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Introduction ::Greece


Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-Communists and Communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union in 2001. In 2010, the prospect of a Greek default on its euro-denominated debt created severe strains within the EMU and raised the question of whether a member country might voluntarily leave the common currency or be removed.

Geography ::Greece


Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
39 00 N, 22 00 E

Map references:



total: 131,957 sq km country comparison to the world: 96 land: 130,647 sq km

water: 1,310 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Alabama

Land boundaries:

total: 1,228 km

border countries: Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, Macedonia 246 km


13,676 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers


mostly mountains with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m

Natural resources:

lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential

Land use:

arable land: 20.45%

permanent crops: 8.59%

other: 70.96% (2005)

Irrigated land:

14,530 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

72 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 8.7 cu km/yr (16%/3%/81%)

per capita: 782 cu m/yr (1997)

Natural hazards:

severe earthquakes

volcanism: Santorini (elev. 367 m, 1,204 ft) has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; although there have been very few eruptions in recent centuries, Methana and Nisyros in the Aegean are classified as historically active

Environment - current issues:

air pollution; water pollution

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

Geography - note:

strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands

People ::Greece


10,749,943 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 75

Age structure:

0-14 years: 14.3% (male 788,722/female 742,270)

15-64 years: 66.6% (male 3,568,660/female 3,578,344)

65 years and over: 19.2% (male 902,617/female 1,156,815) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 42.2 years

male: 41.1 years

female: 43.2 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.106% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 186

Birth rate:

9.34 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 206

Death rate:

10.6 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 48

Net migration rate:

2.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 36


urban population: 61% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.064 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 185 male: 5.58 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 79.8 years country comparison to the world: 29 male: 77.24 years

female: 82.52 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.37 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 203

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.2% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 105

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

11,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 99

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 100 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 145


noun: Greek(s)

adjective: Greek

Ethnic groups:

population: Greek 93%, other (foreign citizens) 7% (2001 census)

note: percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity


Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%


Greek 99% (official), other 1% (includes English and French)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96%

male: 97.8%

female: 94.2% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 17 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2007)

Education expenditures:

4% of GDP (2005) country comparison to the world: 105

Government ::Greece

Country name:

conventional long form: Hellenic Republic

conventional short form: Greece

local long form: Elliniki Dhimokratia

local short form: Ellas or Ellada

former: Kingdom of Greece

Government type:

parliamentary republic


name: Athens

geographic coordinates: 37 59 N, 23 44 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos) and 1 autonomous region*;
Achaia, Agion Oros* (Mount Athos), Aitolia kai Akarnania, Argolis,
Arkadia, Arta, Attiki, Chalkidiki, Chania, Chios, Dodekanisos,
Drama, Evros, Evrytania, Evvoia, Florina, Fokidos, Fthiotis,
Grevena, Ileia, Imathia, Ioannina, Irakleion, Karditsa, Kastoria,
Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkyra, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Kyklades,
Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lefkada, Lesvos, Magnisia, Messinia,
Pella, Pieria, Preveza, Rethymnis, Rodopi, Samos, Serres,
Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakynthos


1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 25 March (1821)


11 June 1975; amended March 1986 and April 2001

Legal system:

based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Karolos PAPOULIAS (since 12 March 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister : Antonis Samaras

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); president appoints leader of the party securing plurality of vote in election to become prime minister and form a government

election results: Karolos PAPOULIAS reelected president; number of parliamentary votes, 266 out of 300

Legislative branch:

unicameral Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch:

Supreme Judicial Court; Special Supreme Tribunal; all judges are appointed for life by the president after consultation with a judicial council

Political parties and leaders:

Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow or ANTARSYA
[Petros KONSTANTINOU]; Coalition of the Radical Left or SYRIZA
[Alexis TSIPRAS]; Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA];
Democratic Left [Fotis KOUVELIS]; Democratic Alliance or DISY
[Theodora BAKOGIANNI]; Ecologist Greens [Nikos CHRYSOGELOS]; Golden
Dawn [Nikolaos MICHALOLIAKOS]; New Democracy or ND [Antonis
SAMARAS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Evangelos
VENIZELOS]; Popular Orthodox Rally or LAOS [Georgios KARATZAFERIS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Civil Servants Confederation or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS];
Federation of Greek Industries or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS];
General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]

International organization participation:

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU,
OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Vassilis KASKARELIS

chancery: 2217 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-1300
FAX: [1] (202) 939-1324

