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Souvenir Album

of the

Great European

War

WITH PICTORIAL MAP

of the BATTLEGROUNDS

COPYRIGHT 1914

THE OSBORNE COMPANY

GENERAL OFFICES AND WORKS NEWARK N.J.

OSBORNE ART CALENDARS

Introduction.

The pictures in this album are reproduced from actual photographs taken in Europe, many of which have already appeared, in more or less crude form, in the newspapers.

Believing that these photographs of men and events in the most stupendous war of the world's history possess a world wide interest, and will be of permanent historical value, we have reproduced them in the actual colors of life, and in form which is more worthy of preservation than the mere half tone newspaper cuts.

The pictures were published for sale in post cards. But when we saw how attractive they were, it occurred to us to gather them together in this album and present it to our customers.

Please accept it with our compliments, and as an expression of our appreciation of your confidence in us and of the business we have received from you.

The Osborne Company

Osborne Art Calendars

NEWARK, N. J.

Largest Calendar Sales in the World


[pg 3]

French Cuirassiers Helping a Wounded Comrade at St. Quentin

The cuirassiers are heavy cavalry for charging, not scouting. The French and German armies have each twelve regiments, and the Russians four. They are a survival of the 17th century, wearing steel cuirasses and helmets with horsehair plumes. Napoleon III's bodyguard, "Les Cents-Gardes," wore aluminum. They carry a long double-edged stabbing sword. St. Quentin was on the French route of retreat to Paris in the first stage of the war.

FRENCH CUIRASSIERS HELPING WOUNDED COMRADE AT ST. QUENTIN

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


The Terrible Turcos—Native Algerians in the French Army

These are not negroes, but men of Berber origin with black beards and tanned faces. They are recruited in Algiers and are called "tirailleurs algieriens." Their headgear is the characteristic fez. The object resembling a football which they carry on the hip is a water bottle.

In the war of 1870 these troops became greatly feared and hated by the Germans, because of their trick of "playing possum" until the enemy passed and then springing up and striking from the rear. They are impetuous fighters, and the difficulty the French generals find in their employment is to hold them back at times when to charge the enemy is foolhardy.

THE TERRIBLE TURCOS-NATIVE ALGERIANS IN THE FRENCH ARMY

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


Sharp Shooters of France

There are thirty battalions of "chausseurs alpins," who spend half each year in the French Alps. Each carries an alpenstock and a pack. They are among the hardiest and best trained French infantry, skilled with the rifle and in mountain warfare. Among the Vosges Mountains they tied themselves in trees, so when wounded they would not drop and betray their position.

The mule is a useful creature in time of war—especially in the commissary department, to carry pots, pans and provisions. Like the burro of the American southwest, the Alpine mule is a sure-footed climber.

SHARP SHOOTERS OF FRANCE

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


[pg 4]

The Famous Scots Greys

The Royal Scots Greys were the first regiment of dragoons raised in Great Britain (1681). There are now half a score of dragoon guard and dragoon regiments, all mounted and equipped as medium heavy cavalry. They are armed with carbine and sabre, and wear metal helmets (except the Scots Greys). This noted regiment has served with distinction in all parts of the world, and has already counted big in the British defense in France and Belgium. The "Grey" does not refer to the uniform, but to the horses, which all have their tails trimmed half-short.

THE FAMOUS SCOTS GRAYS

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


The Grenadier Guards—British Veterans of the Boer War

In the Boer War the Grenadier Guards shared the brunt of the fighting, and it was in South Africa that their leader lost his arm.

The Prince of Wales is a second lieutenant in this regiment.

The building on the right of the picture is Buckingham Palace.

THE GRENADIER GUARDS—BRITISH VETERANS OF THE BOER WAR

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


British Field Artillery at the Marne

This 18-pound ordnance is of English make, and will shoot both faster and farther than the Krupp guns. Its caliber is 3.3 inches, and the muzzle velocity 1,600 feet per second. The gunners are able to get away 29 shots per minute, while the German rate of fire is only twenty. The maximum effective range is 6,300 yards against 6,000 for any other gun of its class. Each gun and carriage weighs 2,690 pounds. There are six guns in a battery, and the number of rounds of ammunition normally issued is 176 per gun.

