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Moldova, See : Flags, Maps

Moldova (Europe)

Introduction ::Moldova

Part of Romania during the interwar period, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although the country has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist, Vladimir VORONIN, as its president in 2001. VORONIN served as Moldova's president until he resigned in September 2009, following the opposition's gain of a narrow majority in July parliamentary elections and the Communist Party's (PCRM) subsequent inability to attract the three-fifths of parliamentary votes required to elect a president. Moldova's four opposition parties formed a new coalition, the Alliance for European Integration (AEI), which acted as Moldova's governing coalition until parliamentary elections were held in November 2010 and a new governing coalition could be formed. Moldova experienced significant political uncertainty in 2009 and 2010, holding three general elections (in April 2009, July 2009, and November 2010) and four presidential ballots in parliament, all of which failed to secure a president.

Geography ::Moldova


Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates:
47 00 N, 29 00 E

Map references:



total: 33,851 sq km country comparison to the world: 139 land: 32,891 sq km

water: 960 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries:

total: 1,390 km

border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 940 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)


moderate winters, warm summers


rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Dniester (Nistru) 2 m

highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m

Natural resources:

lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone

Land use:

arable land: 54.52%

permanent crops: 8.81%

other: 36.67% (2005)

Irrigated land:

3,000 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

11.7 cu km (1997)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 2.31 cu km/yr (10%/58%/33%)

per capita: 549 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:


Environment - current issues:

heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone

People ::Moldova


4,317,483 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 124

Age structure:

0-14 years: 15.9% (male 353,495/female 334,592)

15-64 years: 73.3% (male 1,536,263/female 1,629,882)

65 years and over: 10.8% (male 172,070/female 294,446) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 35 years

male: 33.1 years

female: 37.1 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.072% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 206

Birth rate:

11.16 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 174

Death rate:

10.76 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44

Net migration rate:

-1.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 159


urban population: 42% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: -1.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.059 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 12.77 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 135 male: 14.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 11.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 71.09 years country comparison to the world: 133 male: 67.39 years

female: 75 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.28 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 211

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.4% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 81

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

8,900 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 109

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 100 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 135


noun: Moldovan(s)

adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups:

Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%,
Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)

note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region


Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)


Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language),
Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.1%

male: 99.7%

female: 98.6% (2005 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 13 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

8.2% of GDP (2008) country comparison to the world: 9

Government ::Moldova

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Moldova

conventional short form: Moldova

local long form: Republica Moldova

local short form: Moldova

former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:



name: Chisinau (Kishinev)

note: pronounced KEE-shee-now

geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiu), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)

raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir,
Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari,
Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova,
Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti,
Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni

municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau

autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia

territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)


27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 27 August (1991)


adopted 29 July 1994; effective 27 August 1994; note - replaced 1979 Soviet constitution

Legal system:

based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Acting President Marian LUPU (since 30 December 2010)

note: Vladimir VORONIN, president since 4 April 2001, resigned on 11 September 2009; Marian LUPU, the Speaker of Parliament, is serving as acting president until new elections can be held

head of government: Prime Minister Vladimir FILAT (since 25 September 2009)

note: Vladimir Filat resigned on 27 December 2010, but was reappointed on 31 December 2010

cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); last successful election held on 4 April 2005, most recent (failed) election held on 10 December 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister (re)designated on 31 December 2010; cabinet received a vote of confidence on 14 January 2011

election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president (2005); parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Vladimir FILAT (re)designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 59 of 101

Legislative branch:

unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; members elected on an at-large basis by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 28 November 2010 (next to be held in 2014); note - this was the third parliamentary election in less than two years; the earlier parliaments (elected 5 April 2009 and 29 July 2009) could not agree on a presidential candidate

election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 39.3%, PLDM 29.4%, PD 12.7%, PL 10%, other 8.6%; seats by party - PCRM 42, PLDM 32, PD 15, PL 12; note - the PLDM, PD, and PL governing coalition, termed the Alliance for European Integration, has 59 seats; it remains 2 votes short of the 61 needed to elect a new president

