- Art Gallery -



Netherlands, See : Flags, Maps

Amsterdam : Images

Rotterdam : Images

Scheveningen : Images

Utrecht : ImagesMarathon , G. H. Betz


Neêrlands Roem , Galerij van Beroemde Nederlanders, by J. van Lennep (Dutch)

The Rise of the Dutch Kingdom, Hendrik Willem van Loon

Erasmus and the Age of Reformation, Johan Huizinga

A Wanderer in Holland, E. V. Lucas

De Nederlandsche Geslachtsnamen, Johan Winkler

De Nederlandsche Nationale Kleederdrachten, Th. Molkenboer (Dutch)

Rembrandt's Amsterdam , Frits Lugt

In de Amsterdamsche Jodenbuurt , Jan Feith

Langs Rotte, Maas en Schie. I., J.M. Droogendijk and J.S. Verburg

The First Governess of the Netherlands, Margaret of Austria, Eleanor E. Tremayne

De Lof der Zotheid, Desiderius Erasmus


Mythen en Legenden van Egypte, Lewis Spence and J. W. van Rooijen

Bolivia.--Een in wording zijnde Staat aan den Stillen Oceaan, Emile Barbier

Het moderne Egypte: Wat er te zien en te hooren valt tusschen Kaïro en Faschoda, A. B. de Guerville

Een feudale familie in Egypte , Émile Amélineau

Reisbrieven uit Afrika en Azië, Aletta Henriëtte Jacobs

De beklimming van den Fuji-yama, J. Philipson-Radersma

Door Centraal-Oceanië, P. de Myrica

Door Holland met pen en camera , Lud. Georges Hamön

Door Noorwegen, G. Bosch

Op het Balkan-schiereiland , Percy E. Henderson

De monumenten van den Girnar, D. Menant

Achter den Sluier in Perzië en Turksch Arabië, by M. E. Hume-Griffith , Percy E. Henderson

In Portugal, Gérard de Beauregard and Louis de Fouchier



Artists from The Netherlands


The art of the Dutch Republic, 1585-1718, Mariët Westermann

The Standard Galleries - Holland, Esther Singleton

Rembrandt, With a Complete List of His Etchings Arthur Mayger Hind

Rembrandt: the painter at work, Ernst van de Wetering

Rembrandt and the female nude, Eric Jan Sluijter

Fashion and fancy: dress and meaning in Rembrandt's paintings, Marieke de Winkel

The rise of the cult of Rembrandt: reinventing an old master in nineteenth century France ,Alison McQueen

A study of Vermeer, Edward A. Snow

Vermeer's Wager: speculations on art history, theory, and art museums , Ivan Gaskell

Vermeer's camera: uncovering the truth behind the masterpieces, Issue 2002, Philip Steadman

Vermeer and His Milieu: A Web of Social History, John Michael Montias

Love letters: Dutch genre paintings in the age of Vermeer, Peter C. Sutton, Lisa Vergara, Ann Jensen Adams, Bruce Museum, National Gallery of Ireland

Van Gogh

Sculpture in Rotterdam


De Geschiedenis van het Grieksche Volk, E.M. Tappan

Woordenboek der Grieksche en Romeinsche oudheid, Dr. J. G. Schlimmer and Dr. Z. C. de Boer

Marathon , G. H. Betz

Netherlands (Europe)

Introduction ::Netherlands

Dutch National Anthem


The Dutch United Provinces declared their independence from Spain in 1579; during the 17th century, they became a leading seafaring and commercial power, with settlements and colonies around the world. After a 20-year French occupation, a Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830 Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I, but suffered invasion and occupation by Germany in World War II. A modern, industrialized nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EEC (now the EU), and participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999. In October 2010, the former Netherlands Antilles was dissolved and the three smallest islands - Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba - became special municipalities in the Netherlands administrative structure. The larger islands of Sint Maarten and Curacao joined the Netherlands and Aruba as constituent countries forming the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Geography ::Netherlands