BRITISH FIELD ARTILLERY AT THE MARNE

PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.


[pg 5]

Canadian Troops Off for the War

The loyalty and enthusiasm of the Dominion at this critical time is very impressive. The picture shows the Ninetieth Winnipeg Rifles on the march from the training camp at Valcartier, eighteen miles north of Quebec—the largest practice encampment ever established in America. Many of Canada's soldiers are veterans of the British army; some saw service in South Africa; the rest are intelligent farmers' sons or young business men from the cities. Thirty-three thousand Canadians disembarked at Plymouth on October 14, with more to follow.

CANADIAN TROOPS OFF FOR THE WAR

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


Exhausted French Dragoons Camping in Village Street

Dragoons were originally trained to fight either on horseback or afoot. Many of them carry bamboo lances, said to be even stronger than steel. The term "dragoon" probably comes from the dragon worked on the muzzle of the old carbine they used to carry, as dragons were supposed to spout fire. The bivouac on piles of straw, with weapons stacked ready for instant service, suggests vividly the condition of soldiers in the intervals of hard fighting. This is an actual scene on the line of retreat toward Paris.

EXHAUSTED FRENCH DRAGOONS CAMPING IN VILLAGE STREET

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


German Field Artillery

The splendid "fitness" of the German artilleryman is illustrated by these vigorous, intelligent fellows, smiling at the photographer as he snapped them. They might be riding to a picnic, instead of to awful war. Their helmets are tipped with a brass ball instead of a spike such as the infantry have, in order that the eyes may not be injured when the men bend over the guns to aim them. The box, or caisson, on which two men are sitting, contains projectiles and equipment for use in serving the gun.

GERMAN FIELD ARTILLERY

PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.


[pg 6]

The Famous 75 Millimeter French Guns at the Marne

The French guns, by many military experts, are said to be superior to any other field artillery. Their bore is only 2.95 inches, but the initial velocity and accuracy are greater than the German guns, and their lightness makes them more mobile in action. A battery has about the same effect on an advancing line as a mowing-machine on a harvest field.

THE FAMOUS 75 MILLIMETER FRENCH GUNS AT THE MARNE

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


French Hussars at Rouen

The Hussars are light cavalry intended for scouting, and use much smaller horses than the cuirassiers. Many French race-horses were seized by the government for the use of these troops, and a maximum price of $200 was paid, though some of the thoroughbreds were valued at $10,000 by their owners.

In the background are seen the towers of the cathedral at Rouen, which is a quaint, old Norman town, the capital of William the Conqueror, before he crossed the Channel.

FRENCH HUSSARS AT ROUEN

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


French Line Infantry Passing Monument of Napoleon

The monument is near the village of Vauchamps, where the French defeated Blucher and the Prussians on February 14, 1814. It is in the Department of the Marne: scene of the first victory of the allies in the present war.

Red caps and trousers have been the uniform of French soldiers since Napoleon's day, but they provide the enemy with a good target, and are poorly suited to modern campaigning. The Germans, however, gave France no time to equip her army with khaki, and the French soldiers took the field in their historic garb.

FRENCH LINE INFANTRY PASSING MONUMENT OF NAPOLEON

PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.


[pg 7]

Terrible Uhlans

This variety of light cavalry was introduced into central Europe by the Tartars of Asia in the middle ages. They were armed with sabre, pistol and lance, at first carried in the left hand. The pennon is intended to frighten the enemy's horses, and identifies the men as Prussians. The Poles, Austrians, and Russians also adopted uhlans. In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 they led the invasion of northern France, and won great fame by their fearless activity.

THE TERRIBLE UHLANS

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


Feeding the Men in the Trenches—A German Field Bakery

Napoleon said "An army travels on its stomach." This is part of the wonderful German organization for supplying the men in the field with daily bread. Each wagon supplies 1,600 men—there are twenty-five with each army corps of 40,000. The war ration includes bread, biscuit, eggs, meat, beans, rice, dried vegetables, salt and coffee.

