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Guinea, See : Flags, Maps

Guinea (Africa)

Introduction ::Guinea

Background:

Guinea has had a history of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after the death of the first president, Sekou TOURE. Guinea did not hold democratic elections until 1993 when Gen. CONTE (head of the military government) was elected president of the civilian government. He was reelected in 1998 and again in 2003, though all the polls were marred by irregularities. History repeated itself in December 2008 when following President CONTE's death, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that culminated in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people, and in early December 2009 when CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and evacuated to Morocco and subsequently to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by General Sekouba KONATE held democratic elections in 2010 and Alpha CONDE was elected president in the country's first free and fair elections since independence.

Geography ::Guinea

Location:

Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone

Geographic coordinates:
11 00 N, 10 00 W

Map references:

Africa

Area:

total: 245,857 sq km country comparison to the world: 78 land: 245,717 sq km

water: 140 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:

total: 3,399 km

border countries: Cote d'Ivoire 610 km, Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Liberia 563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km

Coastline:

320 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:

generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain:

generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources:

bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt

Land use:

arable land: 4.47%

permanent crops: 2.64%

other: 92.89% (2005)

Irrigated land:

950 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

226 cu km (1987)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 1.51 cu km/yr (8%/2%/90%)

per capita: 161 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season

Environment - current issues:

deforestation; inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

the Niger and its important tributary the Milo have their sources in the Guinean highlands

People ::Guinea

Population:

10,324,025 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 80

Age structure:

0-14 years: 42.8% (male 2,175,852/female 2,128,518)

15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,701,184/female 2,704,161)

65 years and over: 3.5% (male 153,053/female 195,207) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 18.5 years

male: 18.3 years

female: 18.8 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

2.649% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 25

Birth rate:

37.21 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 25

Death rate:

10.72 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 47

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 84

Urbanization:

urban population: 34% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 3.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 63.09 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 31 male: 66.46 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 59.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 57.6 years country comparison to the world: 192 male: 56.13 years

female: 59.12 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

5.15 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 19

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

1.6% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 41

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

87,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 48

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

4,500 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 46

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever

water contact disease: schistosomiasis

animal contact disease: rabies

aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever (2009)

Nationality:

noun: Guinean(s)

adjective: Guinean

Ethnic groups:

Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller ethnic groups 10%

Religions:

Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%

Languages:

French (official); note - each ethnic group has its own language

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 29.5%

male: 42.6%

female: 18.1% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 9 years

male: 10 years

female: 7 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

1.7% of GDP (2008) country comparison to the world: 175

Government ::Guinea

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Guinea

conventional short form: Guinea

local long form: Republique de Guinee

local short form: Guinee

former: French Guinea

Government type:

republic

Capital:

name: Conakry

geographic coordinates: 9 33 N, 13 42 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

33 prefectures and 1 special zone (zone special)*; Beyla, Boffa,
Boke, Conakry*, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Dubreka, Faranah,
Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane, Kindia,
Kissidougou, Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Lelouma, Lola,
Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele,
Tougue, Yomou

Independence:

2 October 1958 (from France)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 2 October (1958)

Constitution:

23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)

Legal system:

based on French civil law system, customary law, and decree; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Alpha Conde (since 21 December 2010)

head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Said FOFANA (since 24 December 2010)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held on 27 June 2010 with a runoff election held on 7 November 2010

election results: Alpha CONDE elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote Alpha CONDE 52.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO 47.5%

Legislative branch:

unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; members elected by a mixed system of direct popular vote and proportional party lists)

elections: last held on 30 June 2002 (legislative elections first due in 2007 have been rescheduled multiple times and are currently unscheduled)

election results: percent of vote by party - PUP 61.6%, UPR 26.6%, other 11.8%; seats by party - PUP 85, UPR 20, other 9

Judicial branch:

Court of First Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of
Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:

Democratic Union of Guinea or UDG [Mamadou SYLLA]; Guinean Union for
Democracy or UGD; New Democratic Forces or NDF [Muoctar DIALLO];
Party for Unity and Progress or PUP [Sekouba KONATE]; Rally for the
Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]; Union for Progress and Renewal
or UPR [Ousmane BAH]; Union for Progress of Guinea or UPG
[Jean-Marie DORE, secretary-general]; Union of Democratic Forces of
Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]; Union of Republican Forces or
UFR [Sidya TOURE]; United Front for Democracy and Change or FUDEC
[Francois FALL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean
Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of
Guinean Workers or CNTG [Rabiatou Sarah DIALLO] and Labor Union of
Guinean Workers or USTG [Dr. Ibrahima FOFANA]); Syndicate of Guinean
Teachers and Researchers or SLECG [Dr. Louis M'Bemba SOUMAH]

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU (suspended), ECOWAS (suspended), FAO, G-77, IBRD,
ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA,
MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Mory Karamoko KABA

chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 483-8688

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia Newton MOLLER

embassy: Koloma, Conakry, east of Hamdallaye Circle

mailing address: B. P. 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry

telephone: [224] 65-10-40-00
FAX: [224] 65-10-42-97

Flag description:

three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal

National anthem:

name: "Liberte" (Liberty)

lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA

note: adopted 1958

Economy ::Guinea

Economy - overview:

