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Administrative Region : West Greece
Regional unit : Aitoloakarnania

Mesolongi or Missolonghi (Greek: Μεσολόγγι, Mesolóngi, older forms Mesolongi, Misolonghi, Mesolongion) is a town of 12,225 people (2001) in western Greece. The town is the capital of Aetolia-Acarnania and is also its third largest town. It is the seat of the municipality of Iera Poli Mesolongiou (Sacred City of Missolonghi). Missolonghi is linked to, although bypassed since the 1960s by, GR-5/E55. The road to Astakos is to the northwest and there is also access to GR-48 to the east. The town had a railway station on the line to Agrinio but this has been abandoned since the 1970s.


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Geography

The town is located between the Acheloos and the Evinos rivers and has a port on the Gulf of Patras. It trades in fish, wine, and tobacco. The Arakynthos mountains lie to the northeast. The town is almost canalized but houses are within the gulf and the swamplands. The Messolonghi-Etoliko Lagoons complex lies to the west and is also a swampy area. In the ancient times, the land was part of the gulf.

The Messolonghi Lagoon lies to the west and is also a swampy area.

Greek Felucca near Messolonghi,

Municipality

Division of the former Municipality of Messolonghi , population 17988 in 2001

The new municipality Missolonghi was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities, that became municipal units:[1]

Aitoliko
Missolonghi
Oiniades

The municipal unit Missolonghi is subdivided into communities, including Evinochori.

History

Missolonghi was first mentioned by a Venetian called Paruta when he was describing the naval Battle of Lepanto near Nafpaktos. According to predominant historical opinion, its name came from the combination of two Italian words, MEZZO and LAGHI which means "in the middle of lakes" or MESSO and LAGHI (Messolaghi) which means "a place surrounded by lakes". Until 1700, Mesolonghi was under Venetian domination. Its inhabitants were mostly fishermen. They lived in cabins which were made of a kind of waterproof straw and reed and stood on stilts above sea water. These cabins or stilt-houses have always been called "pelades".

North-west of Missolonghi are the remains of Pleuron ('Asfakovouni'), a town mentioned in Homer's works. It participated in the Trojan expedition and was destroyed in 234 BC by Demetrius II Aetolicus. The new town, which was built on the remains of old Pleuron, was one of the most important towns in Aitolia. Its monumental fortification comprised thirty towers and seven gates. The remains of the theatre and an enormous water tank with four compartments still exist.

Greek War of Independence
Further information: Greek War of Independence, First Siege of Missolonghi, and Third Siege of Missolonghi
The sortie of Missolonghi by Theodoros Vryzakis (1855).

During the Orlov Revolt in 1770 the fleet of Missolonghi was defeated and the town passed to the Ottomans. Missolonghi revolted on May 20, 1821 and was a major stronghold of the Greek rebels in the Greek War of Independence, being the seat of the Senate of Western Continental Greece. Its inhabitants successfully resisted a siege by Ottoman forces in 1822. The second siege started on April 15, 1825 by Reşid Mehmed Pasha whose army numbered 30,000 men and was later reinforced by another 10,000 men led by Ibrahim Pasha, son of Muhammad Ali Pasha of Egypt. After a year of relentless enemy attacks and facing starvation, the people of Missolonghi decided to leave the beleaguered city in the "Exodus of its Guards" (The Sortie) on the night of April 10, 1826. At the time, there were 10,500 people in Missolonghi, 3,500 of whom were armed. Very few people survived the Ottoman pincer movement after the betrayal of their plan.

Due to the heroic stance of the population and the subsequent massacre of its inhabitants by the Turkish-Egyptian forces, the town of Missolonghi received the honorary title of Hiera Polis (the Sacred City), unique among other Greek cities. The famous British poet and philhellene Lord Byron, who supported the Greek struggle for independence, died in Missolonghi in 1824. He is commemorated by a cenotaph containing his heart and a statue located in the town.

Tomb of Botsaris, monument created by the French sculptor David d'Angers to the Greek liberator Markos Botsaris consisting of a young female figure called Reviving Greece.. Messolonghi, Greece. Photo, Steven Constantine

Headstone from the tomb of Markos Botsaris, David d'Angers

1926 Stamp, 100 years since the siege of Messologhi, headstone from the tomb of Markos Botsaris,

The tomb of the heroes in Messolonghi

Modern Era
The lagoon of the city.
View of the Gardens of the city.

The town itself is very picturesque but also modern with functional, regular urban planning. Some very interesting buildings representative of traditional architecture can be seen here. People whose names were related to modern Greek history once lived in some of them. The mansion of the Trikoupis family, Palamas' House, Valvios Library, Christos and Sophia Moschandreou Gallery of Modern Art emphasize the fact that Missolonghi has always been a city of some wealth and refinement. In addition, the Centre of Culture and Art, Diexodos, which hosts cultural events and exhibitions as well as the Museum of History and Art is housed in a neo-classical building in Markos Botsaris Square and hosts a collection of paintings indicative of the struggle of Missolonghi, further boosting the city's cultural and artistic profile.

Today, the Entrance Gate remains intact and so does part of the fortification of the Free Besieged which was rebuilt by King Otto. Past the gate, there is the Garden of Heroes where several famous and some anonymous heroes who fought during the Heroic Sortie are buried. The Garden of Heroes is the equivalent of the Elysian Fields for modern Greece. Every year the Memorial Day for the Exodus is celebrated on Palm Sunday (the Sunday before Easter); the Greek State is represented by high-ranking officials and foreign countries by their ambassadors.

Landmarks
The tomb of Markos Botsaris.

Museum of the History and the Art of the Holy City of Missolonghi, Website

Byron in Messolonghi


Notable people

The heart of Lord Byron is buried in Mesolonghi April 1824
Epameinontas Deligeorgis (1829–1879), former Prime Minister of Greece
John Lykoudis (1910–1980), major and medical doctor involved in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease
Miltiadis Malakasis (1869–1943), poet
Kostis Palamas (1859–1943), Greek poet, co-author of the Olympic Hymn
Antonis Travlantonis (1895–1896), Greek educator, former director of Zosimaia School
Charilaos Trikoupis (1832–1896), former Prime Minister of Greece
Nikolaos Trikoupis, Greek general in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)
Spyridon Trikoupis (1788–1873), former Prime Minister of Greece, father of Charilaos Trikoupis
Dimitrios Valvis (1814–1886), former Prime Minister of Greece
Zinovios Valvis (1800–1872), former Prime Minister of Greece
Sperantza Vrana (1926–2009), actress


Historical population
Year City Municipality
1981 11,375 -
1991 10,916 16,859
2001 12,225 17,988

Twin towns

Switzerland Schöfflisdorf, Switzerland


See also

Communities of Aetolia-Acarnania


References

^ Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (Greek)


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