FEEDING THE MEN IN THE TRENCHES—A GERMAN FIELD BAKERY

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


The German Defense Against the Airship—Krupp Gun on Motor

This is one of the deadly Krupp aeroplane guns, mounted on a Mercedes auto truck. The rear wheels are braced to steady the gun from vibration under the heavy shock of firing.

An aeroplane is a very difficult target, not only on account of its rapid flight, but also because the only vital spots are the engine and the passengers.

THE GERMAN DEFENSE AGAINST THE AIRSHIP—KRUPP GUN ON MOTOR

PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.


[pg 8]

Crack Austrian Regiment from Vienna

Austrian military traditions are equal to any in Europe. In the sixteenth century they turned back the tide of Turkish conquest and saved Europe. Military service is compulsory on all able-bodied males from 20 to 42, and totals twelve years—three in the line, seven in reserve, and two in the "Landwehr." The long trousers worn by these troops show that they are recruited from the Germanic part of the empire—for the Austrian army, like the empire itself, contains men speaking twenty-six different languages.

CRACK AUSTRIAN INFANTRY FROM VIENNA

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


Cossacks—The Rough Riders of Russia

The Cossacks of the river Don pay no taxes, but are liable to military service from eighteen to fifty, and each must furnish his own horse. They are wonderful riders, and excellent scouts or skirmishers. Their hollow circle formation is a favorite one for defense.

The government is so arranged as to furnish the largest military array on the shortest notice. In personal appearance, the Cossacks are more slender and handsomer than the Russians.

COSSACKS—THE ROUGH RIDERS OF RUSSIA center

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


Russian Regulars on the March Through Galicia

Contrary to popular impression, the number of trained men in the Russian army is no greater than in the German. The number of recruits available is, of course, much larger.

The Russian infantry is famous for close fighting with the bayonet, which is made a part of the gun and cannot be removed. The faces of the men are a distinctively Slavic type. They are patient, enduring, brave, and fight with a stubborn tenacity which has wrecked the hopes of every general in history who attempted the invasion and conquest of their territory.

RUSSIAN REGULARS ON THE MARCH THROUGH GALICIA

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


[pg 9]

The Black Watch

"Faithful, constant, generous in the hour of victory, and endued with calm perseverance under trial and disaster," the Highlanders of Scotland have won conspicuous honor on England's many battlefields.

These are the men who are said in the present war to have repeated the famous charge made by their ancestors at Waterloo a century ago. Each infantryman, grasping the stirrup of a cavalryman of the Scots Greys, kept pace with the horses, as the two regiments rushed with terrific momentum against the hostile lines.

THE BLACK WATCH

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


German Hussars in Brussels

Not all German cavalrymen are Uhlans. The Hussars also are light cavalry, adapted for reconnoitering. Both Uhlans and Hussars carry lances over ten feet long, made of a single steel tube drawn to a tempered point, with a pennon fluttering from it. In actual conflict these are usually removed. The color of the pennon shows from what state of the Empire the troopers come—the black-and-white ones in the picture show that they are Prussians.

GERMAN HUSSARS IN BRUSSELS

PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.


England's Indian Regiment

Here is the pride of India's contingent, 70,000 native troops—Sikhs and Ghurkas from the Himalayas, Bengal lancers from the Ganges, and Mahrata infantrymen from the torrid central plains. They wear their turbans even in Europe, where the remainder of the uniform is khaki.

The helmeted officers are Englishmen. The Indians have already proved their courage and skill against the Germans. Like all the regulars of the British army, they are wonderful bayonet fighters.

ENGLAND'S INDIAN INFANTRY

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


[pg 10]

A Detachment of the French Aviation Corps

The aeroplane is one of the factors that have revolutionized modern warfare. Its use for dropping bombs on hostile cities gives it a spectacular place in the news columns of to-day, but its real military value consists in scouting, getting the range for artillery, and preventing surprises by the enemy.

The French army is thoroughly equipped with the swiftest monoplanes in Europe, and the French are wonderful aviators—skillful, fearless, and resourceful.

A DETACHMENT OF THE FRENCH AVIATION CORPS

PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.


