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Norfolk Island

Norfolk Island (Australia-Oceania)

Introduction ::Norfolk Island


Two British attempts at establishing the island as a penal colony (1788-1814 and 1825-55) were ultimately abandoned. In 1856, the island was resettled by Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions.

Geography ::Norfolk Island


Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia

Geographic coordinates:
29 02 S, 167 57 E

Map references:



total: 36 sq km country comparison to the world: 234 land: 36 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:

0 km


32 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm


subtropical; mild, little seasonal temperature variation


volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Bates 319 m

Natural resources:


Land use:

arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100% (2005)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:

typhoons (especially May to July)

Environment - current issues:

Geography - note:

most of the 32 km coastline consists of almost inaccessible cliffs, but the land slopes down to the sea in one small southern area on Sydney Bay, where the capital of Kingston is situated

People ::Norfolk Island


2,155 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 231

Age structure:

0-14 years: 20.2%

15-64 years: 63.9%

65 years and over: 15.9% (2009 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.006% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 194

Birth rate:

Death rate:

Net migration rate:

Sex ratio:

Infant mortality rate:

total: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Total fertility rate:

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:


noun: Norfolk Islander(s)

adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)

Ethnic groups:

descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New Zealander, Polynesian


Anglican 31.8%, Roman Catholic 11.5%, Uniting Church in Australia 10.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3.2%, other Christian 5.6%, none 19.9%, unspecified 16.6% (2006 census)


English (official), Norfolk - a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian


Education expenditures:

Government ::Norfolk Island

Country name:

conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island

conventional short form: Norfolk Island

Dependency status:

self governing territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Australian Government Attorney-General's Department

Government type:


name: Kingston

geographic coordinates: 29 03 S, 167 58 E

time difference: UTC+11.5 (16.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

none (territory of Australia)


none (territory of Australia)

National holiday:

Bounty Day (commemorates the arrival of Pitcairn Islanders), 8 June (1856)


Norfolk Island Act of 1979 as amended in 2005

Legal system:

based on the laws of Australia, local ordinances and acts; English common law applies in matters not covered by either Australian or Norfolk Island law


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by the Australian governor general

head of government: Administrator Owen WALSH (since October 2007)

cabinet: Executive Council made up of 4 of the 9 members of the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy and acts as an advisor to the administrator (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia

Legislative branch:

unicameral Legislative Assembly (9 seats; members elected by electors who have nine equal votes each but only four votes can be given to any one candidate; members to serve three-year terms)

elections: last held on 17 March 2010 (next to be held in 2013)

election results: seats - independents 9 (note - no political parties)

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions

Political parties and leaders:


Political pressure groups and leaders:


International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:

none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:

three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band; green stands for the rich vegetation on the island, and the pine tree - endemic to the island - is a symbol of Norfolk Island

note: somewhat reminiscent of the flag of Canada with its use of only two colors and depiction of a prominent local floral symbol in the central white band

National anthem:

name: "Come Ye Blessed"

lyrics/music: New Testament/John Prindle SCOTT

note: the local anthem, whose lyrics consist of the words from Matthew 25:34-36, 40, is also known as "The Pitcairn Anthem;" as a territory of Australia, "God Save the Queen" is official (see Australia), however, the island does not recognize "Advance Australia Fair"

Economy ::Norfolk Island

Economy - overview:

Tourism, the primary economic activity, has steadily increased over the years and has brought a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific islands. The agricultural sector has become self sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

Labor force:

978 (2006) country comparison to the world: 226

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 10%

industry and services: 90%

Agriculture - products:

Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry


tourism, light industry, ready mixed concrete

Electricity - production:

NA kWh

Electricity - consumption:

NA kWh


$1.5 million (FY91/92) country comparison to the world: 217

Exports - commodities:

postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados


$17.9 million c.i.f. (FY91/92); $17.9 million country comparison to the world: 218

Imports - commodities:

Debt - external:

Exchange rates:

Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar - 1.1151 (2010), 1.2822 (2009), 1.2059 (2008), 1.2137 (2007), 1.3285 (2006)

Communications ::Norfolk Island

Telephones - main lines in use:

2,532; note - a mix of analog (2,500) and digital (32) circuits (2004) country comparison to the world: 221

Telephones - mobile cellular:

0 (2002) country comparison to the world: 220

Telephone system:

general assessment: adequate

domestic: free local calls

international: country code - 672; undersea coaxial cable links with Australia and New Zealand; satellite earth station - 1

Broadcast media:

1 local radio station; broadcasts of several Australian radio and television stations are received via satellite (2009)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

93 (2010) country comparison to the world: 202

Transportation ::Norfolk Island


1 (2010) country comparison to the world: 228

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2010)


total: 80 km country comparison to the world: 215 paved: 53 km

unpaved: 27 km (2008)

Ports and terminals:


Military ::Norfolk Island

Military - note:

defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues ::Norfolk Island

Disputes - international:



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