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Montenegro, See : Flags, Maps

The Land of the Black Mountain, Gerald Prance and Reginald Wyon

Montenegro (Europe)

Introduction ::Montenegro


The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries Montenegro was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.

Geography ::Montenegro


Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia

Geographic coordinates:
42 30 N, 19 18 E

Map references:



total: 13,812 sq km country comparison to the world: 161 land: 13,452 sq km

water: 360 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:

total: 625 km

border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Kosovo 79 km, Serbia 124 km


293.5 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: defined by treaty


Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland


highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m

Natural resources:

bauxite, hydroelectricity

Land use:

arable land: 13.7%

permanent crops: 1%

other: 85.3%

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:

pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

strategic location along the Adriatic coast

People ::Montenegro


666,730 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 165

Age structure:

0-14 years: 16% (male 52,645/female 54,846)

15-64 years: 70.3% (male 244,949/female 227,794)

65 years and over: 13.7% (male 37,217/female 54,729) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 37.2 years

male: 35.9 years

female: 38.8 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.777% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 229

Birth rate:

11.09 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 176

Death rate:

8.76 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 78


urban population: 60% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: -0.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.074 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne disease: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (2009)


noun: Montenegrin(s)

adjective: Montenegrin

Ethnic groups:

Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other
(Muslims, Croats, Roma (Gypsy)) 12% (2003 census)


Orthodox 74.2%, Muslim 17.7%, Catholic 3.5%, other 0.6%, unspecified 3%, atheist 1% (2003 census)


Serbian 63.6%, Montenegrin (official) 22%, Bosnian 5.5%, Albanian 5.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2003 census)

Education expenditures:

Government ::Montenegro

Country name:

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Montenegro

local long form: none

local short form: Crna Gora

former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro

Government type:



name: Podgorica

geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

21 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar,
Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi,
Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine,
Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak


3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)

National holiday:

National Day, 13 July (1878)


approved 19 October 2007 (by the Assembly)

Legal system:

based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)

head of government: Prime Minister Igor LUKSIC (since 29 December 2010)

cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 April 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly

election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.9%, Andrija MANDIC 19.6%, Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC 16.6%, Srdan MILIC 11.9%

Legislative branch:

unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms; note - seats increased from 74 seats in 2006)

elections: last held on 29 March 2009 (next to be held in 2013)

election results: percent of vote by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 51.94%, SNP 16.83%, NOVA 9.22%, PZP 6.03%, other (including Albanian minority parties) 15.98%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 48, SNP 16, NOVA 8, PZP 5, Albanian minority parties 4

Judicial branch:

Constitutional Court (five judges serve nine-year terms); Supreme
Court (judges have life tenure)

Political parties and leaders:

Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Coalition for European
Montenegro (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of
Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC], Social Democratic Party or SDP
[Ranko KRIVOKAPIC], Bosniak Party of BS [Rafet HUSOVIC], and
Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC); Coalition
SNP-NS-DSS (bloc) (includes Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan
MILIC], People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC], and
Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]);
Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity or SPP [Mehmet
BARDHIJ]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Ferhat DINOSHA]; For
a Different Montenegro (bloc) [Goran BATRICEVIC] (includes
Democratic Center or DC [Goran BATRICEVIC] and Liberal Party of
Montenegro or LP [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC]); FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]; Movement
for Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; National Coalition (includes
People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC] and Democratic
Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]); New Serb
Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]; Socialist People's Party of
Montenegro or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]

International organization participation:

(correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (observer), OPCW, OSCE,
WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Srdjan DARMANOVIC

chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Benjamin LOWENTHAL

embassy: Ljubljanska bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [382] 81 225 417
FAX: [382] 81 241 358

Flag description:

a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is symbol of episcopal authority and harks back to the three and a half centuries that Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy

National anthem:

name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)

lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC

note: adopted 2004; the anthem's music is based on a Montenegrin folk song

Economy ::Montenegro

Economy - overview:

Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and maintained its own central bank, adopted the Deutchmark, then the euro - rather than the Yugoslav dinar - as official currency, collected customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro is pursuing its own membership in the World Trade Organization and signed a Stabilization and Association agreement with the European Union in October 2007. The European Council granted candidate country status to Montenegro at the December 2010 session. Unemployment and regional disparities in development are key political and economic problems. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector. The global financial crisis has had a significant negative impact on the economy, due to the ongoing credit crunch, a decline in the real estate sector, and a fall in aluminum exports.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$6.569 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 153 $6.689 billion (2009 est.)