One of Germany's Mammoth Zeppelins

These great dirigible airships, hundreds of feet long, were invented and perfected by the aged Count Zeppelin. They are effective within a range of one thousand miles. The German Empire has unquestionably surpassed all its rivals in Europe in the thorough application of the inventions of modern science to the making of war.

In the right background is seen the hangar, or shed, in which the craft is housed. The sheep have become accustomed to the hovering giant and feed quietly under it.

ONE OF GERMANY'S MAMMOTH ZEPPELINS

PHOTO © BROWN BROS,. N.Y.


Ready for the Uhlans—Belgian Armored Motor Cars

The flat lowlands of Belgium and northern France are networked with perfect roads, making possible very rapid movement of troops. Armored motor cars have been much used by all the armies, especially as escorts for aviators. The car on the left carries a machine gun; the one on the right is simply armored with sheet steel to stand heavy fire.

The Belgians employed these cars extensively in the first month of the war, in their attempt to prevent the raids of the German cavalry.

READY FOR THE UHLANS—BELGIAN ARMORED MOTOR CARS

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


[pg 11]

The Prussian Crown Prince's Regiment

The Crown Prince is always colonel of the Death's Head Hussars, and when he had a "difference" with his father a few years ago, the Kaiser exiled him to his command at Danzig, where the regiment was permanently stationed. In state reviews the Crown Princess often appears in her Death's Head uniform as honorary colonel. Naturally, German noblemen are eager to join this regiment, which is one of the "crack" organizations of the Prussian army.

THE PRUSSIAN CROWN PRINCE'S REGIMENT


British Artillery Embarking for France

This is one of the barges used to carry horses and guns to the transport ship. The horses are then lifted into the vessel by means of a belt around their bellies. Some of the jackies have taken off their shoes and stockings and rolled up their trousers. The artilleryman, partly hidden behind his mount, is dressed in khaki.

BRITISH ARTILLERY EMBARKING FOR FRANCE

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


Part of the Russian Steam Roller—One of the Czar's Crack Regiments

There are twelve regiments of Grenadiers of the Guard, all composed of big men. The picture shows a formal review, the regimental band playing parade music as the Guard marches by.

Only a few days before the war broke out, President Poincare, of France, reviewed these famous troops of the Czar in St. Petersburg—now Petrograd.

PART OF THE RUSSIAN STEAM ROLLER—ONE OF THE CZAR'S CRACK REGIMENTS

PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.


[pg 12]

Canadian Royal Horse Artillery Mobilizing

This is part of Canada's splendid contribution to the defense of the motherland. The Royal Horse were among the first contingent of 33,000 to embark—Canada pledged 200,000 altogether.

Canadian horses are noted for their strength and beauty. They play a large part in the development of Canada's rich agricultural resources, and the Royal Artillery took the finest of Canadian horses across with them.

CANADIAN ROYAL HORSE ARTILLERY MOBILIZING


The Surprise of the War—The New German Siege Gun

These are the guns that battered Namur into ruins, reduced Meubeuge, and were employed in the capture of Antwerp. The Germans demonstrated their marvelous efficiency in the "art of war" by keeping the existence of these fort-destroyers a complete secret until they were ready to use them against Belgium and France.

The guns are transported in sections by rail as far as possible, and then by great traction engines. The block of wood in the cannon's mouth protects the chamber from dust and rust.

THE SURPRISE OF THE WAR—THE NEW GERMAN SIEGE GUN

PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.


Belgian War Dogs

One of the most interesting sidelights of the war is the use of dogs to draw the Belgian "mitrailleuses." All who have visited Belgium have been surprised at the amount of work, such as hauling market wagons, performed by these animals. The rubber-tired gun carriage is in strange contrast with the bizarre appearance of the "dogs of war"—tired out after a stiff march.

BELGIAN WAR DOGS

PHOTO © AMER. PRESS ASSOC., N.Y.