Guinea is a poor country that possesses major mineral, hydropower, and agricultural resources. The country has almost half of the world's bauxite reserves. The mining sector accounts for more than 70% of exports. Long-run improvements in the management of the economy, literacy, and the legal framework are needed if the country is to move out of poverty. Investor confidence has been sapped by rampant corruption, a lack of electricity and other infrastructure, a lack of skilled workers, and the political uncertainty resulting from the death of President Lansana CONTE in December 2008. International donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, cut their development programming significantly in response to the coup, and international partners have said that a resumption of aid will be contingent on a successful democratic transition with a democratically elected president and a functioning National Assembly. Growth rose slightly in 2006-08, primarily due to increases in global demand and commodity prices on world markets, but bauxite and alumina exports were negatively affected by the global economic downturn and the economy in 2009 contracted. International investors expressed renewed interest in Guinea's iron ore mines in 2010.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$10.6 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 146 $10.3 billion (2009 est.)

$10.67 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$4.344 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 126 -3.5% (2009 est.)

4.7% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$1,000 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 213 $1,000 (2009 est.)

$1,100 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 25.8%

industry: 45.7%

services: 28.5% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

4.392 million (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 82

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 76%

industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate:

NA% est.)

Population below poverty line:

47% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 1.9%

highest 10%: 41% (2006)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

38.1 (2006) country comparison to the world: 73 40.3 (1994)

Investment (gross fixed):

14.6% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 134

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

15% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 219 9% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

NA% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 7 22.25% (31 December 2005)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

NA% (31 December 2008)

Stock of narrow money:

$496.2 million (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 158 $459.7 million (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$830 million (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 166 $761.9 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$734.4 million (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 157 $674.2 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Agriculture - products:

rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (tapioca), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber

Industries:

bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron; alumina refining; light manufacturing, and agricultural processing

Industrial production growth rate:

3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 112

Electricity - production:

850 million kWh country comparison to the world: 148 note: excludes electricity generated at interior mining sites (2007 est.)

Electricity - consumption:

790.5 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 149

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 190

Oil - consumption:

9,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 154

Oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 151

Oil - imports:

8,674 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 141

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 174

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 104

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 148

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 70

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 168

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 172

Current account balance:

-$434 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 112 -$538 million (2009 est.)

Exports:

$1.468 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 137 $1.18 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

bauxite, alumina, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products

Exports - partners:

India 19.68%, Spain 13.18%, Russia 7.24%, Germany 6.86%, Ireland 5.87%, US 5.71%, Ukraine 5.6% (2009)

Imports:

$1.551 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 160 $1.236 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs

Imports - partners:

China 8.67%, Netherlands 6.67%, France 4.33%, UK 4.22% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$51 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$3.072 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 128 $3.222 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:

Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar - 6,100 (2010), 5,500 (2009), 5,500 (2008), 4,122.8 (2007), 5,350 (2006)

Communications ::Guinea

Telephones - main lines in use:

22,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 190

Telephones - mobile cellular:

5.607 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 90

Telephone system:

general assessment: inadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system

domestic: Conakry reasonably well served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate and large companies tend to rely on their own systems for nationwide links; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding and exceeded 50 per 100 persons in 2009

international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media:

government maintains control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; about 20 privately-owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign television programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2008)

Internet country code:

.gn

Internet hosts:

14 (2010) country comparison to the world: 220

Internet users:

95,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 161

Transportation ::Guinea

Airports:

16 (2010) country comparison to the world: 142

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2010)

Railways:

total: 1,185 km country comparison to the world: 87 standard gauge: 238 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 947 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:

total: 44,348 km country comparison to the world: 84 paved: 4,342 km

unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)

Waterways:

1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft) (2008) country comparison to the world: 57

Ports and terminals:

Conakry, Kamsar

Military ::Guinea

Military branches:

National Armed Forces: Army, Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee) (2009)

Military service age and obligation:

18-25 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 18-month conscript service obligation (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,292,338

females age 16-49: 2,264,589 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,443,655

females age 16-49: 1,483,676 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 114,353

female: 111,873 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.1% of GDP (2009) country comparison to the world: 127

Transnational Issues ::Guinea

Disputes - international:

conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in neighboring states have spilled over into Guinea resulting in domestic instability; Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 21,856 (Liberia); 5,259 (Sierra Leone); 3,900 (Cote d'Ivoire)

IDPs: 19,000 (cross-border incursions from Cote d'Ivoire, Liberia,
Sierra Leone) (2007)

Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; the majority of victims are children, and internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking; within the country, girls are trafficked primarily for domestic servitude and sexual exploitation, while boys are trafficked for forced agricultural labor, and as forced beggars, street vendors, shoe shiners, and laborers in gold and diamond mines; some Guinean men are also trafficked for agricultural labor within Guinea; transnationally, girls are trafficked into Guinea for domestic servitude and likely also for sexual exploitation

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Guinea is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to eliminate trafficking over 2006; Guinea demonstrated minimal law enforcement efforts for a second year in a row, while protection efforts diminished over efforts in 2006; the government did not report any trafficking convictions in 2007; due to a lack of resources, the government does not provide shelter services for trafficking victims; the government took no measures to reduce the demand for commercial sexual exploitation (2008)

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