallery -



Norway, See : Flags, Maps

The Story of Norway, Hjalmar H. Boyesen

Heimskringla, The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway, Snorri Sturlason

Early Kings of Norway, Thomas Carlyle

Peeps at Many Lands: Norway, by A.F. Mockler-Ferryman

Norway, Beatrix Jungman

The Norwegian Fjords, A. Heaton Cooper

Farthest North Volume 1 , Volume 2 , In Northern Mists 1, In Northern Mists 2, Fridtjof Nansen

Henrik Ibsen, Edmund Gosse

Henrik Ibsen : A Doll's House, An Enemy of the People, Ghosts, Hedda Gabler, The Lady from the Sea , The Master Builder , When We Dead Awaken ,

Henrik Ibsen, A Bibliography of Criticism and Biography, Ina Ten Eyck Firkins


Artist, Norway

Norway (Europe)

Introduction ::Norway


Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.

Geography ::Norway


Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic
Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates:
62 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references:



total: 323,802 sq km country comparison to the world: 67 land: 304,282 sq km

water: 19,520 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:

total: 2,542 km

border countries: Finland 727 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 196 km


25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 10 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm


temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast


glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m

highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m

Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use:

arable land: 2.7%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 97.3% (2005)

Irrigated land:

1,270 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

381.4 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 2.4 cu km/yr (23%/67%/10%)

per capita: 519 cu m/yr (1996)

Natural hazards:

rockslides, avalanches

volcanism: Beerenberg (elev. 2,227 m, 7,306 ft) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano

Environment - current issues:

water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world

People ::Norway


4,676,305 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 118

Age structure:

0-14 years: 18.5% (male 441,508/female 422,050)

15-64 years: 66.2% (male 1,564,482/female 1,522,519)

65 years and over: 15.2% (male 305,120/female 404,860) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 39.7 years

male: 38.8 years

female: 40.5 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.334% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 170

Birth rate:

10.9 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 180

Death rate:

9.26 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 69

Net migration rate:

1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44


urban population: 77% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.7% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.054 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 3.55 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 211 male: 3.88 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 80.08 years country comparison to the world: 25 male: 77.42 years

female: 82.89 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.77 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 161

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 130

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

3,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 132

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 100 (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 134


noun: Norwegian(s)

adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groups:

Norwegian 94.4% (includes Sami, about 60,000), other European 3.6%, other 2% (2007 estimate)


Church of Norway 85.7%, Pentecostal 1%, Roman Catholic 1%, other
Christian 2.4%, Muslim 1.8%, other 8.1% (2004)


Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami is official in six municipalities


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100%

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 18 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

6.7% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 27

Government ::Norway

Country name:

conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway

conventional short form: Norway

local long form: Kongeriket Norge

local short form: Norge

Government type:

constitutional monarchy


name: Oslo

geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder,
Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland,
Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane,
Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Dependent areas:

Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard


7 June 1905 (Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)

National holiday:

Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)


17 May 1814; amended many times

Legal system:

mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)

head of government: Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 October 2005)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament

Legislative branch:

modified unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 September 2009 (next to be held in September 2013)

election results: percent of vote by party - DNA 35.4%, FrP 22.9%, H 17.2%, SV 6.2%, Sp 6.2%, KrF 5.5%, V 3.9%, other 2.7%; seats by party - DNA 64, FrP 41, H 30, SV 11, Sp 11, KrF 10, V 2

note: for certain purposes, the parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership in the Lagting and three-fourths of its membership in the Odelsting

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:

Center Party (Senterpartiet or Sp) [Liv Signe NAVARSETE]; Christian People's Party (Kristelig Folkeparti or KrF) [Dagfinn HOYBRATEN]; Conservative Party (Hoyre or H) [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party (Det norske Arbeiderpartiet or DNA) [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party (Venstre or V) [Trine SKEI-GRANDE]; Progress Party (Framstegspartiet or FrP) [Siv JENSEN]; Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti or SV) [Kristin HALVORSEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Norwegian Aid Committee or NORWAC; Norwegian Association of the Disabled; Pure Salmon Campaign; The Consumer Council (consumer advocacy group)

other: environmental groups; media; reform movements

International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council,
OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD,

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Wegger C. STROMMEN

chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Barry B. WHITE

embassy: Henrik Ibsens gate 48, 0244 Oslo; note - the embassy will move to Huseby in the near future

mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707

telephone: [47] 22 44 85 50
FAX: [47] 22 44 33 63, 22 56 27 51

Flag description:

red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)

National anthem:

name: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" (Yes, We Love This Country)

lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK

note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, "Kongesangen" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of "God Save the Queen," serves as the royal anthem

Economy ::Norway

Economy - overview:

The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector, through large-scale state-majority-owned enterprises. The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on the petroleum sector, which accounts for nearly half of exports and over 30% of state revenue. Norway is the world's second-largest gas exporter; its position as an oil exporter has slipped to ninth-largest as production has begun to decline. Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget. In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves almost all state revenue from the petroleum sector in the world's second largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at over $500 billion in 2010. After lackluster growth of less than 1.5% in 2002-03, GDP growth picked up to 2.5-6.2% in 2004-07, partly due to higher oil prices. Growth fell to 1.8% in 2008, and the economy contracted by 1.4% in 2009 as a result of the slowing world economy and the drop in oil prices.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$276.4 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 43 $272.3 billion (2009 est.)