[pg 13]

Military and Naval Statistics of the European
Powers at the Outbreak of the War

Country Area Square Miles Population Army Regulars
and Reserves
Men
GREAT BRITAIN 121,380 45,000,000 730,000 137,500
FRANCE 207,218 39,300,000 4,000,000 60,621
RUSSIA 8,650,000 160,000,000 5,500,000 52,463
GERMANY 208,830 64,900,000 5,200,000 66,783
AUSTRIA 115,903 49,400,000 2,000,000 17,581
SERVIA 23,661 4,000,000 240,000 0
BELGIUM 11,373 7,300,000 222,000 0
NETHERLANDS 12,582 5,900,000 180,000 11,164
ITALY 111,000 33,900,000 1,200,000 33,095
SPAIN 196,200 19,700,000 350,000 10,165
NORWAY 124,200 2,400,000 115,000 1,003
SWEDEN 172,900 5,400,000 450,000 5,715
DENMARK 15,582 2,700,000 70,000 4,000
PORTUGAL 34,600 5,400,000 150,000 6,000
TURKEY 11,100 2,000,000 700,000 30,000
GREECE 25,000 2,600,000 150,000 4,000
SWITZERLAND 15,976 3,300,000 275,000

NAVAL STRENGTH/AIR FLEET

Country Battleships Cruisers Other Craft Dirigibles Aeroplanes National Debt
GREAT BRITAIN 67 122 380 9 400 $3,695,854,000
FRANCE 32 31 356 22 1,400 6,283,675,000
RUSSIA 17 19 184 18 800 4,553,488,000
GERMANY 39 61 225 40 1,000 1,177,418,000
AUSTRIA 13 12 89 8 400 1,051,346,000
SERVIA 0 0 0 0 60 128,078,000
BELGIUM 0 0 0 2 100 759,632,000
NETHERLANDS 6 11 53 0 0 467,709,000
ITALY 16 20 133 0 0 2,706,609,000
SPAIN 4 9 23 0 0 1,815,691,000
NORWAY 0 5 52 0 0 97,232,000
SWEDEN 0 1 75 0 0 162,428,000
DENMARK 1 1 25 0 0 94,330,000
PORTUGAL 1 6 30 0 0 968,324,000
TURKEY 5 4 22 0 0 554,441,000
GREECE 3 1 35 0 0 183,886,000
SWITZERLAND 0 0 0 0 0 23,614,000

Distances in Miles Between European Cities.

City Berlin Paris London Vienna St. Petersburg
BERLIN ... 475 510 275 750
PARIS 475 ... 175 560 1,175
LONDON 510 175 ... 675 1,080
VIENNA 275 560 675 ... 860
ST. PETERSBURG 750 1,175 1,080 860 ...
BELGRADE 560 790 920 275 980
ROME 650 600 780 410 1,260
MADRID 1,000 560 680 970 1,680
MOSCOW 875 1,360 1,360 900 350
COPENHAGEN 200 550 530 475 675

Distances in Miles Between European Cities (Continued)

City Belgrade Rome Madrid Moscow Copenhagen
BERLIN 560 650 1,000 875 200
PARIS 790 600 560 1,360 550
LONDON 920 780 680 1,360 530
VIENNA 275 410 970 900 475
ST. PETERSBURG 980 1,260 1,680 350 675
BELGRADE ... 380 1,100 980 725
ROME 380 ... 740 1,290 830
MADRID 1,100 740 ... 1,850 1,020
MOSCOW 980 1,290 1,850 ... 850
COPENHAGEN 725 830 1,020 850 ...

11 a. m. at Chicago is 6 a. m. at London.


THE BATTLEGROUND OF THE NATIONS

This "pictorial map" was offered in October by The Osborne Company, as a calendar, and as a hanger without calendar pad. It met with instant approval and our available presses have scarcely been able to keep pace with the sales. The business of The Osborne Company in the United States, since the outbreak of war, has been the largest of any corresponding months in our history. We think this fact is a splendid symptom of reviving and growing business in America, which is bound to extend while the rest of the world continues to need more and more products of our fields and factories.


THE NATIONS AT WAR

SERVIA

Servia is an independent kingdom. The capital is Belgrade. For centuries Servia was a province of the Turkish Empire, constantly in revolt and passionately striving to become independent. By the Treaty of Berlin in 1878 Servian independence was secured. With the triumph of the Balkan Allies—Servia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Greece—over Turkey in 1913, much valuable territory was added to all the Balkan nations. The great ambition of Servia to secure territory on the sea was thwarted, however, by Austria-Hungary; and the ancient Servian hatred for Austria, roused to action, brought about the incident immediately leading to the great European War.