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Tampa

consulate(s): Atlanta, Houston, New Orleans

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel Bennett SMITH

embassy: 91 Vasilisis Sophias Avenue, 10160 Athens

mailing address: PSC 108, APO AE 09842-0108

telephone: [30] (210) 721-2951
FAX: [30] (210) 645-6282

consulate(s) general: Thessaloniki

Flag description:

nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; a blue square bearing a white cross appears in the upper hoist-side corner; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country; there is no agreed upon meaning for the nine stripes or for the colors; the exact shade of blue has never been set by law and has varied from a light to a dark blue over time

National anthem:

name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)

lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS

note: adopted 1864; the anthem is based on a 158 verse poem by the same name, which was inspired by the Greek Revolution of 1821 against the Ottomans; Cyprus also uses "Hymn to Liberty" as its anthem

Economy ::Greece

Economy - overview:

Greece has a capitalist economy with the public sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and with per capita GDP about two-thirds that of the leading euro-zone economies. Tourism provides 15% of GDP. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force, mainly in agricultural and unskilled jobs. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 3.3% of annual GDP. The Greek economy grew by nearly 4.0% per year between 2003 and 2007, due partly to infrastructural spending related to the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, and in part to an increased availability of credit, which has sustained record levels of consumer spending. But the economy went into recession in 2009 as a result of the world financial crisis, tightening credit conditions, and Athens' failure to address a growing budget deficit, which was triggered by falling state revenues, and increased government expenditures. The economy contracted by 2% in 2009, and 4.8% in 2010. Greece violated the EU's Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criterion of no more than 3% of GDP from 2001 to 2006, but finally met that criterion in 2007-08, before exceeding it again in 2009, with the deficit reaching 15.4% of GDP. Austerity measures reduced the deficit to 9.4% of GDP in 2010. Public debt, inflation, and unemployment are above the euro-zone average while per capita income is below; unemployment rose to 12% in 2010. Eroding public finances, a credibility gap stemming from inaccurate and misreported statistics, and consistent underperformance on following through with reforms prompted major credit rating agencies in late 2009 to downgrade Greece's international debt rating, and has led the country into a financial crisis. Under intense pressure by the EU and international market participants, the government has adopted a medium-term austerity program that includes cutting government spending, reducing the size of the public sector, decreasing tax evasion, reforming the health care and pension systems, and improving competitiveness through structural reforms to the labor and product markets. Athens, however, faces long-term challenges to push through unpopular reforms in the face of often vocal opposition from the country's powerful labor unions and the general public. Greek labor unions are striking over new austerity measures, but the strikes so far have had a limited impact on the government's will to adopt reforms. An uptick in widespread unrest, however, could challenge the government's ability to implement reforms and meet budget targets, and could also lead to rioting or violence. In April 2010 a leading credit agency assigned Greek debt its lowest possible credit rating; in May, the International Monetary Fund and Eurozone governments provided Greece emergency short- and medium-term loans worth $147 billion so that the country could make debt repayments to creditors. In exchange for the largest bailout ever assembled, the government announced combined spending cuts and tax increases totaling $40 billion over three years, on top of the tough austerity measures already taken. Greece, however, struggled to boost revenues and cut spending to meet 2010 targets set by the EU and the IMF, especially after Eurostat - the EU's statistical office - revised upward Greece's deficit and debt numbers for 2009 and 2010. Greece's lenders are calling on Athens to step up efforts in 2011 to increase tax collection, shore up public enterprises, and rein in health spending, and are planning to give Greece more time to repay its EU-IMF loan. Greece responded by introducing major structural reforms, but investors still question whether Greece can sustain fiscal efforts in the face of a bleak economic outlook and public discontent.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$321.7 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 39 $337.9 billion (2009 est.)

$344.8 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$302 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

-4.8% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 211 -2% (2009 est.)

2% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$30,200 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44 $31,500 (2009 est.)

$32,200 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 4%

industry: 17.6%

services: 78.5% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

5.05 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 73

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 12.4%

industry: 22.4%

services: 65.1% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:

12% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 127 9.4% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

20% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 26% (2000 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

33 (2005) country comparison to the world: 96 35.4 (1998)

Investment (gross fixed):

14.8% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 132

Public debt:

144% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 5 126.8% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

4.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 129 1.2% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

1.75% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 117 3% (31 December 2008)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

8.59% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 109 8.65% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$152.8 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 22 $172.8 billion (31 December 2009 est)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:

$335.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 26 $368.4 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$419.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 25 $394.6 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$54.72 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 37 $90.4 billion (31 December 2008)

$264.9 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products


tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate:

3.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 98

Electricity - production:

58.79 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 43

Electricity - consumption:

58.28 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 42

Electricity - exports:

1.962 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

7.575 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

6,779 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 89

Oil - consumption:

414,400 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 33

Oil - exports:

153,000 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 57

Oil - imports:

520,900 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 25

Oil - proved reserves:

10 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 90

Natural gas - production:

9 million cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 91

Natural gas - consumption:

3.528 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 68

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 74

Natural gas - imports:

3.556 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 36

Natural gas - proved reserves:

991.1 million cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 99

Current account balance:

-$17.1 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 179 -$34.43 billion (2009 est.)