$276.2 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$413.5 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

1.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 167 -1.4% (2009 est.)

1.8% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$59,100 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 6 $58,400 (2009 est.)

$59,500 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 2.1%

industry: 40.1%

services: 57.8% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

2.59 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 110

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 2.9%

industry: 21.1%

services: 76% (2008)

Unemployment rate:

3.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 32 3.2% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.9%

highest 10%: 23.4% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

25 (2008) country comparison to the world: 133 25.8 (1995)

Investment (gross fixed):

18.6% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 102

Public debt:

47.7% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 55 49.8% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 70 2.1% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

4% (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 72 6.25% (31 December 2007)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

4.28% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 123 7.28% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$122.2 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 27 $118.3 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$256.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 33 $243.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$414.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 26 $379.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$227.2 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 31 $125.9 billion (31 December 2008)

$357.4 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish


petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

Industrial production growth rate:

0.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 154

Electricity - production:

142.7 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 26

Electricity - consumption:

128.8 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 26

Electricity - exports:

17.29 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

3.414 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

2.35 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 14

Oil - consumption:

204,100 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 56

Oil - exports:

2.061 million bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 9

Oil - imports:

107,500 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 63

Oil - proved reserves:

6.68 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 21

Natural gas - production:

103.5 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 6

Natural gas - consumption:

4.62 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 60

Natural gas - exports:

98.85 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 2

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 107

Natural gas - proved reserves:

2.313 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 17

Current account balance:

$60.23 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 5 $53.53 billion (2009 est.)


$137 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 31 $122 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish

Exports - partners:

UK 24.28%, Germany 13.4%, Netherlands 10.87%, France 8.55%, Sweden 5.76%, US 4.82% (2009)


$74.02 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 37 $66.68 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:

Sweden 13.86%, Germany 12.89%, China 7.8%, Denmark 6.78%, US 6.16%,
UK 6.01% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$48.86 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$2.232 trillion (30 June 2010) country comparison to the world: 7 $475.9 billion (31 December 2008)

note: Norway is a net external creditor

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$132.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27 $128.4 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$226.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 18 $206 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar - 6.1533 (2010), 6.2883 (2009), 5.6361 (2008), 5.86 (2007), 6.418 (2006)

Communications ::Norway

Telephones - main lines in use:

1.9 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 57

Telephones - mobile cellular:

5.336 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 93

Telephone system:

general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe

domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems

international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)

Broadcast media:

state-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide television stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately-owned television stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations are available; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; 2 privately-owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

3.352 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 27

Internet users:

4.431 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 53

Transportation ::Norway


98 (2010) country comparison to the world: 61

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 67

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 18

under 914 m: 25 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 31

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 25 (2010)


1 (2010)


condensate 31 km; gas 64 km (2009)


total: 4,114 km country comparison to the world: 40 standard gauge: 4,114 km 1.435-m gauge (2,552 km electrified) (2009)


total: 92,946 km country comparison to the world: 52 paved: 72,033 km (includes 664 km of expressways)

unpaved: 20,913 km (2007)


1,577 km (2008) country comparison to the world: 53

Merchant marine:

total: 632 country comparison to the world: 19 by type: bulk carrier 43, cargo 133, carrier 5, chemical tanker 139, combination ore/oil 12, container 1, liquefied gas 53, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 116, petroleum tanker 58, refrigerated cargo 14, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 46

foreign-owned: 104 (Bermuda 5, Canada 1, China 25, Cyprus 1, Denmark 11, Estonia 1, Finland 1, France 4, Iceland 3, Italy 3, Lithuania 1, Monaco 1, Poland 2, Saudi Arabia 3, Sweden 33, US 9)

registered in other countries: 940 (Antigua and Barbuda 9, Australia 1, Bahamas 198, Barbados 41, Belize 3, Bermuda 5, Brazil 3, Canada 4, Chile 1, Comoros 2, Cook Islands 6, Croatia 2, Cyprus 12, Denmark 2, Dominica 1, Equatorial Guinea 1, Estonia 2, Faroe Islands 6, Finland 2, France 1, Gibraltar 42, Hong Kong 49, Indonesia 4, Ireland 3, Isle of Man 26, Italy 6, Japan 1, Liberia 42, Libya 1, Malta 84, Marshall Islands 57, Netherlands 18, former Netherlands Antilles 2, Panama 89, Portugal 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12, Singapore 132, Spain 10, Sweden 3, UK 39, US 10, Vanuatu 1, Venezuela 1, unknown 4) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture

Military ::Norway

Military branches:

Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske
Sjoeforsvaret, RNoN; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard
(Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske
Luftforsvaret, RNoAF), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18-44 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 12-month service obligation, in practice shortened to 8 to 9 months; although all males between ages of 18 and 44 are liable for service, in practice they are seldom called to duty after age 30; reserve obligation to age 35-60; 16 years of age for volunteers to the Home Guard, who serve 6-month duty tours (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,078,562

females age 16-49: 1,049,529 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 888,310

females age 16-49: 864,344 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 32,045

female: 30,610 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.9% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 79

Transnational Issues ::Norway

Disputes - international:

Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Russia and Norway reached an agreement on how to align Barents Sea and Arctic Ocean boundaries over EEZ and continental shelf in an agreement signed on 15 September 2010; this agreement is pending ratification by the respective national assemblies


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