- Art Gallery -



Kazakhstan, See : Flags, Maps

Kazakhstan (Central Asia)
Introduction ::Kazakhstan
Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence in 1991 drove many of these newcomers to emigrate. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness; developing a multiparty parliament and advancing political and social reform; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.
Geography ::Kazakhstan
Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural
(Zhayyq) River in eastern-most Europe
Geographic coordinates:
48 00 N, 68 00 E
Map references:
total: 2,724,900 sq km country comparison to the world: 9 land: 2,699,700 sq km
water: 25,200 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly less than four times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 12,185 km
border countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,224 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km
0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
vast flat steppe extending from the Volga in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east and from the plains of western Siberia in the north to oases and deserts of Central Asia in the south
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m
Natural resources:
major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Land use:
arable land: 8.28%
permanent crops: 0.05%
other: 91.67% (2005)
Irrigated land:
35,560 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
109.6 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 35 cu km/yr (2%/17%/82%)
per capita: 2,360 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes in the south; mudslides around Almaty
Environment - current issues:
radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
landlocked; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050
People ::Kazakhstan
15,460,484 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 63
Age structure:
0-14 years: 21.8% (male 1,717,469/female 1,643,920)
15-64 years: 70.2% (male 5,279,292/female 5,534,607)
65 years and over: 7.9% (male 426,494/female 797,655) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 29.9 years
male: 28.4 years
female: 31.6 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.399% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 160
Birth rate:
16.66 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 122
Death rate:
9.39 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 64
Net migration rate:
-3.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 186
urban population: 58% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.058 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 24.93 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 84 male: 29.29 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.19 years country comparison to the world: 152 male: 62.91 years
female: 73.78 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.87 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 150
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 121
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
12,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 97
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 500 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 97
noun: Kazakhstani(s)
adjective: Kazakhstani
Ethnic groups:
Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4%, Russian 30%, Ukrainian 3.7%, Uzbek 2.5%,
German 2.4%, Tatar 1.7%, Uighur 1.4%, other 4.9% (1999 census)
Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%
Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.3% (1999 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2009)
Education expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 156
Government ::Kazakhstan
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
conventional short form: Kazakhstan
local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
local short form: Qazaqstan
former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
name: Astana
geographic coordinates: 51 10 N, 71 25 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Kazakhstan is divided into two time zones
Administrative divisions:
14 provinces (oblystar, singular - oblys) and 3 cities* (qalalar,
singular - qala); Almaty Oblysy, Almaty Qalasy*, Aqmola Oblysy
(Astana), Aqtobe Oblysy, Astana Qalasy*, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys
Qazaqstan Oblysy [West Kazakhstan] (Oral), Bayqongyr Qalasy
[Baykonur]*, Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy
[South Kazakhstan] (Shymkent), Pavlodar Oblysy, Qaraghandy Oblysy,
Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy [East
Kazakhstan] (Oskemen), Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavlovsk),
Zhambyl Oblysy (Taraz)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995, the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonur, formerly Leninsk); in 2004, a new agreement extended the lease to 2050
16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 December (1991)
first post-independence constitution adopted 28 January 1993; new constitution adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and Roman law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Karim MASIMOV (since 10 January 2007); First Deputy Prime Minister Umirzak SHUKEYEV (since 3 March 2009), Deputy Prime Ministers Yerbol ORYNBAYEV (since 29 October 2007), Aset ISEKESHEV (since 12 March 2010)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 4 December 2005 (next to be held in 2012); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president, with Mazhilis approval; note - constitutional amendments of May 2007 shortened the presidential term from seven years to five years and established a two-consecutive-term limit; changes will take effect after NAZARBAYEV's term ends; he, and only he, is allowed to run for president indefinitely
