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Gibraltar, See : Flags, Maps

Gibraltar (Europe)

Introduction ::Gibraltar


Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. A series of talks were held by the UK and Spain between 1997 and 2002 on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, tripartite talks among Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have been held with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008, but the UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.

Geography ::Gibraltar


Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain

Geographic coordinates:
36 08 N, 5 21 W

Map references:



total: 6.5 sq km country comparison to the world: 242 land: 6.5 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.

Land boundaries:

total: 1.2 km

border countries: Spain 1.2 km


12 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 3 nm


Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers


a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Natural resources:


Land use:

arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100% (2005)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:

limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant

Geography - note:

strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

People ::Gibraltar


28,877 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 215

Age structure:

0-14 years: 20.9% (male 3,088/female 2,922)

15-64 years: 66.4% (male 9,667/female 9,467)

65 years and over: 12.7% (male 1,754/female 1,898) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 33.1 years

male: 32.2 years

female: 34.1 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.27% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 173

Birth rate:

14.2 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 147

Death rate:

8.17 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 101

Net migration rate:

-3.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 188


urban population: 100% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.071 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 6.82 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 168 male: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 78.53 years country comparison to the world: 46 male: 75.69 years

female: 81.56 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.96 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 134

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:


noun: Gibraltarian(s)

adjective: Gibraltar

Ethnic groups:

Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North


Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, other Christian 3.2%, Muslim 4%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 census)


English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish,
Italian, Portuguese


definition: NA

total population: above 80%

male: NA

female: NA

Education expenditures:

Government ::Gibraltar

Country name:

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Gibraltar

Dependency status:

overseas territory of the UK

Government type:


name: Gibraltar

geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

none (overseas territory of the UK)


none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:

National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain


5 June 2006; came into force 2 January 2007

Legal system:

the laws of the UK where applicable apply


18 years of age; universal; and British citizens who have been residents six months or more

Executive branch:

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Vice Admiral Sir Adrian JOHNS (since 26 October 2009)

head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:

unicameral Parliament (18 seats: 17 members elected by popular vote, 1 for the speaker appointed by Parliament; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 October 2007 (next to be held not later than October 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 49.3%, GSLP 31.8%, Gibraltar Liberal Party 13.6%; seats by party - GSD 10, GSLP 4, Gibraltar Liberal Party 3

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:

Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's

International organization participation:

Interpol (subbureau), UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:

two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean

National anthem:

name: "Gibraltar Anthem"

lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY

note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" remains official (see United Kingdom)

Economy ::Gibraltar

Economy - overview:

Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (almost 5 million visitors in 1998), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$1.106 billion (2006 est.) country comparison to the world: 199 $1.066 billion (2005 est.)

$769 million (2000 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):

$1.106 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

3.7% (2006) country comparison to the world: 91 7% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$38,400 (2006 est.) country comparison to the world: 25 $38,200 (2005 est.)

$27,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 0%

industry: 0%

services: 100% (2008)

Labor force:

12,690 (including non-Gibraltar laborers) (2001) country comparison to the world: 214

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: negligible

industry: 40%

services: 60% (2001)

Unemployment rate:

3% (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 23

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Public debt:

15.5% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 119 15.7% of GDP (2005 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.6% (2006) country comparison to the world: 83 2.9% (2005)

Agriculture - products:



tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - production:

146 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 182

Electricity - consumption:

146 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 183

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 192

Oil - consumption:

21,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 122

Oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 153

Oil - imports:

25,610 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 104

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 176

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 108

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 180

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 75

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 172

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 175


$271 million (2004 est.) country comparison to the world: 176

Exports - commodities:

(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods


$2.967 billion (2004 est.) country comparison to the world: 141

Imports - commodities:

fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs

Debt - external:

Exchange rates:

Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar - 0.6494 (2009), 0.5302 (2008), 0.4993 (2007), 0.5418 (2006)

note: the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound

Communications ::Gibraltar

Telephones - main lines in use:

24,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 186

Telephones - mobile cellular:

28,600 (2009) country comparison to the world: 203

Telephone system:

general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities

domestic: automatic exchange facilities

international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media:

Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides television and radio broadcasting services via 1 television station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

2,053 (2010) country comparison to the world: 154

Internet users:

20,200 (2009) country comparison to the world: 192

Transportation ::Gibraltar


1 (2010) country comparison to the world: 222

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2010)


total: 29 km country comparison to the world: 218 paved: 29 km (2007)

Merchant marine:

total: 265 country comparison to the world: 32 by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 139, chemical tanker 65, container 35, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 8

foreign-owned: 250 (Belgium 2, Cyprus 1, Denmark 6, Finland 2, Germany 125, Greece 7, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 33, Norway 42, Singapore 1, Sweden 12, UAE 5, UK 4)

registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:


Military ::Gibraltar

Military branches:

Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 6,949 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 5,955

females age 16-49: 5,687 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 250

female: 233 (2010 est.)

Military - note:

defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992

Transnational Issues ::Gibraltar

Disputes - international:

in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy


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