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Kiribati, See : Flags, Maps

World

Kiribati (Australia-Oceania)
Introduction ::Kiribati
Background:
The Gilbert Islands became a British protectorate in 1892 and a colony in 1915; they were captured by the Japanese in the Pacific War in 1941. The islands of Makin and Tarawa were the sites of major US amphibious victories over entrenched Japanese garrisons in 1943. The Gilbert Islands were granted self-rule by the UK in 1971 and complete independence in 1979 under the new name of Kiribati. The US relinquished all claims to the sparsely inhabited Phoenix and Line Island groups in a 1979 treaty of friendship with Kiribati.
Geography ::Kiribati
Location:
Oceania, group of 33 coral atolls in the Pacific Ocean, straddling the Equator; the capital Tarawa is about half way between Hawaii and Australia; note - on 1 January 1995, Kiribati proclaimed that all of its territory was in the same time zone as its Gilbert Islands group (UTC +12) even though the Phoenix Islands and the Line Islands under its jurisdiction were on the other side of the International Date Line
Geographic coordinates:
1 25 N, 173 00 E
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total: 811 sq km country comparison to the world: 186 land: 811 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands
Area - comparative:
four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,143 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation on Banaba 81 m
Natural resources:
phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)
Land use:
arable land: 2.74%
permanent crops: 47.95%
other: 49.31% (2005)
Irrigated land:
NA
Natural hazards:
typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; occasional tornadoes; low level of some of the islands make them sensitive to changes in sea level
Environment - current issues:
heavy pollution in lagoon of south Tarawa atoll due to heavy migration mixed with traditional practices such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
21 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia, and Nauru
People ::Kiribati
Population:
99,482 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 194
Age structure:
0-14 years: 37.6% (male 21,488/female 20,899)
15-64 years: 59% (male 32,871/female 33,690)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 1,656/female 2,246) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 22.2 years
male: 21.4 years
female: 23 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.271% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 98
Birth rate:
23.06 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 72
Death rate:
7.48 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 119
Net migration rate:
-2.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population country comparison to the world: 184
Urbanization:
urban population: 44% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 40.13 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 66 male: 41.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.03 years country comparison to the world: 171 male: 61.68 years
female: 66.49 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.86 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 73
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Nationality:
noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural)
adjective: I-Kiribati
Ethnic groups:
Micronesian 98.8%, other 1.2% (2000 census)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 55%, Protestant 36%, Mormon 3.1%, Bahai 2.2%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 1.9%, other 1.8% (2005 census)
Languages:
I-Kiribati, English (official)
Literacy:
NA
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2005)
Education expenditures:
17.8% of GDP (2002) country comparison to the world: 1
Government ::Kiribati
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kiribati
conventional short form: Kiribati
local long form: Republic of Kiribati
local short form: Kiribati
note: pronounced keer-ree-bahss
former: Gilbert Islands
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Tarawa
geographic coordinates: 1 19 N, 172 58 E
time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands; note - in addition, there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21 island councils - one for each of the inhabited islands (Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kanton, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina)
Independence:
12 July 1979 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 July (1979)
Constitution:
12 July 1979
Legal system:
English common law supplemented by local, customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO
cabinet: 12-member cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the House of Parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the House of Parliament chooses the presidential candidates from among its members and then those candidates compete in a general election; president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held on 17 October 2007 (next to be held in 2011); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Anote TONG 63.7%, Nabuti MWEMWENIKARAWA 32.9%
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Parliament or Maneaba Ni Maungatabu (46 seats; 44 members elected by popular vote, 1 ex officio member - the attorney general, 1 nominated by the Rabi Council of Leaders (representing Banaba Island); members serve four-year terms)
elections: legislative elections were held in two rounds - the first round on 22 August 2007 and the second round on 30 August 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA, other 2 (includes attorney general)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal; High Court; 26 Magistrates' courts; judges at all levels are appointed by the president
Political parties and leaders:
Boutokaan Te Koaua Party or BTK [Taberannang TIMEON]; Maneaban Te
Mauri Party or MTM [Teburoro TITO]; Maurin Kiribati Pati or MKP;
National Progressive Party or NPP [Dr. Harry TONG]
note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, ITUC, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Kiribati does not have an embassy in the US; there is an honorary consulate in Honolulu
Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Kiribati; the US ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Kiribati