View Larger Map


Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany

Geographic coordinates:
52 30 N, 5 45 E

Map references:



total: 41,543 sq km country comparison to the world: 134 land: 33,893 sq km

water: 7,650 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries:

total: 1,027 km

border countries: Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km

Postcard 161 - NL-83378


451 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm


temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters


mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Zuidplaspolder -7 m

highest point: Mount Scenery 862 m (on the island of Saba in the Caribbean, now considered an integral part of the Netherlands following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles)

note: the highest point on continental Netherlands is Vaalserberg at 322 m

Netherlands NL-171084

Natural resources:

natural gas, petroleum, peat, limestone, salt, sand and gravel, arable land

Land use:

arable land: 21.96%

permanent crops: 0.77%

other: 77.27% (2005)

Irrigated land:

5,650 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

89.7 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 8.86 cu km/yr (6%/60%/34%)

per capita: 544 cu m/yr (2001)

Natural hazards:


Environment - current issues:

water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)

People ::Netherlands


16,783,092 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 59

Age structure:

0-14 years: 17.4% (male 1,485,873/female 1,416,999)

15-64 years: 67.7% (male 5,720,387/female 5,604,014)

65 years and over: 14.9% (male 1,070,496/female 1,418,230) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 40.8 years

male: 40 years

female: 41.6 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.39% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 164

Birth rate:

10.3 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 189

Death rate:

8.78 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 77

Net migration rate:

2.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 34


urban population: 82% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.052 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 4.66 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 193 male: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 79.55 years country comparison to the world: 34 male: 76.94 years

female: 82.3 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.66 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 174

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.2% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 98

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

18,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 82

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 200 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 106


noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)

adjective: Dutch

Ethnic groups:

Dutch 80.7%, EU 5%, Indonesian 2.4%, Turkish 2.2%, Surinamese 2%,
Moroccan 2%, Caribbean 0.8%, other 4.8% (2008 est.)


Roman Catholic 30%, Dutch Reformed 11%, Calvinist 6%, other
Protestant 3%, Muslim 5.8%, other 2.2%, none 42% (2006)


Dutch (official), Frisian (official)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 17 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

5.5% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 45

Government ::Netherlands

Country name:

conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands

conventional short form: Netherlands

local long form: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden

local short form: Nederland

Government type:

constitutional monarchy


name: Amsterdam

geographic coordinates: 52 23 N, 4 54 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: The Hague is the seat of government; time descriptions apply to the continental Netherlands only, not to the Caribbean components

Administrative divisions:

12 provinces (provincies, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland,
Fryslan (Friesland), Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant
(North Brabant), Noord-Holland (North Holland), Overijssel, Utrecht,
Zeeland (Zealand), Zuid-Holland (South Holland)

Dependent areas:

Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten


23 January 1579 (the northern provinces of the Low Countries conclude the Union of Utrecht breaking with Spain; on 26 July 1581 they formally declared their independence with an Act of Abjuration; however, it was not until 30 January 1648 and the Peace of Westphalia that Spain recognized this independence)

National holiday:

Queen's Day (Birthday of deceased Queen-Mother JULIANA and accession to the throne of her oldest daughter BEATRIX), 30 April (1909 and 1980)


adopted 1815; amended many times, most recently in 2002

Legal system:

based on civil law system incorporating French penal theory; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Queen BEATRIX (since 30 April 1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 April 1967), son of the monarch

head of government: Prime Minister Mark RUTTE (since 14 October 2010); Deputy Prime Minister Maxime VERHAGEN (since 14 October 2010)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers appointed by the monarch

note: there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and councilors that provides consultations to the cabinet on legislative and administrative policy

Legislative branch:

bicameral States General or Staten Generaal consists of the First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial councils to serve four-year terms) and the Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: First Chamber - last held 29 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2011); Second Chamber - last held 9 June 2010 (next to be held by May 2015)

election results: First Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CDA 21, PvdA 14, VVD 14, Socialist Party 11, Christian Union 4, Green Left Party 4, D66 2, other 5; Second Chamber - percent of vote by party - VVD 20.5%, PvdA 19.6%, PVV, 15.4%, CDA 13.6%, SP 9.8%, D66 6.9%, GL 6.7%, CU 3.2, other 4.3%; seats by party - VVD 31, PvdA 30, PVV 24, CDA 21, SP 15, D66 10, GL 10, CU 5, other 4

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court or Hoge Raad (justices are nominated for life by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:

Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Maxime VERHAGEN]; Christian
Union [Andre ROUVOET]; Democrats 66 or D66 [Alexander PECHTOLD];
Green Left [Jolande SAP]; Labor Party or PvdA [Job COHEN]; Party for
Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]; Party for the Animals or PvdD
[Marianne THIEME]; People's Party for Freedom and Democracy or VVD
[Mark RUTTE] (Liberal); Reformed Political Party of SGP [Kees VAN
DER STAAIJ]; Socialist Party [Emile ROEMER]; plus a few minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Jaap SMIT]; Confederation
of Netherlands Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Bernard WIENTJES];
Federation for Small and Medium-sized businesses or MKB [Loek
HERMANS]; Netherlands Trade Union Federation or FNV [Agnes
JONGERIUS]; Social Economic Council or SER [Alexander RINNOOY KAN];
Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or MHP [Richard

International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council
(observer), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CBSS (observer), CE,
NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA,
Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO,

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Regina "Renee" JONES-BOS

chancery: 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-5300, [1] 877-388-2443
FAX: [1] (202) 362-3430

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

consulate(s): Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Fay HARTOG LEVIN

embassy: Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ, The Hague

mailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715

telephone: [31] (70) 310-2209
FAX: [31] (70) 361-4688

consulate(s) general: Amsterdam

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer; the colors were those of WILLIAM I, Prince of Orange, who led the Dutch Revolt against Spanish sovereignty in the latter half of the 16th century; originally the upper band was orange, but because it tended to fade to red over time, the red shade was eventually made the permanent color; the banner is perhaps the oldest tricolor in continuous use

National anthem:

name: "Het Wilhelmus" (The William)

lyrics/music: Philips VAN MARNIX van Sint Aldegonde (presumed)/unknown

note: adopted 1932, in use since the 17th century, making it the oldest national anthem in the world; also known as "Wilhelmus van Nassouwe" (William of Nassau), it is in the form of an acrostic, where the first letter of each stanza spells the name of the leader of the Dutch Revolt

Economy ::Netherlands

Economy - overview:

The Netherlands economy is noted for stable industrial relations, moderate unemployment and inflation, a sizable current account surplus, and an important role as a European transportation hub. Industrial activity is predominantly in food processing, chemicals, petroleum refining, and electrical machinery. A highly mechanized agricultural sector employs only 2% of the labor force but provides large surpluses for the food-processing industry and for exports. The Netherlands, along with 11 of its EU partners, began circulating the euro currency on 1 January 2002. The country has been one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the four largest investors in the US. After 26 years of uninterrupted economic growth, the Netherlands' economy - which is highly open and dependent on foreign trade and financial services - was hard-hit by global economic crisis. Dutch GDP contracted 3.9% in 2009, while exports declined nearly 25% due to a sharp contraction in world demand. The Dutch financial sector has also suffered, due in part to the high exposure of some Dutch banks to U.S. mortgage-backed securities. In response to turmoil in financial markets, the government nationalized two banks and injected billions of dollars into a third, to prevent further systemic risk. The government also sought to boost the domestic economy by accelerating infrastructure programs, offering corporate tax breaks for employers to retain workers, and expanding export credit facilities. The stimulus programs and bank bailouts, however, resulted in a government budget deficit of nearly 4.6% of GDP in 2009 and 5.6% in 2010 that contrasts sharply with a surplus of 0.7% of GDP in 2008. With unemployment weighing on private-sector consumption, the government of Prime Minister Mark RUTTE is likely to come under increased pressure to keep the budget deficit in check while promoting economic recovery.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$680.4 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 22 $669 billion (2009 est.)

$696.1 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$770.3 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

1.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 161 -3.9% (2009 est.)

1.9% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$40,500 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 18 $40,000 (2009 est.)

$41,800 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 2.6%

industry: 24.9%

services: 72.4% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

7.86 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 58

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 2%

industry: 18%

services: 80% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:

5.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 54 4.8% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

10.5% (2005)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 22.9% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

30.9 (2007) country comparison to the world: 107 32.6 (1994)

Investment (gross fixed):

18% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 111

Public debt:

64.6% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 26 60.9% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 25 1.2% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

1.75% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 126 3% (31 December 2008)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

10.01% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 96 9.66% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$368.1 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 12 $351.6 billion (31 December 2009 est)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:

$1.124 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 $1.133 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$2.083 trillion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 12 $1.824 trillion (31 December 2008)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$542.5 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 19 $387.9 billion (31 December 2008)

