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Lithuania, See : Flags, Maps

Lithuania (Europe)

Introduction ::Lithuania

Background:

Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.

Geography ::Lithuania

Location:

Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates:
56 00 N, 24 00 E

Map references:

Europe

Area:

total: 65,300 sq km country comparison to the world: 122 land: 62,680 sq km

water: 2,620 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:

total: 1,574 km

border countries: Belarus 680 km, Latvia 576 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline:

90 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate:

transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Terrain:

lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Aukstojas 294 m

Natural resources:

peat, arable land, amber

Land use:

arable land: 44.81%

permanent crops: 0.9%

other: 54.29% (2005)

Irrigated land:

70 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

24.5 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 3.33 cu km/yr (78%/15%/7%)

per capita: 971 cu m/yr (2003)

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:

contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits

People ::Lithuania

Population:

3,545,319 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 130

Age structure:

0-14 years: 14.2% (male 258,423/female 245,115)

15-64 years: 69.6% (male 1,214,743/female 1,261,413)

65 years and over: 16.2% (male 198,714/female 376,771) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 39.7 years

male: 37.1 years

female: 42.3 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.276% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 217

Birth rate:

9.21 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 207

Death rate:

11.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 39

Net migration rate:

-0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 150

Urbanization:

urban population: 67% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: -0.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.057 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female

total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 6.37 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 173 male: 7.61 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.12 years country comparison to the world: 87 male: 70.23 years

female: 80.29 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.24 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 218

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 118

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

2,200 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 138

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 200 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 108

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2009)

Nationality:

noun: Lithuanian(s)

adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups:

Lithuanian 84%, Polish 6.1%, Russian 4.9%, Belarusian 1.1%, other or unspecified 3.9% (2009)

Religions:

Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)

Languages:

Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.6%

male: 99.6%

female: 99.6% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 17 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

4.7% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 85

Government ::Lithuania

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania

conventional short form: Lithuania

local long form: Lietuvos Respublika

local short form: Lietuva

former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:

parliamentary democracy

Capital:

name: Vilnius

geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus

Independence:

11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:

adopted 25 October 1992; last amended 13 July 2004

Legal system:

based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (since 12 July 2009)

head of government: Prime Minister Andrius KUBILIUS (since 27 November 2008)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament

election results: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE elected president; percent of vote - Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE 69.1%, Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS 11.8%, Valentinas MAZURONIS 6.2%, others 12.9%; Andrius KUBILIUS' government approved by Parliament 83-40 with 5 abstentions

Legislative branch:

unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members elected by popular vote, 70 elected by proportional representation; members to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 12 and 26 October 2008 (next to be held in October 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - TS-LKD 19.7%, TPP 15.1%, TT 12.7%, LSDP 11.7%, KDP+J 9%, LRLS 5.7%, LCS 5.3%, LLRA 4.8%, LVLS 3.7%, NS 3.6%, other 8.7%; seats by faction - TS-LKD 44, LSDP 26, TPP 16, TT 15, LRLS 11, KDP+J 10, LCS 8, LLRA 3, LVLS 3, NS 1, independent 4; note - seats by faction as of 15 March 2010 - TS-LKD 46, LSDP 25, TT 18, Christian Party 12, LS 11, DP 10, LCS 7, TPP 7, unaffiliated 5; note - TS-LKD, LS, LCS, and TPP form the ruling coalition

Judicial branch:

Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders:

Christian party [Gediminas VAGNORIUS]; Civil Democracy Party or PDP
[Algimantas MATULEVICIUS]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or
LLRA [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; Homeland Union - Lithuanian Christian
Democrats or TS-LKD [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Labor Party or DP [Viktor
USPASKICH]; Liberal and Center Union or LCS [Gintautas BABRAVICIUS];
Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS [Eligijus MASIULIS]; Lithuanian
Farmers' Union or LVLS or VLS [ Ramunas KARBAUSKIS]; Lithuanian
People's Party (not yet officially established) [Kazimiera
PRUNSKIENE]; National Revival or TPP [Arunas VALINSKAS]; New Union
(Social Liberal) or NS [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Order and Justice Party
or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Algirdas
BUTKEVICIUS]

International organization participation:

Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS
(observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Zygimantas PAVILIONIS

chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466

consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Anne E. DERSE

embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106

mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106

telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red; yellow symbolizes golden fields, as well as the sun, light, and goodness; green represents the forests of the countryside, in addition to nature, freedom, and hope; red stands for courage and the blood spilled in defense of the homeland

National anthem:

name: "Tautiska giesme" (The National Song)

lyrics/music: Vincas KUDIRKA

note: adopted 1918, restored 1990; the anthem was written in 1898 while Lithuania was a part of Russia; it was banned during the Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1990

Economy ::Lithuania

Economy - overview:

Lithuania gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Despite Lithuania's EU accession, Lithuania's trade with its Central and Eastern European neighbors, and Russia in particular, accounts for a growing percentage of total trade. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities is nearly complete. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy. Lithuania's economy grew on average 8% per year for the four years prior to 2008 driven by exports and domestic demand. However, GDP plunged nearly 15% in 2009 - during the 2008-09 crisis the three former Soviet Baltic republics had the world's worst economic declines. In 2009, the government launched a high-profile campaign, led by Prime Minister KUBILIUS, to attract foreign investment and to develop export markets. The current account deficit, which had risen to roughly 15% of GDP in 2007-08, recovered to a surplus of 4% 2009 and 3.5% in 2010 in the wake of a cutback in imports to almost half the 2008 level. Nevertheless, economic growth was flat and unemployment continued upward to 16% in 2010.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$56.22 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 89 $55.99 billion (2009 est.)