Flag description:
the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the Pacific ocean; the white stripes represent the three island groups - the Gilbert, Line, and Phoenix Islands; the 17 rays of the sun represent the 16 Gilbert Islands and Banaba (formerly Ocean Island); the frigate bird symbolizes authority and freedom
National anthem:
name: "Teirake kaini Kiribati" (Stand Up, Kiribati)
lyrics/music: Urium Tamuera IOTEBA
note: adopted 1979
Economy ::Kiribati
Economy - overview:
A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls, Kiribati has few natural resources and is one of the least developed Pacific Islands. Commercially viable phosphate deposits were exhausted at the time of independence from the UK in 1979. Copra and fish now represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has fluctuated widely in recent years. Economic development is constrained by a shortage of skilled workers, weak infrastructure, and remoteness from international markets. Tourism provides more than one-fifth of GDP. Private sector initiatives and a financial sector are in the early stages of development. Foreign financial aid from the EU, UK, US, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, UN agencies, and Taiwan accounts for 20-25% of GDP. Remittances from seamen on merchant ships abroad account for more than $5 million each year. Kiribati receives around $15 million annually for the government budget from an Australian trust fund.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$619.5 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 211 $610.4 million (2009 est.)
$614.7 million (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$152 million (2010 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 170 -0.7% (2009 est.)
-1.1% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$6,200 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 137 $6,200 (2009 est.)
$6,300 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 8.9%
industry: 24.2%
services: 66.8% (2004)
Labor force:
7,870 economically active, not including subsistence farmers (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 216
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 2.7%
industry: 32%
services: 65.3% (2000)
Unemployment rate:
2% (1992 est.) country comparison to the world: 14
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.2% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 11
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Agriculture - products:
copra, taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; fish
Industries:
fishing, handicrafts
Industrial production growth rate:
NA%
Electricity - production:
14 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 208
Electricity - consumption:
13.02 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 209
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 159
Oil - consumption:
NA bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 189
Oil - imports:
261 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 199
Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 164
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 171
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 125
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 81
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 156
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 158
Current account balance:
-$21 million (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 63
Exports:
$17 million (2004 est.) country comparison to the world: 208
Exports - commodities:
copra 62%, coconuts, seaweed, fish
Imports:
$62 million (2004 est.) country comparison to the world: 214
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous manufactured goods, fuel
Debt - external:
$10 million (1999 est.) country comparison to the world: 190
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar - 1.1151 (2010), 1.2822 (2009), 1.2059 (2008), 1.2137 (2007), 1.3285 (2006)
Communications ::Kiribati
Telephones - main lines in use:
4,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 216
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 217
Telephone system:
general assessment: generally good quality national and international service
domestic: wire line service available on Tarawa and Kiritimati (Christmas Island); connections to outer islands by HF/VHF radiotelephone; wireless service available in Tarawa since 1999
international: country code - 686; Kiribati is being linked to the Pacific Ocean Cooperative Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Broadcast media:
1 television broadcast station that provides about 1 hour of local programming Monday-Friday; multi-channel TV packages provide access to Australian and US stations; 1 government-operated radio station broadcasting on AM, FM, and shortwave (2009)
Internet country code:
.ki
Internet hosts:
31 (2010) country comparison to the world: 214
Internet users:
7,800 (2009) country comparison to the world: 203
Transportation ::Kiribati
Airports:
19 (2010) country comparison to the world: 137
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 4 (2010)
Roadways:
total: 670 km (2000) country comparison to the world: 189
Waterways:
5 km (small network of canals in Line Islands) (2007) country comparison to the world: 109
Merchant marine:
total: 71 country comparison to the world: 61 by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 32, chemical tanker 6, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 15
foreign-owned: 51 (China 28, Hong Kong 1, Italy 1, Singapore 11, South Korea 2, Taiwan 5, Turkey 3) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
Betio (Tarawa Atoll), Canton Island, English Harbor
Military ::Kiribati
Military branches:
no regular military forces (constitutionally prohibited); Police Force (2009)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 24,734 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 17,941
females age 16-49: 19,758 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 1,107
female: 1,083 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
NA
Military - note:
Kiribati does not have military forces; defense assistance is provided by Australia and NZ
Transnational Issues ::Kiribati
Disputes - international:
none


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