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)

Political parties and leaders:

represented in Parliament: Communist Party of the Republic of
Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]; Democratic Party or PD [Mihai
LUPU]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Vladmir FILAT]; Liberal
Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU]

not represented in Parliament: Christian Democratic People's Party
or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA];
Ecological Party of Moldova "Green Alliance" or PEMAVE [Vladimir
BRAGA]; European Action Movement or MAE [Veaceslav UNTILA]; For
Nation and Country Party or PpNT [Sergiu MOCANU]; Humanist Party of
Moldova or PUM [Valeriu PASAT]; Labor Party or PM [Gheorghe SIMA];
National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]; Our Moldova
Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEAN]; Patriots of Moldova Party or PPM
[Mihail GARBUZ]; Popular Republican Party or PPR [Nicolae ANDRONIC];
Republican Party of Moldova or PRM [Andrei STRATAN]; Roma Social
Political Movement of the Republic of Moldova or MRRM [Ion BUCUR];
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor SELIN]; Social Political
Movement "Equality" or MR [Valeriy KLIMENCO]; United Moldova Party
or PMUEM [Vladimir TURCAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

International organization participation:

Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OIF, OPCW,

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Igor MUNTEANU

chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Asif J. CHAUDHRY

embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044

Flag description:

three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow; based on the color scheme of the flag of Romania - with whom Moldova shares a history and culture - but Moldova's blue band is lighter; the reverse of the flag does not display any coat of arms

note: one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Paraguay and Saudi Arabia

National anthem:

name: "Limba noastra" (Our Tongue)

lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA

note: adopted 1994

Economy ::Moldova

Economy - overview:

Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy was underscored at the end of 2005, when a Russian-owned electrical station in Moldova's separatist Transnistria region cut off power to Moldova and Russia's Gazprom cut off natural gas in disputes over pricing. In January 2009, gas supplies were cut during a dispute between Russia and Ukraine. Russia's decision to ban Moldovan wine and agricultural products, coupled with its decision to double the price Moldova paid for Russian natural gas, have hurt growth. The onset of the global financial crisis and poor economic conditions in Moldova's main foreign markets, caused GDP to fall 6.5% in 2009. Unemployment almost doubled and inflation disappeared - at -0.1%, a record low. Moldova's IMF agreement expired in May 2009. In fall 2009, the IMF allocated $186 million to Moldova to cover its immediate budgetary needs, and the government signed an new agreement with the IMF in January 2010 for a program worth $574 million. In 2010, an upturn in the world economy boosted GDP growth to 3.1% and inflation to 7.3%. Economic reforms have been slow because of corruption and strong political forces backing government controls. Nevertheless, the government's primary goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. The granting of EU trade preferences and increased exports to Russia will encourage higher growth rates, but the agreements are unlikely to serve as a panacea, given the extent to which export success depends on higher quality standards and other factors. The economy has made a modest recovery, but remains vulnerable to political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors as well as the presence of an illegal separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$10.6 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 147 $10.28 billion (2009 est.)

$10.99 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$5.357 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

3.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 115 -6.5% (2009 est.)

7.8% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$2,500 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 178 $2,400 (2009 est.)

$2,500 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 16.3%

industry: 20.1%

services: 63.6% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

1.203 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 138

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 40.6%

industry: 16%

services: 43.3% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:

3.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 26 3.1% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

29.5% (2005)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 28.2% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

33.2 (2003) country comparison to the world: 95 40.6 (1997)

Investment (gross fixed):

21.7% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 69

Public debt:

25% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 99 25.7% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

7.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 184 -0.1% (2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

20.54% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 15 21.06% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$1.221 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 134 $1.189 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$2.889 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 133 $2.942 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$2.11 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 124 $2.251 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$NA (2004) country comparison to the world: 103 $573.9 million (2004)

Agriculture - products:

vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets,sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk; wine


sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:

4.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 75

Electricity - production:

3.617 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 120

Electricity - consumption:

4.37 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 114

Electricity - exports:

240 million kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - imports:

2.931 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 148

Oil - consumption:

19,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 128

Oil - exports:

36 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 135

Oil - imports:

14,230 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 128

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 157

Natural gas - production:

50 million cu m (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 82

Natural gas - consumption:

2.52 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 77

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 94

Natural gas - imports:

2.52 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 44

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 145

Current account balance:

-$565 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 119 -$464.6 million (2009 est.)