$65.72 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$35.73 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

0.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 188 -14.8% (2009 est.)

2.8% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$15,900 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 70 $15,700 (2009 est.)

$18,400 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 4.3%

industry: 27.6%

services: 68.2% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

1.633 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 128

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 14%

industry: 29.1%

services: 56.9% (2005)

Unemployment rate:

16% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 154 13.7% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

4% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 27.4% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

36 (2005) country comparison to the world: 85 34 (1999)

Investment (gross fixed):

15.2% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 128

Public debt:

36.7% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 81 29.5% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

0.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 19 4.5% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

1.75% (February 2010) country comparison to the world: 105 4.73% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

8.39% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 113 8.41% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$8.917 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 73 $8.896 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$17.26 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 86 $17.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$25.35 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 73 $25.85 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$4.477 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 84 $3.625 billion (31 December 2008)

$10.13 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish

Industries:

metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry

Industrial production growth rate:

2.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 121

Electricity - production:

12.09 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 86

Electricity - consumption:

9.612 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 89

Electricity - exports:

6.606 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

5.649 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

6,333 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 90

Oil - consumption:

74,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 89

Oil - exports:

137,200 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 59

Oil - imports:

204,000 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 44

Oil - proved reserves:

12 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 88

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 163

Natural gas - consumption:

3.53 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 67

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 160

Natural gas - imports:

3.53 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 37

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 166

Current account balance:

$1.231 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 43 $1.492 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

$19.29 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 70 $16.48 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

mineral products 22%, machinery and equipment 10%, chemicals 9%, textiles 7%, foodstuffs 7%, plastics 7%

Exports - partners:

Russia 13.2%, Latvia 10%, Germany 9.6%, Poland 7.1%, Estonia 7.1%,
Belarus 4.7%, UK 4.3% (2009)

Imports:

$20.34 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 71 $17.56 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

mineral products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals

Imports - partners:

Russia 30.1%, Germany 11.1%, Poland 9.9%, Latvia 6.3% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$6.418 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 61 $6.66 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$27.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66 $28.69 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$14.11 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 75 $13.81 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$2.507 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 64 $2.307 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

litai (LTL) per US dollar - 2.6637 (2010), 2.4787 (2009), 2.3251 (2008), 2.5362 (2007), 2.7498 (2006)

Communications ::Lithuania

Telephones - main lines in use:

747,400 (2009) country comparison to the world: 89

Telephones - mobile cellular:

4.962 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 96

Telephone system:

general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access

domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 140 per 100 persons

international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2008)

Broadcast media:

public broadcaster operates 3 channels with the third channel - a satellite channel - introduced in 2007; various privately-owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels; large number of privately-owned local TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available; publicly-owned broadcaster operates 3 radio networks; large number of privately-owned commercial broadcasters, many with repeater stations in various regions throughout the country (2007)

Internet country code:

.lt

Internet hosts:

1.17 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 40

Internet users:

1.964 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 75

Transportation ::Lithuania

Airports:

81 (2010) country comparison to the world: 69

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 26

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 13 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 55

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 51 (2010)

Pipelines:

gas 1,695 km; refined products 114 km (2009)

Railways:

total: 1,768 km country comparison to the world: 78 broad gauge: 1,746 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)

standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2009)

Roadways:

total: 81,030 km country comparison to the world: 58 paved: 71,563 km (includes 309 km of expressways)

unpaved: 9,467 km (2008)

Waterways:

441 km (navigable year round) (2007) country comparison to the world: 88

Merchant marine:

total: 42 country comparison to the world: 75 by type: cargo 22, container 1, passenger/cargo 6, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 2

foreign-owned: 8 (Denmark 8)

registered in other countries: 29 (Antigua and Barbuda 4, Belize 2, Comoros 3, Cook Islands 2, Norway 1, Panama 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 10, unknown 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Butinge, Klaipeda

Military ::Lithuania

Military branches:

Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos, KOP),
National Defense Volunteer Forces (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

19-26 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for volunteers; 12-month conscript service obligation; male registration required at age 16 (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 900,746

females age 16-49: 887,843 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 674,265

females age 16-49: 734,806 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 21,606

female: 20,536 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.2% of GDP (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 125

Transnational Issues ::Lithuania

Disputes - international:

Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation

Illicit drugs:

transshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation

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