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Monaco, See : Flags, Maps

Monaco (Europe)

Introduction ::Monaco


The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling Grimaldi family first seized temporary control in 1297, and again in 1331, but were not able to permanently secure their holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.

Geography ::Monaco

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Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates:
43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map references:



total: 2 sq km country comparison to the world: 249 land: 2 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Monaco 摩納哥

Area - comparative:

about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:

total: 4.4 km

border countries: France 4.4 km


4.1 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 12 nm


Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

IT-168912 001


hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources:


Land use:

arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100% (urban area) (2005)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban

People ::Monaco


30,586 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 213

Age structure:

0-14 years: 14.6% (male 2,466/female 2,349)

15-64 years: 62.4% (male 10,184/female 10,395)

65 years and over: 23% (male 3,068/female 4,503) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 48.9 years

male: 48 years

female: 49.9 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.183% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 214

Birth rate:

7.03 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 223

Death rate:

8.01 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 105

Net migration rate:

-0.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 152


urban population: 100% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.048 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 1.78 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 223 male: 2.03 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 89.78 years country comparison to the world: 1 male: 85.81 years

female: 93.9 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.5 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 187

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:


noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)

adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups:

French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%


Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%


French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)

Education expenditures:

4.4% of GDP (2004) country comparison to the world: 97

Government ::Monaco

Country name:

conventional long form: Principality of Monaco

conventional short form: Monaco

local long form: Principaute de Monaco

local short form: Monaco

Government type:

constitutional monarchy


name: Monaco

geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo


1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National holiday:

National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)


17 December 1962; modified 2 April 2002

Legal system:

based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)

head of government: Minister of State Michel ROGER (since 29 March 2010)

cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system, 8 by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 3 February 2008 (next to be held in February 2013)

election results: percent of vote by party - UPM 52.2%, REM 40.5%, Monaco Together 7.3%; seats by party - UPM 21, REM 3

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)

Political parties and leaders:

Monaco Together; Rally and Issues for Monaco or REM; Union for
Monaco or UPM (including National Union for the Future of Monaco or

Political pressure groups and leaders:

International organization participation:

IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen
Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Gilles NOGHES

chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Suite 2K-100, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: (202) 234-1530
FAX: (202) 244-7656

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US ambassador to France, handles routine diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco

Flag description:

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world's oldest national banners

note: similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

National anthem:

name: "A Marcia de Muneghu" (The March of Monaco)

lyrics/music: Louis NOTARI/Charles ALBRECHT

note: music adopted 1867, lyrics adopted 1931; although French is much more commonly spoken, only the Monegasque lyrics are official; the French version is known as "Hymne Monegasque" (Monegasque Anthem); the words are generally only sung on official occasions

Economy ::Monaco

Economy - overview:

Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a major banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. Monaco, however, is not a tax-free shelter; it charges nearly 20% value-added tax, collects stamp duties, and companies face a 33% tax on profits unless they can show that three-quarters of profits are generated within the principality. Monaco was formally removed from the OECD's "grey list" of uncooperative tax jurisdictions in late 2009, but continues to face international pressure to abandon its banking secrecy laws and help combat tax evasion. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$976.3 million (2006 est.) country comparison to the world: 201 note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

GDP - real growth rate:

NA% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$30,000 (2006 est.) country comparison to the world: 46

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 0%

industry: 4.9%

services: 95.1% (2005)

Labor force:

44,000 country comparison to the world: 191 note: includes workers from all foreign countries (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:

0% (2005) country comparison to the world: 1

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.9% (2000) country comparison to the world: 54

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Agriculture - products:



tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - consumption:

NA kWh

Electricity - imports:

NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by France


$716.3 million (2005) country comparison to the world: 161 note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France


$916.1 million (2005) country comparison to the world: 172

note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Debt - external:

$18 billion (2000 est.) country comparison to the world: 74

Exchange rates:

euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7715 (2010), 0.7179 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006)

Communications ::Monaco

Telephones - main lines in use:

35,400 (2009) country comparison to the world: 173

Telephones - mobile cellular:

23,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 208

Telephone system:

general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 100%

international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system

Broadcast media:

TV Monte-Carlo (TMC) operates a TV network; Radio Monte-Carlo has both an Italian-language and a French-language network; a few private radio stations operating (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

23,621 (2010) country comparison to the world: 104

Internet users:

23,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 189

Transportation ::Monaco


1 (2010)


total: 50 km country comparison to the world: 217 paved: 50 km (2007)

Merchant marine:

registered in other countries: 68 (Bahamas 14, Bermuda 2, Comoros 1, Cyprus 1, Liberia 10, Marshall Islands 21, Norway 1, Panama 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Vanuatu 1) (2010) country comparison to the world: 62

Ports and terminals:


Military ::Monaco

Military branches:

no regular military forces; the Palace Guard performs ceremonial duties

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 5,814 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 4,680

females age 16-49: 4,691 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 147

female: 133 (2010 est.)

Military - note:

defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues ::Monaco

Disputes - international:



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