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Kenya (Africa)
Introduction ::Kenya
Background:
Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's NARC coalition splintered in 2005 over the constitutional review process. Government defectors joined with KANU to form a new opposition coalition, the Orange Democratic Movement, which defeated the government's draft constitution in a popular referendum in November 2005. KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from ODM candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. UN-sponsored talks in late February produced a powersharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister.

Geography ::Kenya


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Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and
Tanzania
Geographic coordinates:
1 00 N, 38 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 580,367 sq km country comparison to the world: 48 land: 569,140 sq km
water: 11,227 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Land boundaries:
total: 3,477 km
border countries: Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km
Coastline:
536 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Terrain:
low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
Natural resources:
limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 8.01%
permanent crops: 0.97%
other: 91.02% (2005)
Irrigated land:
1,030 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
30.2 cu km (1990)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 1.58 cu km/yr (30%/6%/64%)
per capita: 46 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
volcanism: Kenya experiences limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (elev. 1,032 m, 3,385 ft) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano
Environment - current issues:
water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
People ::Kenya
Population:
40,046,566 country comparison to the world: 33 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2010 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.3% (male 8,300,393/female 8,181,898)
15-64 years: 55.1% (male 10,784,119/female 10,702,999)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 470,218/female 563,145) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.8 years
male: 18.7 years
female: 18.9 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.588% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27
Birth rate:
35.14 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 34
Death rate:
9.26 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 68
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 95
Urbanization:
urban population: 22% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 53.49 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 44 male: 56.28 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 58.82 years country comparison to the world: 190 male: 58.33 years
female: 59.32 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.38 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 37
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
6.7% (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 10
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1.2 million (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 8
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
150,000 (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 4
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
Nationality:
noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
Ethnic groups:
Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
Religions:
Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, Muslim 10%, indigenous beliefs 10%, other 2%
note: a large majority of Kenyans are Christian, but estimates for the percentage of the population that adheres to Islam or indigenous beliefs vary widely
Languages:
English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.1%
male: 90.6%
female: 79.7% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2005)
Education expenditures:
7% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 21
Government ::Kenya
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
local short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Nairobi
geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western
Independence:
12 December 1963 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 December (1963)
Constitution:
27 August 2010; the new constitution abolishes the position of prime minister and establishes a bicameral legislature; many details have yet to be finalized and will require significant legislative action
Legal system:
based on Kenyan statutory law, Kenyan and English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002); Vice President Stephen Kalonzo MUSYOKA (since 10 January 2008);
head of government: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002); Vice President Stephen Kalonzo MUSYOKA (since 10 January 2008); note - the roles of the president and prime minister are not well defined at this juncture; constitutionally, the president remains chief of state and head of government, but the prime minister is charged with coordinating government business
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president and headed by the prime minister, who is the leader of the largest party in parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving the largest number of votes in absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote in at least five of Kenya's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held on 27 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2012); vice president appointed by the president
election results: President Mwai KIBAKI reelected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 46%, Raila ODINGA 44%, Kalonzo MUSYOKA 9%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Bunge usually referred to as Parliament (224 seats; 210 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, 12 nominated members appointed by the president but selected by the parties in proportion to their parliamentary vote totals, 2 ex-officio members)
elections: last held on 27 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODM 99, PNU 46, ODM-K 16, KANU 14 other 35; ex-officio 2; seats appointed by the president - ODM 6, PNU 3, ODM-K 2, KANU 1
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High
Court
Political parties and leaders:
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-Kenya [Musikari
KOMBO]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People
[Reuben OYONDI]; Kenya African National Union or KANU [Uhuru
KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition-Kenya or NARC-Kenya [Martha
KARUA]; Orange Democratic Movement or ODM [Raila ODINGA]; Orange
Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]; Party of
National Unity or PNU [Mwai KIBAKI]; Shirikisho Party of Kenya or
SPK [Chirau Ali MWAKWERE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Council of Islamic Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Idris
MOHAMMED]; Kenya Human Rights Commission [L. Muthoni WANYEKI];
Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]; National Convention
Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political
parties and nongovernment organizations [Ndung'u WAINANA]; National
Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]; Protestant National
Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI];
Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of
Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
other: labor unions
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM,
OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO,
UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Elkanah Odembo ABSALOM
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael E. RANNEBERGER
embassy: US Embassy, United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P. O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
mailing address: Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831
telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
FAX: [254] (20) 363-410
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom
National anthem:
name: "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (Oh God of All Creation)
lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE
note: adopted 1963; the anthem is based on a traditional Kenyan folk song
Economy ::Kenya
Economy - overview:
Although the regional hub for trade and finance in East Africa, Kenya has been hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. In 1997, the IMF suspended Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program due to the government's failure to maintain reforms and curb corruption. The IMF, which had resumed loans in 2000 to help Kenya through a drought, again halted lending in 2001 when the government failed to institute several anticorruption measures. In the key December 2002 elections, Daniel Arap MOI's 24-year-old reign ended, and a new opposition government took on the formidable economic problems facing the nation. After some early progress in rooting out corruption and encouraging donor support, the KIBAKI government was rocked by high-level graft scandals in 2005 and 2006. In 2006, the World Bank and IMF delayed loans pending action by the government on corruption. The international financial institutions and donors have since resumed lending, despite little action on the government's part to deal with corruption. Post-election violence in early 2008, coupled with the effects of the global financial crisis on remittance and exports, reduced GDP growth to 1.7 in 2008, but the economy rebounded in 2009-10.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$65.95 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 82 $63.42 billion (2009 est.)
$61.78 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$32.42 billion (2010 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 81 2.6% (2009 est.)
1.7% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,600 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 200 $1,600 (2009 est.)
$1,600 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 22%
industry: 16%
services: 62% (2010 est.)
Labor force:
17.94 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 33
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 75%
industry and services: 25% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate:
40% (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 187 40% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
50% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
42.5 (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 51 44.9 (1997)
Investment (gross fixed):
21.3% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 71
Public debt:
50.9% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 49 46.3% of GDP (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 126 9.3% (2009 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
14.8% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 54 14.02% (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$6.333 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 81 $5.717 billion (31 December 2009 est)
Stock of broad money:
$15.38 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 89 $13.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$14.11 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 87 $13.17 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$10.76 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 66 $10.92 billion (31 December 2008)
$13.39 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture - products:
tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs
Industries:
small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 84
Electricity - production:
5.223 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 113
Electricity - consumption:
4.863 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 108
Electricity - exports:
58.3 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports:
22.5 million kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 160
Oil - consumption:
76,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 88
Oil - exports:
7,270 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 98
Oil - imports:
80,530 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 72
Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 165
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 172
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 126
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 82
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 157
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 159
Current account balance:
-$1.414 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 148 -$1.611 billion (2009 est.)
Exports:
$5.141 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 108 $4.459 billion (2009 est.)
Exports - commodities:
tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
Exports - partners:
UK 11.31%, Netherlands 9.81%, Uganda 9.07%, Tanzania 8.83%, US 5.93%, Pakistan 5.63% (2009)
Imports:
$10.4 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 87 $9.715 billion (2009 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Imports - partners:
India 11.67%, China 10.58%, UAE 9.32%, South Africa 8.36%, Saudi
Arabia 6.53%, US 6.25%, Japan 5.1% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$4.585 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 68 $3.85 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Debt - external:
$7.935 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 92 $7.795 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$2.337 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 85 $2.129 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$338 million (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 76 $288 million (31 December 2009 est.)
Exchange rates:
Kenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar - 79.217 (2010), 77.35 (2009), 68.358 (2008), 68.309 (2007), 72.101 (2006)
Communications ::Kenya
Telephones - main lines in use:
664,100 (2009) country comparison to the world: 90
Telephones - mobile cellular:
19.365 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 41
Telephone system:
general assessment: inadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
domestic: sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, is slated for privatization; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 50 per 100 persons in 2009
international: country code - 254; The East Africa Marine System (TEAMS) and the SEACOM undersea fiber-optic cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Broadcast media:
about a half-dozen privately-owned TV stations and a state-owned television broadcaster that operates 2 channels; satellite and cable TV subscription services are available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; a large number of private radio broadcasters, including provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code:
.ke
Internet hosts:
47,676 (2010) country comparison to the world: 90
Internet users:
3.996 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 59
Transportation ::Kenya
Airports:
191 (2010) country comparison to the world: 33
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 174
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 107
under 914 m: 55 (2010)
Pipelines:
oil 4 km; refined products 928 km (2009)
Railways:
total: 2,778 km country comparison to the world: 60 narrow gauge: 2,778 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways:
total: 160,886 km country comparison to the world: 32 paved: 11,197 km
unpaved: 149,689 km (2008)
Waterways:
the only significant inland waterway in the country is the part of Lake Victoria within the boundaries of Kenya; Kisumu is the main port and has ferry connections to Uganda and Tanzania (2010)
Merchant marine:
total: 1 country comparison to the world: 150 by type: petroleum tanker 1
registered in other countries: 5 (Comoros 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
Kisumu, Mombasa
Military ::Kenya
Military branches:
Kenya Armed Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Kenya Air Force (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
18-26 years of age for voluntary service (less than 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy); applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate (2010)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 9,525,556
females age 16-49: 9,242,381 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 6,162,904
females age 16-49: 5,904,173 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 417,061
female: 412,438 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 51
Transnational Issues ::Kenya
Disputes - international:
Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to almost a quarter of a million refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 173,702 (Somalia); 73,004 (Sudan); 16,428 (Ethiopia)
IDPs: 250,000-400,000 (2007 post-election violence; KANU attacks on opposition tribal groups in 1990s) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities


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