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Mozambique, See : Flags, Maps

Mozambique (Africa)

Introduction ::Mozambique


Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990's. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment.

Geography ::Mozambique


Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South
Africa and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates:
18 15 S, 35 00 E

Map references:



total: 799,380 sq km country comparison to the world: 35 land: 786,380 sq km

water: 13,000 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:

total: 4,571 km

border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km


2,470 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical to subtropical


mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m

Natural resources:

coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite

Land use:

arable land: 5.43%

permanent crops: 0.29%

other: 94.28% (2005)

Irrigated land:

1,180 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

216 cu km (1992)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.63 cu km/yr (11%/2%/87%)

per capita: 32 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces

Environment - current issues:

a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country

People ::Mozambique


22,061,451 country comparison to the world: 52 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2010 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 44.3% (male 4,829,272/female 4,773,209)

15-64 years: 52.8% (male 5,605,227/female 5,842,679)

65 years and over: 2.9% (male 257,119/female 361,772) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 17.5 years

male: 17.1 years

female: 17.9 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.797% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 67

Birth rate:

37.8 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 21

Death rate:

19.83 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 2

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population country comparison to the world: 114


urban population: 37% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 4.1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.017 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 103.82 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 6 male: 106.53 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 101.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 41.37 years country comparison to the world: 222 male: 42.05 years

female: 40.68 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

5.13 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 20

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

12.5% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 8

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

1.5 million (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 5

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

81,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 8

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague

water contact disease: schistosomiasis

animal contact disease: rabies (2009)


noun: Mozambican(s)

adjective: Mozambican

Ethnic groups:

African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%


Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1% (1997 census)


Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 47.8%

male: 63.5%

female: 32.7% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 8 years

male: 9 years

female: 7 years (2005)

Education expenditures:

5% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 70

Government ::Mozambique

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique

conventional short form: Mozambique

local long form: Republica de Mocambique

local short form: Mocambique

former: Portuguese East Africa

Government type:



name: Maputo

geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia


25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 25 June (1975)


30 November 1990

Legal system:

based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Aires Bonifacio ALI (since 16 January 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Armando GUEBUZA reelected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 76.3%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 14.9%, Daviz SIMANGO 8.8%

Legislative branch:

unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 74.7%, RENAMO 17.7%, MDM 3.9%, other 3.7%; seats by party - FRELIMO 191, RENAMO 51, MDM 8

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president, and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, Constitutional Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts

Political parties and leaders:

Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de
Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]; Front for the Liberation of
Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando
Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia
Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos
Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]

International organization participation:

(observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA,

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Amelia Matos SUMBANA

chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Leslie V. ROWE

embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo

mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo

telephone: [258] (21) 492797
FAX: [258] (21) 490114

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism

National anthem:

name: "Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)

lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown

note: adopted 2002

Economy ::Mozambique

Economy - overview:

At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for more than half of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force and smallholder agricultural productivity and productivity growth is weak. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the Mozal aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. At the end of 2007, and after years of negotiations, the government took over Portugal's majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More power is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. In July 2007 the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a Compact with Mozambique; the Compact entered into force in September 2008 and will continue for five years. Compact projects will focus on improving sanitation, roads, agriculture, and the business regulation environment in an effort to spur economic growth in the four northern provinces of the country. Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 9% in the decade up to 2007, one of Africa's strongest performances. However, heavy reliance on aluminum, which accounts for about one-third of exports, subjects the economy to volatile international prices. The sharp decline in aluminum prices during the global economic crisis lowered GDP growth by several percentage points. Despite 8.3% GDP growth in 2010, the increasing cost of living prompted citizens to riot in September 2010, after bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to contain the cost of living, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$22.19 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 122 $20.49 billion (2009 est.)

$19.28 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$10.21 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

8.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 8 6.3% (2009 est.)

6.8% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$1,000 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 218 $900 (2009 est.)

$900 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 28.8%

industry: 26%

services: 45.2% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

9.87 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 50

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 81%

industry: 6%

services: 13% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:

21% (1997 est.) country comparison to the world: 169

Population below poverty line:

70% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.1%

highest 10%: 39.2% (2003)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

47.3 (2002) country comparison to the world: 33 39.6 (1997)

Investment (gross fixed):

17.2% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 118

Public debt:

40.8% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 67 33.4% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

13.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 217 3.3% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

9.95% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 48 9.95% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

15.68% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 25 18.31% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$2.657 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 114 $2.812 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$3.803 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 128 $4.074 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$2.74 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 122 $2.311 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Agriculture - products:

cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry


food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate:

8% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 31

Electricity - production:

15.91 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 78

Electricity - consumption:

10.16 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 86

Electricity - exports:

11.82 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - imports:

8.278 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 145

Oil - consumption:

18,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 130

Oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 162

Oil - imports:

13,760 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 131

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 154

Natural gas - production:

3.3 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 52

Natural gas - consumption:

100 million cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 101

Natural gas - exports:

3.2 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 32

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 151

Natural gas - proved reserves:

127.4 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 50

Current account balance:

-$1.028 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 136 -$866 million (2009 est.)


$2.517 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 126 $1.947 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity

Exports - partners:

Netherlands 47.62%, South Africa 11.6% (2009)


$3.527 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 135 $3.059 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners:

South Africa 33.54%, Netherlands 8.42%, India 5.93%, China 4.24% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$1.982 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 99 $1.829 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$4.99 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 107 $4.246 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

meticais (MZM) per US dollar - 35 (2010), 26.283 (2009), 24.125 (2008), 26.264 (2007), 25.4 (2006)

Communications ::Mozambique

Telephones - main lines in use:

82,400 (2009) country comparison to the world: 147

Telephones - mobile cellular:

5.971 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 87

Telephone system:

general assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges

domestic: stagnation in the fixed-line network contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the South African and Swaziland borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala; extremely low fixed-line teledensity; despite significant growth in mobile-cellular services, teledensity remains low at about 25 per 100 persons

international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean); landing point for the SEACOM fiber-optic cable

Broadcast media:

1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately-owned and community-operated stations also broadcast; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

21,172 (2010) country comparison to the world: 109

Internet users:

613,600 (2009) country comparison to the world: 113

Transportation ::Mozambique


106 (2010) country comparison to the world: 54

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 23

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 5 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 83

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 34

under 914 m: 39 (2010)


gas 918 km; refined products 278 km (2009)


total: 4,787 km country comparison to the world: 37 narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)


total: 30,400 km country comparison to the world: 97 paved: 5,685 km

unpaved: 24,715 km (2000)


460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010) country comparison to the world: 87

Merchant marine:

total: 2 country comparison to the world: 145 by type: cargo 2

foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Beira, Maputo, Nacala

Military ::Mozambique

Military branches:

Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique
Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de
Mocambique, FAM) (2008)

Military service age and obligation:

registration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 4,787,832 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,448,161

females age 16-49: 2,269,562 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 272,922

female: 272,062 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

0.8% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 149

Transnational Issues ::Mozambique

Disputes - international:


Illicit drugs:

southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center


Hellenica World