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Niue (Australia-Oceania)

Introduction ::Niue


Niue's remoteness, as well as cultural and linguistic differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and those of the rest of the Cook Islands, have caused it to be separately administered. The population of the island continues to drop (from a peak of 5,200 in 1966 to an estimated 1,398 in 2009) with substantial emigration to New Zealand 2,400 km to the southwest.

Geography ::Niue


Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga

Geographic coordinates:
19 02 S, 169 52 W

Map references:



total: 260 sq km country comparison to the world: 212 land: 260 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:

0 km


64 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical; modified by southeast trade winds


steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed elevation near Mutalau settlement 68 m

Natural resources:

fish, arable land

Land use:

arable land: 11.54%

permanent crops: 15.38%

other: 73.08% (2005)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:


Environment - current issues:

increasing attention to conservationist practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash and burn agriculture

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note:

one of world's largest coral islands

People ::Niue


1,354 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 235

Age structure:

0-14 years: NA

15-64 years: NA

65 years and over: NA (2009 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.032% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 201

Birth rate:

Death rate:

Net migration rate:


urban population: 39% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: -0.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

Infant mortality rate:

total: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Total fertility rate:

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:


noun: Niuean(s)

adjective: Niuean

Ethnic groups:

Niuen 78.2%, Pacific islander 10.2%, European 4.5%, mixed 3.9%,
Asian 0.2%, unspecified 3% (2001 census)


Ekalesia Niue (Niuean Church - a Protestant church closely related to the London Missionary Society) 61.1%, Latter-Day Saints 8.8%, Roman Catholic 7.2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%, other 8.4%, unspecified 8.7%, none 1.9% (2001 census)


English (official), Niuean a Polynesian language closely related to
Tongan and Samoan; English


definition: NA

total population: 95%

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 12 years (2005)

Education expenditures:

Government ::Niue

Country name:

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Niue

note: pronunciation falls between nyu-way and new-way, but not like new-wee

former: Savage Island

Dependency status:

self-governing in free association with New Zealand since 1974; Niue fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs and defense; however, these responsibilities confer no rights of control and are only exercised at the request of the Government of Niue

Government type:

self-governing parliamentary democracy


name: Alofi

geographic coordinates: 19 01 S, 169 55 W

time difference: UTC-11 (6 hours behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

none; note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 14 villages at the second order


19 October 1974 (Niue became a self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand)

National holiday:

Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)


19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)

Legal system:

English common law; note - Niue is self-governing with the power to make its laws


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General of New Zealand Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner John BRYAN (since May 2000)

head of government: Premier Toke TALAGI (since 18 June 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and 3 ministers (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held on 18 June 2008 (next to be held in 2011)

election results: Toke TALAGI defeats incumbent Young VIVIAN in Legislative Assembly vote; Toke TALAGI - 14, Young VIVIAN - 5

Legislative branch:

unicameral Legislative Assembly (20 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; six elected from a common roll and 14 are village representatives)

elections: last held on 7 June 2008 (next to be held in 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - 20 independents

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court of New Zealand; High Court of Niue

Political parties and leaders:

Alliance of Independents or AI; Niue People's Action Party or NPP
[Young VIVIAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)

Flag description:

yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large star on a blue disk in the center and a smaller star on each arm of the bold red cross; the larger star stands for Niue, the smaller stars recall the Southern Cross constellation on the New Zealand flag and symbolize links with that country; yellow represents the bright sunshine of Niue and the warmth and friendship between Niue and New Zealand

National anthem:

name: "Ko e Iki he Lagi" (The Lord in Heaven)

lyrics/music: unknown/unknown, prepared by Sioeli FUSIKATA

note: adopted 1974

Economy ::Niue

Economy - overview:

The economy suffers from the typical Pacific island problems of geographic isolation, few resources, and a small population. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, and the shortfall is made up by critically needed grants from New Zealand that are used to pay wages to public employees. Niue has cut government expenditures by reducing the public service by almost half. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories to process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of population because of emigration to New Zealand. Efforts to increase GDP include the promotion of tourism and financial services, although the International Banking Repeal Act of 2002 resulted in the termination of all offshore banking licenses. Economic aid from New Zealand in FY08/09 was US$5.7 million. Niue suffered a devastating typhoon in January 2004, which decimated nascent economic programs. While in the process of rebuilding, Niue has been dependent on foreign aid.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$10.01 million (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 227

GDP (official exchange rate):

$10.01 million (2003)

GDP - real growth rate:

6.2% (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 33

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$5,800 (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 139

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 23.5%

industry: 26.9%

services: 49.5% (2003)

Labor force:

663 (2001) country comparison to the world: 227

Labor force - by occupation:

note: most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board

Unemployment rate:

12% (2001) country comparison to the world: 128

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

4% (2005) country comparison to the world: 116

Agriculture - products:

coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes, taro, yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle


handicrafts, food processing

Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - production:

3 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 211

Electricity - consumption:

2.79 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 212

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 150

Oil - consumption:

NA bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 157

Oil - imports:

31 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 203

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 147

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 153

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 118

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 147

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 108

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 113


$201,400 (2004) country comparison to the world: 220

Exports - commodities:

canned coconut cream, copra, honey, vanilla, passion fruit products, pawpaws, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts


$9.038 million (2004) country comparison to the world: 221

Imports - commodities:

food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs

Debt - external:

$418,000 (2002 est.) country comparison to the world: 194

Exchange rates:

New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar - 1.4015 (2010), 1.6002 (2009), 1.4151 (2008), 1.3811 (2007), 1.5408 (2006)

Communications ::Niue

Telephones - main lines in use:

1,100 (2009) country comparison to the world: 227

Telephones - mobile cellular:

600 (2004) country comparison to the world: 219

Telephone system:

domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island

international: country code - 683 (2001)

Broadcast media:

1 government-owned television station with many of the programs supplied by Television New Zealand; 1 government-owned radio station broadcasting in AM and FM (2009)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

397,270 (2010) country comparison to the world: 52

Internet users:

1,100 (2009) country comparison to the world: 213

Transportation ::Niue


1 (2010) country comparison to the world: 229

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2010)


total: 120 km country comparison to the world: 212 paved: 120 km (2008)

Ports and terminals:


Military ::Niue

Military branches:

no regular indigenous military forces; Police Force

Military - note:

defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

Transnational Issues ::Niue

Disputes - international:



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