$956.5 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; livestock


agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing

Industrial production growth rate:

3.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 99

Electricity - production:

108.2 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 31

Electricity - consumption:

124.1 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 27

Electricity - exports:

10.56 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports:

15.45 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production:

57,190 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 61

Oil - consumption:

922,800 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 20

Oil - exports:

1.66 million bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 14

Oil - imports:

2.426 million bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 8

Oil - proved reserves:

100 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 69

Natural gas - production:

79.58 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 9

Natural gas - consumption:

48.6 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 17

Natural gas - exports:

55.59 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 6

Natural gas - imports:

24.6 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 12

Natural gas - proved reserves:

1.416 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 24

Current account balance:

$46.69 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 8 $39.58 billion (2009 est.)


$451.3 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 9 $421.3 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs

Exports - partners:

Germany 25.54%, Belgium 12.49%, France 9.27%, UK 8.17%, Italy 5.07%,
US 3.97% (2009)


$408.4 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 11 $371.9 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners:

Germany 17.16%, China 11.58%, Belgium 8.68%, US 7.77%, UK 5.72%,
Russia 4.47%, France 4.4% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$39.61 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$NA (30 June 2010)

$3.733 trillion (31 December 2009)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$687.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 7 $654.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$950.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 5 $932.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.774 (2010), 0.7179 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006)

Communications ::Netherlands

Telephones - main lines in use:

7.32 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 26

Telephones - mobile cellular:

21.182 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 39

Telephone system:

general assessment: highly developed and well maintained

domestic: extensive fixed-line fiber-optic network; large cellular telephone system with 5 major operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology; one in five households now use Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) services

international: country code - 31; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 5 (3 Intelsat - 1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (2007)

Broadcast media:

more than 90% of households are connected to cable or satellite TV systems that provide a wide range of domestic and foreign channels; public service broadcast system includes multiple broadcasters, 3 with a national reach and the remainder operating in regional and local markets; 2 major nationwide commercial television companies, each with 3 or more stations, and a large number of commercial TV stations in regional and local markets; nearly 600 radio stations operating with a mix of public and private stations providing national or regional coverage (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

12.607 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 10

Internet users:

14.872 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 27

Transportation ::Netherlands


27 (2010) country comparison to the world: 125

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 20

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 4 (2010)


1 (2010)


gas 3,816 km; oil 365 km; refined products 716 km (2009)


total: 2,896 km country comparison to the world: 58 standard gauge: 2,896 km 1.435-m gauge (2,064 km electrified) (2009)


total: 136,827 km (includes 2,582 km of expressways) (2008) country comparison to the world: 36


6,215 km (navigable for ships of 50 tons) (2007) country comparison to the world: 22

Merchant marine:

total: 706 country comparison to the world: 15 by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 464, carrier 21, chemical tanker 57, container 73, liquefied gas 19, passenger 17, passenger/cargo 15, petroleum tanker 5, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 21, specialized tanker 3

foreign-owned: 217 (Australia 1, Denmark 36, Finland 14, France 2, Germany 92, Ireland 7, Italy 9, Japan 1, Norway 18, Sweden 18, UAE 4, US 15)

registered in other countries: 240 (Antigua and Barbuda 18, Australia 1, Bahamas 22, Belize 1, Cambodia 1, Canada 1, Cyprus 24, Gibraltar 33, Liberia 35, Luxembourg 2, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 16, former Netherlands Antilles 52, Panama 8, Paraguay 1, Philippines 18, Portugal 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapore 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Amsterdam, IJmuiden, Moerdijk, Rotterdam, Terneuzen, Vlissingen

Military ::Netherlands

Military branches:

Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (includes Naval Air
Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force (Koninklijke
Luchtmacht, KLu), Royal Military Police (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

20 years of age for an all-volunteer force (2004)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 3,927,311

females age 16-49: 3,831,110 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 3,213,954

females age 16-49: 3,133,972 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 104,694

female: 99,874 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.6% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 94

Transnational Issues ::Netherlands

Disputes - international:


Illicit drugs:

major European producer of synthetic drugs, including ecstasy, and cannabis cultivator; important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe; major source of US-bound ecstasy; large financial sector vulnerable to money laundering; significant consumer of ecstasy



Hellenica World