This was the assassination of the Austrian crown prince, in June, by a Servian conspirator. Austria claimed that the Servian government was a party to the murder, and sent an ultimatum making peremptory demands that the murderers be punished. The Servian government, denying any connection with the assassins, none the less agreed to all the Austrian demands save one. They refused to permit Austrian officials to try the conspiracy cases. Austria declared war.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

A dual monarchy, inhabited by several nationalities and comprising two semi-independent countries, each with its own government but also with a common parliament, army and emperor, Francis Joseph. He belongs to the house of Hapsburg, which has ruled Austria for six hundred years, and himself has held the throne at Vienna since 1848.

Austria possesses important ports on the Adriatic, and if she had territory in the Balkan peninsula might gain access to the Mediterranean and prevent Russia from doing the same. She once tried to reach the sea through Italy, but failed. The growth of the Slavic states in the Balkans is directly contrary to Austrian interests and ambitions. A power occupying the Balkan peninsula might easily control the Suez Canal, connecting Europe with the Orient.

Agriculture is the principal pursuit, and Austria is able to supply her own food. In the north, wheat and barley grow, and corn in the south. The mineral wealth is great—coal and salt abound. Cotton, woolen, linen and silk goods are manufactured; also metals, glass, leather and musical instruments. Commerce is mainly with Germany and Turkey.

GERMANY

Twenty-five states constitute the German Empire, formed by the first imperial chancellor, Bismarck, in 1871. Its capital is Berlin. The king of Prussia is emperor (William II, since 1888). He may declare war and conclude peace, contract alliances and make treaties.

[pg 15] The German people are intelligent and industrious. Since the founding of the empire their industrial and commercial development has been wonderful. Less than half the population is now engaged in agriculture, but Germany still produces the larger part of her food supply. Almost one-third as many cattle are raised as in the United States, and Germany leads the world in sugar production.

Colonial expansion, commerce, and the need of food imports has built up a great German merchant marine and navy. If Austria were part of the Empire, with a path to the Mediterranean, Germany would have the harbors and seaways needed to increase her maritime power and would also possess the shortest trade route to the Orient. Bismarck wanted to secure Germany from attack, so that she could develop her industries in peace, and with this end in view made alliances with Austria and Italy, at the same time encouraging naval and military growth.

RUSSIA

One of the most powerful countries, including all northern Asia as well as eastern Europe. It is an absolute monarchy, ruled by the Czar Nicholas II at Petrograd (St. Petersburg). He came to the throne in 1894.

The population is mostly Slavic, and the racial sympathy is therefore with the Balkan peoples. Russia, like Austria and Germany, would like a port on the Mediterranean, as she now has access to the Atlantic only through the Baltic Sea and the Dardanelles (between the Black Sea and the Ægean).

Sixty years ago Russia attacked Turkey, menacing Great Britain's route to her Oriental possessions. These two powers combined with France and repulsed Russia in the Crimean War. Since the time of Peter the Great the Russians have had their eyes on Constantinople, and as long as they cannot have it will try to prevent Germany or Austria from getting it.

Seven-eighths of the peasants are farmers, and two-thirds of the land is sown to cereals.

FRANCE

A republic. Paris is the capital, and the president (since 1913) is Raymond Poincare. It is more than three-fourths the size of Texas, and has about two-fifths the population of the United States.

Most of the people live by agriculture, which is carried to a high standard. Wheat, oats, barley and corn are grown, also root-crops, fruits, tobacco, grapes and silk. There are rich mines of coal, iron and lead. In 1912 France ranked fourth in imports and exports. In manufactures of silk the French predominate, and they make fine muslins, porcelains, glass, jewelry and clocks.

GREAT BRITAIN

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, comprising England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. London is the capital, and George V, since 1910, has been King of Great Britain and Emperor of India. The coast line measures about twenty-eight hundred miles, and the English navy is equal to any other two. "The sun never sets on her colonial possessions," and her world-trade is the largest of any nation.