$21.14 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 67 $21.34 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles

Exports - partners:

Germany 11.11%, Italy 11.05%, Cyprus 7.28%, Bulgaria 6.74%, US 4.95%, UK 4.4%, Turkey 4.23% (2009)


$44.9 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 50 $64.2 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners:

Germany 13.73%, Italy 12.71%, China 7.08%, France 6.1%, Netherlands 6.02%, South Korea 5.68%, Belgium 4.34%, Spain 4.08% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$5.546 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$532.9 billion (30 June 2010) country comparison to the world: 19 $504.6 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$48.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 55 $44.93 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$38.66 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 35 $40.45 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7715 (2010), 0.7179 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006)

Communications ::Greece

Telephones - main lines in use:

5.93 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 29

Telephones - mobile cellular:

13.295 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 54

Telephone system:

general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service

domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands

international: country code - 30; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; a number of smaller submarine cables provide connectivity to various parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Cyprus; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat - Indian Ocean region)

Broadcast media:

broadcast media dominated by the private sector; roughly 150 private TV channels, about a dozen of the private channels broadcast at the national or regional level; 3 publicly-owned terrestrial TV channels with national coverage, 1 publicly-owned satellite channel, and 3 stations designed for digital terrestrial transmissions; multi-channel satellite and cable TV services obtainable; upwards of 1,500 radio stations broadcasting, nearly all of them privately-owned; state-run broadcaster has 7 national stations, 2 international stations, and 19 regional stations (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

2.574 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 31

Internet users:

4.971 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 46

Transportation ::Greece


81 (2010) country comparison to the world: 68

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 67

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 14

1,524 to 2,437 m: 20

914 to 1,523 m: 18

under 914 m: 9 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 12 (2010)


9 (2010)


gas 1,197 km; oil 75 km (2009)


total: 2,548 km country comparison to the world: 66 standard gauge: 1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (764 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 961 km 1.000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge (2008)


total: 117,533 km country comparison to the world: 38 paved: 107,895 km (includes 880 km of expressways)

unpaved: 9,638 km (2005)


6 km country comparison to the world: 108 note: Corinth Canal (6 km) crosses the Isthmus of Corinth; shortens sea voyage by 325 km (2010)

Merchant marine:

total: 886 country comparison to the world: 12 by type: bulk carrier 263, cargo 53, carrier 1, chemical tanker 72, container 34, liquefied gas 13, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 116, petroleum tanker 312, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 62 (Belgium 16, Bermuda 3, Cyprus 4, Italy 5, UK 27, US 7)

registered in other countries: 2,391 (Antigua and Barbuda 5, Bahamas 209, Barbados 14, Belize 2, Bermuda 2, Brazil 1, Cambodia 2, Cayman Islands 11, Comoros 3, Cyprus 216, Denmark 1, Dominica 9, Egypt 8, Georgia 3, Germany 1, Gibraltar 7, Honduras 4, Hong Kong 22, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 57, Italy 8, Jamaica 8, Liberia 454, Malta 458, Marshall Islands 358, Mexico 1, Moldova 4, Panama 402, Philippines 4, Portugal 5, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 63, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 4, Singapore 19, Slovakia 1, Togo 1, UAE 3, UK 1, Uruguay 1, Vanuatu 4, Venezuela 4, unknown 8) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Agioi Theodoroi, Aspropyrgos, Pachi, Piraeus, Thessaloniki

Military ::Greece

Military branches:

Hellenic Army (Ellinikos Stratos, ES), Hellenic Navy (Ellinikos
Polemiko Navtiko, EPN), Hellenic Air Force (Elliniki Polimiki
Aeroporia, EPA) (2009)

Military service age and obligation:

19-45 years of age for compulsory military service; during wartime the law allows for recruitment beginning January of the year of inductee's 18th birthday, thus including 17 year olds; 17 years of age for volunteers; conscript service obligation - 1 year for all services; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2008)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,502,268

females age 16-49: 2,486,171 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,050,018

females age 16-49: 2,033,450 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 53,222

female: 49,828 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

4.3% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 23

Transnational Issues ::Greece

Disputes - international:

Greece and Turkey continue discussions to resolve their complex
maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea;
Cyprus question with Turkey; Greece rejects the use of the name
Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia; the mass migration of unemployed
Albanians still remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly
Greece and Italy

Illicit drugs:

a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece; money laundering related to drug trafficking and organized crime

page last updated on January 12, 2011

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