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Nauru, See : Flags, Maps

Nauru (Australia-Oceania)

Introduction ::Nauru


The exact origins of the Nauruans are unclear since their language does not resemble any other in the Pacific. The island was annexed by Germany in 1888. Its phosphate deposits began to be mined early in the 20th century by a German-British consortium. Nauru was occupied by Australian forces in World War I and subsequently became a League of Nations mandate. After the Second World War - and a brutal occupation by Japan - Nauru became a UN trust territory. It achieved independence in 1968 and joined the UN in 1999 as the world's smallest independent republic.

Geography ::Nauru


Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall

Geographic coordinates:
0 32 S, 166 55 E

Map references:



total: 21 sq km country comparison to the world: 239 land: 21 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:

0 km


30 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical with a monsoonal pattern; rainy season (November to February)


sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed elevation along plateau rim 61 m

Natural resources:

phosphates, fish

Land use:

arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100% (2005)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:

periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:

limited natural fresh water resources, roof storage tanks collect rainwater but mostly dependent on a single, aging desalination plant; intensive phosphate mining during the past 90 years - mainly by a UK, Australia, and NZ consortium - has left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland and threatens limited remaining land resources

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the
Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator

People ::Nauru


9,267 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 225

Age structure:

0-14 years: 34.7% (male 2,482/female 2,384)

15-64 years: 63.2% (male 4,362/female 4,495)

65 years and over: 2.1% (male 151/female 145) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 23.8 years

male: 24 years

female: 23.6 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.594% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 149

Birth rate:

28.16 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 47

Death rate:

6.15 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 161

Net migration rate:

-16.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population country comparison to the world: 219


urban population: 100% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 0.838 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 8.81 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 157 male: 11.36 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 64.99 years country comparison to the world: 166 male: 60.93 years

female: 68.39 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

3.13 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 61

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:


noun: Nauruan(s)

adjective: Nauruan

Ethnic groups:

Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%


Nauru Congregational 35.4%, Roman Catholic 33.2%, Nauru Independent
Church 10.4%, other 14.1%, none 4.5%, unspecified 2.4% (2002 census)


Nauruan (official; a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 9 years

male: 8 years

female: 9 years (2006)

Education expenditures:

Government ::Nauru

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Nauru

conventional short form: Nauru

local long form: Republic of Nauru

local short form: Nauru

former: Pleasant Island

Government type:



no official capital; government offices in Yaren District

time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren


31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, NZ-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 31 January (1968)


29 January 1968; amended 17 May 1968

Legal system:

acts of the Nauru Parliament and British common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 December 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 December 2007)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by parliament for a three-year term; election last held on 1 November 2010 (next to be held in 2013)

election results: Marcus STEPHEN reelected in a parliamentary vote of 11 to 6

Legislative branch:

unicameral parliament (18 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms)

elections: last held on 19 June 2010 (next to be held in 2013)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 18

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:

Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]; Nauru First (Naoero Amo) Party;
Nauru Party (informal); note - loose multiparty system

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Woman Information and News Agency (women's issues)

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Marlene I. MOSES

chancery: 800 2nd Avenue, Suite 400 D, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 937-0074
FAX: [1] (212) 937-0079

consulate(s): Agana (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

the US does not have an embassy in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Nauru

Flag description:

blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; blue stands for the Pacific Ocean, the star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru

National anthem:

name: "Nauru Bwiema" (Song of Nauru)

lyrics/music: Margaret HENDRIE/Laurence Henry HICKS

note: adopted 1968

Economy ::Nauru

Economy - overview:

Revenues of this tiny island have traditionally come from exports of phosphates now significantly depleted. An Australian company in 2005 entered into an agreement intended to exploit remaining supplies. Few other resources exist with most necessities being imported, mainly from Australia its former occupier and later major source of support. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems. Reserves of phosphates may only last until 2010 at current mining rates. In anticipation of the exhaustion of Nauru's phosphate deposits, substantial amounts of phosphate income were invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition and provide for Nauru's economic future. As a result of heavy spending from the trust funds, the government faces virtual bankruptcy. To cut costs the government has frozen wages and reduced overstaffed public service departments. Nauru lost further revenue in 2008 with the closure of Australia's refugee processing center, making it almost totally dependent on food imports and foreign aid. Housing, hospitals, and other capital plant is deteriorating. The cost to Australia of keeping the government and economy afloat continues to climb. Few comprehensive statistics on the Nauru economy exist with estimates of Nauru's GDP varying widely.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$60 million (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 221

GDP (official exchange rate):

GDP - real growth rate:

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$5,000 (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 145

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Labor force - by occupation:

note: employed in mining phosphates, public administration, education, and transportation (1992)

Unemployment rate:

90% (2004 est.) country comparison to the world: 199

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

Agriculture - products:



phosphate mining, offshore banking, coconut products

Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - production:

31 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 202

Electricity - consumption:

28.83 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 202

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 143

Oil - consumption:

1,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 197

Oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 160

Oil - imports:

1,026 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 188

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 152

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 158

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 132

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 89

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 149

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 153


$64,000 (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 221

Exports - commodities:



$20 million (2004 est.) country comparison to the world: 217

Imports - commodities:

food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery

Debt - external:

$33.3 million (2004 est.) country comparison to the world: 189

Exchange rates:

Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar - 1.1151 (2010), 1.2822 (2009), 1.2059 (2008), 1.2137 (2007), 1.3285 (2006)

Communications ::Nauru

Telephones - main lines in use:

1,900 (2009) country comparison to the world: 225

Telephones - mobile cellular:

1,500 (2002) country comparison to the world: 216

Telephone system:

general assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities

domestic: NA

international: country code - 674; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media:

1 government-owned television station broadcasting programs from New Zealand sent via satellite or on videotape; 1 government-owned radio station, broadcasting on AM and FM, utilizes Australian and British programs (2009)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

4,158 (2010) country comparison to the world: 140

Transportation ::Nauru


1 (2010) country comparison to the world: 215

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2010)


total: 24 km country comparison to the world: 219 paved: 24 km (2002)

Ports and terminals:


Military ::Nauru

Military branches:

no regular military forces; Nauru Police Force (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 3,682 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,683

females age 16-49: 3,059 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 174

female: 168 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

Military - note:

Nauru maintains no defense forces; under an informal agreement, defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues ::Nauru

Disputes - international:



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