Manufacturing is the leading industry. Most of the large cities are near the coal-fields in the north central part. London, Liverpool and Edinburgh are the principal ports.

England has no fear of losing India, but does not look with favor on Russia's Balkan ambitions. At the same time she is opposed to the spread of a great German empire from Holland to the Ægean Sea, which would upset the English doctrine of small independent states and the "balance of power" in Europe.

BELGIUM

A democratic kingdom ruled by Albert, since 1909 (capital Brussels). Its length is 165 miles and width 120; the population about 650 to the square mile, composed of Flemish and Walloons—the former of French and the latter of German extraction.

Belgium is low and flat in the north; hilly and timbered in the south. The country is well watered and networked with canals. Rich in minerals, it is a prominent manufacturing country. Linens, laces, cottons and woolens, carpets, machines and cutlery are exported, with coal, iron and farm products. The imports are coffee, sugar, petroleum, hides and raw materials. Agriculture is carried to great perfection, but the country is not self-supporting.

Brussels is a great manufacturing center, and Antwerp the principal seaport.

ITALY

The king of Italy is Victor Emmanuel III, whose rule began in 1900. The products are fruits, rice, wheat, silk, olives, marble, etc. Naples is the largest city, and has varied manufactures.

Previous to 1859 Italy was divided into separate states. In 1870 Victor Emmanuel, king of Sardinia, united Italy and made Rome the national capital. Austria tried to thwart this movement. England and France were friendly to Italy at that time, and Germany was neutral.

ALLIANCES

The Triple Alliance was formed by Bismarck, after the Franco-Prussian War. Its object was to strengthen Germany and isolate France. A dual league was made in 1879 between Austria and Germany, which Italy joined in 1880. By this alliance the nations intended to aid each other in defense. Bismarck wanted Russia in the league, but trouble in the Balkans broke off this project.

Soon after France formed a league with Russia. Bismarck fell from power in 1890, but the Triple Alliance was still stronger than its rival, until France brought England into the Triple Entente, agreeing to give England a free hand in Egypt in return for the same in Morocco.

STRATEGY

The German attack on France is weakened by the fact that Italy did not act with the other members of the Triple Alliance, as a diverting attack from the south would divide the French defense. From the map it is easy to see why Germany advanced through Belgium, in spite of the fact that Germany, in 1878, had been one of the powers to guarantee Belgium's neutrality, because the mountains bordering France from the Alps to Verdun were strongly fortified, while the approach from Belgium was not.

It is also clear that Russia was compelled to establish her position along the Carpathian Mountains before advancing on Berlin—so that a northward movement from Austria-Hungary might not cut her line of communication.


[pg 16]

The Effect of the War on Osborne Art Calendars for 1916

You probably know that the outbreak of war immediately resulted in a scarcity of dye stuffs. In the calendar business this has affected inks for color printing, paints for water colors, coloring matter for ribbon, paper and cord. The rag used in high grade paper was also affected, and to some extent even the clay for enameled stock—part of this material coming from the war area.

The Osborne Company acted promptly in the crisis. Taking advantage of the large capital fortunately at our command, we purchased outright practically an entire year's supply of materials, at prices which cannot be duplicated today for materials of equal grade.

As a result the new line of Osborne Art Calendars for 1916 will be sold to our customers at no advance in price, and there will be no deterioration in quality through the substitution of inferior or untested materials.

On the contrary, the new line will offer you unexpected value for every dollar of your calendar appropriation.

It is absolutely, in all respects, the superlative line—the masterpiece—of the 25 years of progress since this Company originated the art calendar business.

Do not buy in haste—before you see Osborne Art Calendars for 1916. Wait—the reward will be better and more attractive advertising, a subject yours exclusively for your town (no jobber's calendar gives you this important service) and the greatest value any calendar house does or can offer you for your money.

The Osborne man will surely call. Wait for him in your own interest.

EDMUND B. OSBORNE, President.

THE OSBORNE COMPANY

NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON

GENERAL OFFICES AND WORKS, NEWARK, NEW JERSEY

LARGEST CALENDAR SALES IN THE WORLD