$7.093 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$3.884 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

-1.8% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 204 -5.7% (2009 est.)

6.9% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$9,900 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 110 $10,000 (2009 est.)

$10,500 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Labor force:

259,100 (2004) country comparison to the world: 166

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 2%

industry: 30%

services: 68% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:

14.7% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 147

Population below poverty line:

7% (2007 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

30 (2003) country comparison to the world: 113

Investment (gross fixed):

30.5% of GDP (2006 est.) country comparison to the world: 16

Public debt:

38% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 79

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

3.4% (2007) country comparison to the world: 101

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

9.36% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 100 9.24% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$816.8 million (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 143 $1.172 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of broad money:

$1.406 billion (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 149 $1.446 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit:

$3.29 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 116 $3.771 billion (31 December 2008)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$4.289 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 89 $2.863 billion (31 December 2008)

$3.699 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep


steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism

Electricity - production:

2.864 billion kWh (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 126

Electricity - consumption:

18.6 million kWh (2005) country comparison to the world: 206

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2005)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2005)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 147

Oil - consumption:

5,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 168

Oil - exports:

314 bbl/day (2005) country comparison to the world: 128

Oil - imports:

6,093 bbl/day (2005) country comparison to the world: 152

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 156

Natural gas - consumption:

NA cu m

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 143

Current account balance:

-$1.102 billion (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 140


$171.3 million (2003) country comparison to the world: 182

Exports - partners:

Italy 29.52%, Greece 22.65%, Slovenia 11.83%, Hungary 8.96%, US 7.93% (2009)


$601.7 million (2003) country comparison to the world: 184

Imports - partners:

Italy 17.54%, Slovenia 14.62%, Germany 10.5%, Austria 7.82%, China 7.82%, Russia 4.4%, Hungary 4.11%, Greece 4.11%, Netherlands 3.96% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

Debt - external:

$650 million (2006) country comparison to the world: 156

Exchange rates:

euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7715 (2010), 0.7179 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006)

Communications ::Montenegro

Telephones - main lines in use:

366,600 (2009) country comparison to the world: 106

Telephones - mobile cellular:

752,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 151

Telephone system:

general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites

domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing

international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system

Broadcast media:

state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial television networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; roughly a dozen privately-owned TV broadcasters operate networks nationally, regionally, and locally; in addition to the 2 state-owned national radio networks, roughly 50 privately-owned radio stations and networks broadcast (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

6,247 (2010) country comparison to the world: 137

Internet users:

280,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 133

Transportation ::Montenegro


5 (2010) country comparison to the world: 182

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)


1 (2010)


total: 250 km country comparison to the world: 125 standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 169 km) (2007)


total: 7,404 km country comparison to the world: 146 paved: 4,927 km

unpaved: 2,477 km (2008)

Merchant marine:

total: 2 country comparison to the world: 144 by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1

registered in other countries: 5 (Bahamas 2, Honduras 2, Slovakia 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:


Military ::Montenegro

Military branches:

Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army, Navy, Air Force (2009)

Military service age and obligation:

compulsory national military service abolished August 2006

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 151,798

females age 16-49: 134,267 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 3,407

female: 3,741 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues ::Montenegro

Disputes - international:


Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 7,000 (Kosovo); note - mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999

IDPs: 16,192 (ethnic conflict in 1999 and riots in 2004) (2007)


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