election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 91.1%, Zharmakhan A. TUYAKBAY 6.6%, Alikhan M. BAYMENOV 1.6%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 15 members are appointed by the president; 32 members elected by local assemblies; members serve six-year terms, but elections are staggered with half of the members up for re-election every three years) and the Mazhilis (107 seats; 9 out of the 107 Mazhilis members elected by the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, a presidentially appointed advisory body designed to represent the country's ethnic minorities; non-appointed members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - (indirect) last held in October 2008 (next to be held in 2011); Mazhilis - last held on 18 August 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Nur Otan 16; Mazhilis - percent of vote by party - Nur-Otan 88.1%, NSDP 4.6%, Ak Zhol 3.3%, Auyl 1.6%, Communist People's Party 1.3%, Patriots Party 0.8% Ruhaniyat 0.4%; seats by party - Nur-Otan 98; note - parties had to achieve a threshold of 7% of the electorate to qualify for seats in the Mazhilis; changes to electoral legislation enacted since the 2007 election now ensure that the second-placed party will enter the Majilis at the next parliamentary election, even if it does not clear the 7% threshold
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (seven members)
Political parties and leaders:
Adilet (Justice) [Maksut NARIKBAYEV, Zeynulla ALSHIMBAYEV, Serik
SYDYKOV] (formerly Democratic Party of Kazakhstan); Agrarian and
Industrial Union of Workers Block or AIST (Agrarian Party and Civic
Party); Ak Zhol Party (Bright Path) [Alikhan BAYMENOV]; Alga
[Vladimir KOZLOV] (unregistered); Auyl (Village) [Gani KALIYEV];
Azat (Freedom) Party [Bolat ABILOV] (formerly True Ak Zhol Party);
Azat NSDP [co-chaired by Bolat ABILOV and Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Azat
and NSDP united in 2009, but the authorities have refused to
register Azat NSDP as a single party; Communist Party of Kazakhstan
or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN]; Communist People's Party of
Kazakhstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]; National Social Democratic Party or
NSDP [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Nur-Otan [Bakhytzhan ZHUMAGULOV] (the
Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged with Otan); Patriots' Party
[Gani KASYMOV]; Rukhaniyat (Spirituality) [Altynshash ZHAGANOVA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]; Almaty Helsinki Committee [Ninel
FOKINA]; Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]; For
Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS (jailed), Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey
DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV]; Kazakhstan International Bureau on
Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Pan-National
Social Democratic Party of Kazakhstan [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY];
Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman];
Republican Network of International Monitors [Dos KUSHIM];
Transparency International [Sergey ZLOTNIKOV]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Yerlan IDRISSOV
chancery: 1401 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 232-5488
FAX: [1] (202) 232-5845
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard E. HOAGLAND
embassy: Ak Bulak 4, Str. 23-22, Building #3, Astana 010010
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (7172) 70-21-00
FAX: [7] (7172) 34-08-90
Flag description:
a gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern "koshkar-muiz" (the horns of the ram) in gold; the blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity; it also represents the endless sky as well as water; the sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude; the sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity; the eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future
National anthem:
name: "Menin Qazaqstanim" (My Kazakhstan)
lyrics/music: Zhumeken NAZHIMEDENOV and Nursultan NAZARBAYEV/Shamshi KALDAYAKOV
note: adopted 2006; President Nursultan NAZARBAYEV played a role in revising the lyrics
Economy ::Kazakhstan
Economy - overview:
Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. Kazakhstan's industrial sector is primarily focused on the extraction and processing of these natural resources. Kazakhstan enjoyed double-digit growth in 2000-01 and 8% or more per year in 2002-07 - thanks largely to its booming energy sector but also to economic reform, good harvests, and increased foreign investment; GDP growth slowed dramatically following the near-collapse of the banking sector in late 2007 and the declines in oil and metals prices associated with the global economic downturn in 2008-09. Kazakhstan has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector as well expanding export markets away from its historical reliance on Russia. Nevertheless, growth is still driven by oil. The government has engaged in several disputes with Western oil companies over the terms of production agreements, most recently, with regard to the Kashagan project in 2007-08 and the Karachaganak project in 2009.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$193.8 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 54 $184.8 billion (2009 est.)
$182.6 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$129.8 billion (2010 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 60 1.2% (2009 est.)
3.3% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$12,500 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 92 $12,000 (2009 est.)
$11,900 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 42.8%
services: 51.2% (2009 est.)
Labor force:
8.718 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 53
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 31.5%
industry: 18.4%
services: 50% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52 6.3% (2009 est.)