$1.45 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 138 $1.332 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

foodstuffs, textiles, machinery

Exports - partners:

Russia 23.77%, Italy 14.11%, Romania 12.74%, Germany 6.92%, Turkey 6.08%, Belarus 5.38% (2009)


$3.66 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 132 $3.276 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles

Imports - partners:

Ukraine 19.9%, Romania 15.1%, Russia 14.52%, Germany 8.69%, Italy 5.7%, Belarus 4.38% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$1.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 104 $1.48 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$4.146 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 115 $3.844 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$NA (31 December 2010)

$1.813 billion (2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Exchange rates:

Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar - 12.443 (2010), 11.11 (2009), 10.326 (2008), 12.177 (2007), 13.131 (2006)

Communications ::Moldova

Telephones - main lines in use:

1.139 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 72

Telephones - mobile cellular:

2.785 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 116

Telephone system:

general assessment: poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way

domestic: depending on location, new subscribers may face long wait for service; multiple private operators of GSM mobile-cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations in 2007; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 90 per 100 persons

international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2009)

Broadcast media:

state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 television and 2 radio stations; a total of nearly 40 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

492,181 (2010) country comparison to the world: 50

Internet users:

1.333 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 89

Transportation ::Moldova


11 (2010) country comparison to the world: 154

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 5

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2010)


gas 1,906 km (2009)


total: 1,138 km country comparison to the world: 88 broad gauge: 1,124 km 1.520-m gauge

standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)


total: 9,343 km country comparison to the world: 137 paved: 8,810 km

unpaved: 533 km (2008)


558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut rivers) (2008) country comparison to the world: 83

Merchant marine:

total: 107 country comparison to the world: 48 by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 89, chemical tanker 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 6

foreign-owned: 63 (Belgium 2, Egypt 5, Greece 4, Israel 4, Lebanon 1, Romania 2, Russia 5, Syria 3, Turkey 18, UK 6, Ukraine 12, Yemen 1) (2010)

Military ::Moldova

Military branches:

National Army: Land Forces Command (includes special forces), Air
Forces Command (includes air defense unit), Logistics Command (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for compulsory military service; 17 years of age for voluntary service; male registration required at age 16; 12-month service obligation (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,150,585

females age 16-49: 1,168,169 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 877,031

females age 16-49: 979,128 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 30,012

female: 28,450 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

0.4% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 168

Transnational Issues ::Moldova

Disputes - international:

Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under OSCE supervision

Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Moldova is a major source and, to a lesser extent, a transit country for women and girls trafficked for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; Moldovan women are trafficked to the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Western Europe; girls and young women are trafficked within the country from rural areas to Chisinau; children are also trafficked to neighboring countries for forced labor and begging; labor trafficking of men to work in the construction, agriculture, and service sectors of Russia is increasingly a problem; according to an ILO report, Moldova's national Bureau of Statistics estimated that there were likely over 25,000 Moldovan victims of trafficking for forced labor in 2008

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - The Government of Moldova does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; despite initial efforts to combat trafficking-related complicity since the government's reassessment on the Tier 2 Watch List in September 2008, and increased victim assistance, the government did not demonstrate sufficiently meaningful efforts to curb trafficking-related corruption, which is a government-acknowledged problem in Moldova; the government improved victim protection efforts, deployed more law-enforcement officers in the effort and contributed direct financial assistance toward victim protection and assistance for the first time (2010)

Illicit drugs:

limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity


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