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Antiochus XII Dionysos (Epiphanes/Philopator/Callinicus) (reigned 87–-84 BC) a ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom was the fifth son of Antiochus VIII Grypus to take up the diadem, and succeeded his brother Demetrius III Eucaerus as separatist ruler of the southern parts of the last remaining Seleucidian realms, basically Damascus and its surroundings. He initially gained support from Ptolemaic forces and was the last Seleucid ruler of any military reputation, even if it was on a local scale. He made several raids into the territories of the Jewish Hasmonean kings, and tried to check the rise of the Nabataean Arabs.

A battle against the latter turned out to be initially successful, until the young king was caught in a melee and killed by an Arab soldier. Upon his death the Syrian army fled and mostly perished in the desert. Soon after, the Nabateans conquered Damascus. His titles - apart from Dionysos - mean respectively (God) Manifest, Father-loving and Beautiful Victor. The last Seleucid kings often used several epithets on their coins.

Seleucid Ruler disputed with Philip I
Preceded by: Demetrius III
Succeeded by: Tigranes

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