Population below poverty line:
12.1% (2008)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 26.5% (2004 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
28.8 (2008) country comparison to the world: 119 31.5 (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
27.9% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 26
Public debt:
15.9% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 118 14.2% of GDP (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 171 7.3% (2009 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
7% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 42 10.5% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
NA% (31 December 2008)
Stock of narrow money:
$20.91 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 63 $16.66 billion (31 December 2009 est)
Stock of broad money:
$65.55 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 62 $52.83 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$44.53 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66 $39.72 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$57.66 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 54 $31.08 billion (31 December 2008)
$41.38 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture - products:
grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; livestock
oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate:
7.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 38
Electricity - production:
78.4 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 37
Electricity - consumption:
77.9 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 35
Electricity - exports:
3.617 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports:
1.94 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Oil - production:
1.54 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 19
Oil - consumption:
241,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 51
Oil - exports:
1.345 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 18
Oil - imports:
164,000 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 52
Oil - proved reserves:
30 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 11
Natural gas - production:
35.61 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 24
Natural gas - consumption:
33.68 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 27
Natural gas - exports:
17.66 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 12
Natural gas - imports:
3.72 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 35
Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.407 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 15
Current account balance:
$6.993 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 28 -$3.405 billion (2009 est.)
$59.23 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 47 $43.84 billion (2009 est.)
Exports - commodities:
oil and oil products 59%, ferrous metals 19%, chemicals 5%, machinery 3%, grain, wool, meat, coal
Exports - partners:
China 16.34%, France 9.23%, Germany 8.32%, Russia 6.9%, Ukraine 5.52%, Romania 5.25%, Italy 5.12%, US 4.34% (2009)
$30.11 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 59 $28.77 billion (2009 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Russia 28.5%, China 26.72%, Germany 6.59%, Italy 5.58%, Ukraine 4.8% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$32.44 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 34 $23.22 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Debt - external:
$94.44 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 36 $106.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$83.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 39 $69.46 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$7.208 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 53 $5.708 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Exchange rates:
tenge (KZT) per US dollar - 147.28 (2010), 147.5 (2009), 120.25 (2008), 122.55 (2007), 126.09 (2006)
Communications ::Kazakhstan
Telephones - main lines in use:
3.763 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 42
Telephones - mobile cellular:
14.995 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 50
Telephone system:
general assessment: inherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernization
domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is gradually increasing and fixed-line teledensity now roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is increasing and the subscriber base now is roughly 100 per 100 persons
international: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (2008)
Broadcast media:
state owns nearly all radio and TV transmission facilities and operates national TV and radio networks; nearly all nationwide TV networks are wholly or partly owned by the government; some former state-owned media outlets have been privatized and are controlled by the president's daughter, who heads the Khabar Agency that runs multiple TV and radio stations; a number of privately-owned TV stations; households with satellite dishes have access to foreign media; a small number of commercial radio stations operating along with state-run radio stations (2008)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
53,984 (2010) country comparison to the world: 85
Internet users:
5.299 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 44
Transportation ::Kazakhstan
97 (2010) country comparison to the world: 62
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 65
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 13 (2010)
3 (2010)
condensate 658 km; gas 11,146 km; oil 10,376 km; refined products 1,095 km (2009)
total: 15,082 km country comparison to the world: 19 broad gauge: 15,082 km 1.520-m gauge (3,700 km electrified) (2008)
total: 93,612 km country comparison to the world: 51 paved: 84,100 km
unpaved: 9,512 km (2008)
4,000 km; on the Ertis (Irtysh) River (80%) and Syr Darya (Syrdariya) River (2008) country comparison to the world: 26
Merchant marine:
total: 8 country comparison to the world: 123 by type: petroleum tanker 6, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Ireland 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk),
Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk)
Military ::Kazakhstan
Military branches:
Kazakhstani Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Mobile Forces,
Air Defense Forces (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years; minimum age for volunteers NA (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 4,176,999
females age 16-49: 4,202,422 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,902,859
females age 16-49: 3,543,467 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 133,884
female: 127,415 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.1% of GDP (2010) country comparison to the world: 128
Transnational Issues ::Kazakhstan
Disputes - international:
Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries with Turkmenistan commenced in 2005, and with Uzbekistan in 2004; demarcation is scheduled to get underway with Russia in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; equidistant seabed treaties have been ratified with Azerbaijan and Russia in the Caspian Sea, but no resolution has been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 3,700 (Russia); 508 (Afghanistan) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates


Hellenica World